school leaving qualification
   HOME

TheInfoList



A school leaving qualification is an academic qualification awarded for the completion of
high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (age 12 to 15) and upper secondary educatio ...

high school
. Depending on the country or region, it may alternatively be known as a
high school diplomaA high school diploma is a North American academic school leaving qualificationA school leaving qualification is an academic qualification awarded for the completion of high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondar ...
, senior secondary leaving certificate, high school general certificate or school certificate (amongst other names). Institutional requirements differ for obtaining a high school diploma or its equivalent. For example, some schools require that all students study a foreign language, and others do not. The number of years that students are required to attend school before earning a high school diploma, the difficulty level of the classes, and the types of classes vary significantly from place to place.


Names and equivalents

In the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...

United States
, the qualification is known as a
high school diplomaA high school diploma is a North American academic school leaving qualificationA school leaving qualification is an academic qualification awarded for the completion of high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondar ...

high school diploma
. The same name is used for the
equivalent qualification
equivalent qualification
awarded in
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocea ...

Canada
. In England and Wales, the school-leaving qualifications awarded are either
General Certificate of Education A general officer is an Officer (armed forces), officer of highest military ranks, high rank in the army, armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines. The term ''general'' is used in two ways: as the generic title for all ...
(GCE)
A Level#REDIRECT A-Level The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the ...
or
Business and Technology Education Council The Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC) is a provider of secondary school leaving qualifications and further education Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, Ireland is education ...
(BTEC) qualifications, depending on the student's choice; students pursue these qualifications after taking
General Certificate of Secondary Education The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification in a particular subject, taken in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders ...
exams (GCSEs) at the ages of 14–16 (Years 10 and 11). In
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154 km) Anglo-Scottish bo ...

Scotland
, one qualification is known as the
Advanced HigherThe Advanced Higher is an optional qualification which forms part of the Scottish secondary education system brought in to replace the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies (CSYS). The first certification of Advanced Higher was in 2001. It is normally t ...
, which is preceded by the Scottish Higher, the basic university entrance qualification. In
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in ...

Ireland
, the qualification is the
Irish Leaving Certificate The Leaving Certificate Examination ('' ga, Scrúdú na hArdteistiméireachta''), commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert or (informally) the Leaving ('' ga, Ardteist , links=no''), is the final exam of the Irish Irish most commonly refers to: ...
. In
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...

Italy
,
Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_t ...

Switzerland
,
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is ...

Albania
,
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It i ...
,
Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and ha ...

Poland
,
Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, located on the Eastern Alps. It is composed of nine States of Austria, federated states, one of which is Vienna, Austria's ca ...

Austria
,
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence ...
,
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It occupies the whole eastern part of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia ...

Bulgaria
,
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and Pars pro toto#Geography, often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, South and Southeast Europe, located within the Balkans. Sar ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
,
Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it, Repubblica di Croazia :* rue, Републіка Хорватія :* sr, Република Хрватска :* sk, Chorvátska republika :* sl, Republika H ...

Croatia
,
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the ...

Slovakia
,
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes ...

Slovenia
, and several other countries in Europe, the qualification is known as the
Matura ''Matura'' or its translated terms (''Mature'', ''Matur'', ''Maturita'', ''Maturità'', ''Maturität'', ''Maturité'', ''Mатура'', ''Érettségi'') is a Latin name for the secondary school exit exam or "maturity diploma" in various Europe ...

Matura
. In Italy it is defined as "Diploma di maturità." In Germany, the qualification is the
Abitur ''Abitur'' () is a qualification granted at the end of secondary education in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official l ...
. In France, the qualification is Le
Baccalauréat The ''baccalauréat'' (), often known in France colloquially as the ''bac'', is a French national academic qualification that students can obtain at the completion of their Secondary education in France, secondary education (at the end of the '' ...
. In
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It borders Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to t ...

Romania
, the qualification is the
Romanian Baccalaureate The ''Bacalaureat'' (or ''bac'' for short) is an exam held in Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It shar ...
. In Israel, the equivalent qualification is known as the Bagrut, which means "maturity" in Hebrew language, Hebrew. In Belgium (French community), the qualification is officially called :fr:Certificat d'enseignement secondaire supérieur, CESS (Certificat d'enseignement secondaire supérieur, certificate for upper-secondary learning). In South Africa, the equivalent nowadays is the National Senior Certificate however it was previously or is more commonly known as the Matriculation (Matric) Certificate. In Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone, the equivalent is the West African Senior School Certificate. In Zimbabwe, the school-leaving qualification is the A-level#Zimbabwe, ZIMSEC GCE Advanced Level which is preceded by the GCE Ordinary Level#Zimbabwe, ZIMSEC GCE Ordinary Level. The School-leaving certificate, School Leaving Certificate is a certification obtained by a student on successful completion of an examination at the end of study at the schooling level in India. Affidavit for SLC can be obtained here.


Past diploma styles

Diplomas were originally made of Sheepskin (material), sheepskin, as paper was not very durable and was difficult to create. The sheepskin was made paper thin and information was handwritten. Soon, parchment was used for the diploma. Diplomas used to be quite large, but it has become common to print diplomas on standard letter or A4 paper size, size paper. Another difference is the method with which diplomas are handed out. Older diplomas were often rolled and tied with ribbon, but diplomas may also be presented in leather binders or framed with wood and glass. In some cases, blank papers are handed out in graduation ceremonies, and the official diploma is delivered at a later date.


Requirements for receiving a diploma

Most countries around the world award high school diplomas on the basis of completing appropriate coursework and passing one or more standardized tests. Every country has different requirements for receiving a diploma, and in some cases, individual schools set their own requirements. Requirements also change over time. There is no single, universal set of requirements for receiving a high school diploma. Every time and place has different requirements. A person who qualifies for a diploma, but has not yet received it, is called a ''graduand''; after receiving it, the person is called a ''graduate''. Education systems based on the British model have independently marked national examinations for each subject instead of a High School Diploma —
General Certificate of Secondary Education The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification in a particular subject, taken in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders ...
in England and Wales, Irish Leaving Certificate, School Leaving Certificates in Ireland, Higher Grade Examination in Scotland, and IGCSE/Advanced International Certificate of Education, AICE internationally. Caribbean Examination Council Certificates are also given to students in the Caribbean after completion of a five years of secondary education, and are accepted regionally and internationally. European schools use the Baccalaureate system. The International Baccalaureate (IB) is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. In the United States, most states require students to take and pass a high school graduation examination in the United States, standardized test before graduation. The curriculum and implementation has varied depending upon the state. Florida uses the English, Welsh and Northern Irish Advanced Level (UK), A-Level program (called Advanced International Certificate of Education) for advanced students while a number of schools in Virginia use the IGCSE. General education students who pass the twelfth grade in the US by completing enough classes, but do not meet all of the standard graduation requirements, will not receive a high school diploma, but will instead receive a certificate of attendance. Schools may offer the Cambridge International Examinations, the International Baccalaureate, and/or Advanced Placement program in addition to the high school diploma for advanced students. Schools may also offer dual-enrollment programs that enable students to earn university academic credit and a high school diploma simultaneously. Australia has six state-based systems and two territory-based systems, which have different curricula, standards and pathways, but all of which (except for Queensland) produce a common Australian Tertiary Admission Rank which is recognised nationally. Several Australian private schools, and a number of public schools in the state of South Australia, offer the IB as an alternative.


Graduation

The high school diploma is the symbol of having successfully completed the basic education required by law for youths. Because of this, the presentation of the high-school diploma has become an adulthood rite, that is steeped in ritual. The high school diploma is given to students at a ceremony called high-school graduation. Students who have passed their courses will have their names called out, walk across a stage, and be handed their diplomas. Sometimes, students receive blank pieces of paper wrapped with a ribbon or empty leather binders during the graduation ceremony; when this occurs the actual diploma is received later.


Types of diplomas

Some categories of high school diploma programs include: * Honors diploma, for student with strong academic achievements. This may include the Latin honors system used by some universities for undergraduate degrees. * College preparation, for students whose coursework and grades meet the minimum entrance requirements for public universities in that area. * Technical or vocational, for students who have completed a technical training program, such as an automobile repair, cosmetology, or information technology program. * Minimal, for students who complete the bare minimum requirements for graduation. This is accepted as a true high school diploma, but may not be sufficient for direct entry into certain universities in the United States. * Certificate of Attendance, for students who meet the attendance requirements for secondary school but do not complete the requirements for graduation. This is not generally considered a true high school diploma. * Certificate of Completion, for students with disabilities who have completed their individual Individualized Education Program (IEP) goals but did not meet requirements for high school diploma. This, like the certificate of attendance, is not generally considered a true high school diploma. At most American schools, these are the same High school diploma (United States), diplomas with different notations or endorsements. With the exception of those receiving a certificate of completion or a certificate of attendance, the recipients are all equally considered to be high school graduates with the same basic rights, such as the ability to attend any community college or university that chooses to accept them. However, in other countries, this is not the case. In some countries, high schools have specialized in certain areas and issue diplomas relevant to their specialty, and a particular type of diploma is normally required for certain purposes, such as attending university. For example, in Germany, three types of diplomas are common: *
Abitur ''Abitur'' () is a qualification granted at the end of secondary education in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official l ...
, issued by German Gymnasium schools, which are equivalent to sixth form or college preparation schools. Students who earn an abitur are qualified to attend university. * Mittlere Reife or Realschulabschluss, issued by Realschule schools, which are equivalent to
General Certificate of Secondary Education The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification in a particular subject, taken in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders ...
in the UK. * Hauptschulabschluss, issued by Hauptschule schools. Students with these usually start an apprenticeship, enroll in a vocational school, or transfer to another school to earn one of the higher level diplomas. Earning the Mittlere Reife or Hauptschulabschluss does not permit the graduate to attend university. Diplomas may also be available for students who complete special programs, which may be awarded instead of or in addition to the standard high school diploma of a region's schools; these include: * International Baccalaureate, for students who completed the International Baccalaureate program. * Advanced Placement International Diploma (APID), for students who complete the Advanced Placement International Diploma program. This is not recognized as a true high school diploma, but may be preferred or required for entry into colleges and universities, especially for students from the United States and Canada studying abroad. * Cambridge IGCSE, for international schools following the British system of education. This is accepted as equivalent to a US high school diploma, but is insufficient for university entry in the UK. * Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education, AICE, for international schools following the British system of education. This is an academic qualification that is accepted for university entry in the UK. The names of diplomas vary by country and even from region to region within the same country.


See also

*List of school leaving qualifications *Transcript (education), the list of courses taken and other academic information


References

{{Reflist


External links


List of equivalents to US high school diplomas
from University of California–Los Angeles Graduation Secondary school qualifications,
Indian School leaving Certificate Information