HOME
The Info List - Reggae


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

REGGAE (/ˈrɛɡeɪ/ ) is a music genre that originated in Jamaica
Jamaica
in the late 1960s. The term also denotes the modern popular music of Jamaica
Jamaica
and its diaspora . A 1968 single by Toots and the Maytals
Toots and the Maytals
, " Do the Reggay " was the first popular song to use the word "reggae," effectively naming the genre and introducing it to a global audience. While sometimes used in a broad sense to refer to most types of popular Jamaican dance music , the term reggae more properly denotes a particular music style that was strongly influenced by traditional mento as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues , especially the New Orleans R from the latter, reggae took over the use of the bass as a percussion instrument.

Stylistically, reggae incorporates some of the musical elements of rhythm and blues , jazz , mento (a celebratory, rural folk form that served its largely rural audience as dance music and an alternative to the hymns and adapted chanteys of local church singing), calypso, African music, as well as other genres. One of the most easily recognizable elements is offbeat rhythms; staccato chords played by a guitar or piano (or both) on the offbeats of the measure. The tempo of reggae is usually slower paced than ska but faster than rocksteady. The concept of call and response can be found throughout reggae music.

The genre of reggae music is led by the drum and bass. Some key players in this sound are Jackie Jackson from Toots and the Maytals
Toots and the Maytals
, Carlton Barrett from Bob Marley
Bob Marley
and the Wailers , Lloyd Brevett from The Skatalites , Paul Douglas from Toots and the Maytals
Toots and the Maytals
, Lloyd Knibb from The Skatalites , Winston Grennan , Sly Dunbar , and Anthony "Benbow" Creary from The Upsetters . The bass guitar often plays the dominant role in reggae. The bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, and equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized. The guitar in reggae usually plays on the off beat of the rhythm. It is common for reggae to be sung in Jamaican Patois
Jamaican Patois
, Jamaican English
Jamaican English
, and Iyaric dialects. Reggae
Reggae
is noted for its tradition of social criticism and religion in its lyrics, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love and socializing.

Reggae
Reggae
has spread to many countries across the world, often incorporating local instruments and fusing with other genres. Reggae en Español spread from the Spanish speaking Central American country of Panama to the mainland South American countries of Venezuela
Venezuela
and Guyana
Guyana
then to the rest of South America. Caribbean music in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, including reggae, has been popular since the late 1960s, and has evolved into several subgenres and fusions. Many reggae artists began their careers in the UK, and there have been a number of European artists and bands drawing their inspiration directly from Jamaica
Jamaica
and the Caribbean community in Europe. Reggae
Reggae
in Africa was boosted by the visit of Bob Marley
Bob Marley
to Zimbabwe in 1980. In Jamaica, authentic reggae is one of the biggest sources of income.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Precursors * 3 History * 4 Reggae
Reggae
Month

* 5 Musical characteristics

* 5.1 Drums and other percussion * 5.2 Bass * 5.3 Guitars * 5.4 Keyboards * 5.5 Horns

* 5.6 Vocals

* 5.6.1 Lyrical themes * 5.6.2 Criticism of dancehall and ragga lyrics

* 6 Reggae
Reggae
7" Single

* 7 Reggae
Reggae
outside Jamaica
Jamaica

* 7.1 Americas * 7.2 Europe * 7.3 Africa * 7.4 Asia and the Pacific * 7.5 Australia and New Zealand

* 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The 1967 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English
Jamaican English
lists reggae as "a recently estab. sp. for rege", as in rege-rege, a word that can mean either "rags, ragged clothing" or "a quarrel, a row". Reggae
Reggae
as a musical term first appeared in print with the 1968 rocksteady hit " Do the Reggay " by The Maytals which named the genre of Reggae
Reggae
for the world.

Reggae
Reggae
historian Steve Barrow credits Clancy Eccles with altering the Jamaican patois
Jamaican patois
word streggae (loose woman) into reggae. However, Toots Hibbert said:

There's a word we used to use in Jamaica
Jamaica
called 'streggae'. If a girl is walking and the guys look at her and say 'Man, she's streggae' it means she don't dress well, she look raggedy. The girls would say that about the men too. This one morning me and my two friends were playing and I said, 'OK man, let's do the reggay.' It was just something that came out of my mouth. So we just start singing 'Do the reggay, do the reggay' and created a beat. People tell me later that we had given the sound its name. Before that people had called it blue-beat and all kind of other things. Now it's in the Guinness World of Records.

Bob Marley
Bob Marley
is said to have claimed that the word reggae came from a Spanish term for "the king's music". The liner notes of To the King, a compilation of Christian gospel reggae, suggest that the word reggae was derived from the Latin regi meaning "to the king".

PRECURSORS

Although strongly influenced by traditional mento and calypso music , as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues , reggae owes its direct origins to the ska and rocksteady of 1960s Jamaica. The generic title for Jamaican music recorded between 1961 and 1967, ska emerged from Jamaican R&B, which itself was largely based on American R thus, the movement in these places is more particularly stamped by its origins in reggae music and social milieu. The Rastafari movement was a significant influence on reggae, with Rasta drummers like Count Ossie taking part in seminal recordings. One of the predecessors of reggae drumming is the Nyabinghi rhythm , a style of ritual drumming performed as a communal meditative practice in the Rastafarian life.

Ska
Ska
arose in Jamaican studios in the late 1950s, developing from American R one is that the singer Hopeton Lewis was unable to sing his hit song "Take It Easy" at a ska tempo. Many rocksteady rhythms were later used as the basis of reggae recordings. The "double skank" guitar strokes on the offbeat were also part of the new reggae style.

HISTORY

Reggae
Reggae
developed from ska and rocksteady in the 1960s. Larry And Alvin’s ‘Nanny Goat’ and the Beltones’ ‘No More Heartaches’ competed for the status of first reggae record. The beat was distinctive from rocksteady in that it dropped any of the pretensions to the smooth, soulful sound that characterized slick American R"> Jimmy Cliff
Jimmy Cliff
.

Early 1968 was when the first bona fide reggae records were released: "Nanny Goat" by Larry Marshall and "No More Heartaches" by The Beltones. That same year, the newest Jamaican sound began to spawn big-name imitators in other countries. American artist Johnny Nash 's 1968 hit "Hold Me Tight" has been credited with first putting reggae in the American listener charts. Around the same time, reggae influences were starting to surface in rock and pop music , one example being 1968's " Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da " by The Beatles
The Beatles
.

The Wailers , a band started by Bob Marley
Bob Marley
, Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer in 1963, is perhaps the most recognized band that made the transition through all three stages of early Jamaican popular music: ska, rocksteady and reggae. Over a dozen Wailers songs are based on or use a line from Jamaican mento songs. In 1951, recordings of mento music began to be released. These recordings showcased two styles of mento: an acoustic, rural style and a jazzy, popular style. Other significant reggae pioneers include Prince Buster
Prince Buster
, Desmond Dekker and Ken Boothe .

However, another pioneer was Millie Small (born 6 October 1946), a Jamaican singer-songwriter , best known for her 1964 blue-beat/ska cover version of " My Boy Lollipop " which was a smash hit internationally.

Notable Jamaican producers influential in the development of ska into rocksteady and reggae include: Coxsone Dodd , Lee "Scratch" Perry , Leslie Kong , Duke Reid , Joe Gibbs and King Tubby . Chris Blackwell , who founded Island Records in Jamaica
Jamaica
in 1960, relocated to England in 1962, where he continued to promote Jamaican music. He formed a partnership with Lee Gopthal's Trojan Records
Trojan Records
in 1968, which released reggae in the UK until bought by Saga records in 1974.

Reggae's influence bubbled to the top of the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 charts in late 1972. First Three Dog Night hit #1 in September with a cover of the Maytones ' version of "Black and White ". Then Johnny Nash was at #1 for four weeks in November with "I Can See Clearly Now ". Paul Simon
Paul Simon
's single " Mother And Child Reunion " - a track which he recorded in Kingston, Jamaica
Jamaica
with Jimmy Cliff
Jimmy Cliff
's backing group - was ranked by Billboard as the No. 57 song of 1972.

In 1973, the film The Harder They Come starring Jimmy Cliff
Jimmy Cliff
was released and introduced Jamaican music to cinema audiences outside Jamaica. Though the film achieved cult status its limited appeal meant that it had a smaller impact than Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
's 1974 cover of Bob Marley's " I Shot the Sheriff " which made it onto the playlists of mainstream rock and pop radio stations worldwide. Clapton's "I Shot The Sheriff" used modern rock production and recording techniques and faithfully retained most of the original reggae elements; it was a breakthrough pastiche devoid of any parody and played an important part in bringing the music of Bob Marley
Bob Marley
to a wider rock audience. By the mid-1970s, authentic reggae dub plates and specials were getting some exposure in the UK on John Peel 's radio show, who promoted the genre for the rest of his career. Around the same time, British filmmaker Jeremy Marre documented the Jamaican music scene in Roots Rock Reggae, capturing the heyday of Roots reggae .

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the UK punk rock scene flourished, and reggae was a notable influence. The DJ Don Letts would play reggae and punk tracks at clubs such as The Roxy . Punk bands such as The Clash , The Ruts , The Members and The Slits played many reggae-influenced songs. Around the same time, reggae music took a new path in the UK; one that was created by the multiracial makeup of England's inner cities and exemplified by groups like Steel Pulse , Aswad and UB40 , as well as artists such as Smiley Culture and Carroll Thompson . The Jamaican ghetto themes in the lyrics were replaced with UK inner city themes, and Jamaican patois
Jamaican patois
became intermingled with Cockney
Cockney
slang. In South London around this time, a new subgenre of Lovers Rock , was being created. Unlike the Jamaican music of the same name which was mainly dominated by male artists such as Gregory Isaacs , the South London genre was led by female singers like Thompson and Janet Kay . The UK Lovers Rock had a softer and more commercial sound.Other reggae artists who enjoyed international appeal in the early 1980s include Third World , Black Uhuru and Sugar Minott . The Grammy Awards introduced the Grammy Award for Best Reggae
Reggae
Album category in 1985.

Females also play a role in the reggae music industry personnel such as Olivia Grange, president of Specs-Shang Musik; Trish Farrell, president of Island/Jamaica; Lisa Cortes, president of Loose Cannon; Jamaican-American Sharon Gordon, who has worked in the independent reggae music industry.

REGGAE MONTH

Jamaican Prime Minister Bruce Golding made February 2008 the first annual Reggae
Reggae
Month in Jamaica. To celebrate, the Recording Industry Association of Jamaica
Jamaica
(RIAJam) held its first Reggae
Reggae
Academy Awards on February 24, 2008. In addition, Reggae
Reggae
Month included a six-day Global Reggae
Reggae
conference, a reggae film festival, two radio station award functions, and a concert tribute to the late Dennis Brown, who Bob Marley
Bob Marley
cited as his favorite singer. On the business side, RIAJam held events focused on reggae's employment opportunities and potential international revenue.

MUSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Skank guitar rhythm often considered "'the' reggae beat" Play straight (help ·info ) or Play shuffle (help ·info ).

Stylistically, reggae incorporates some of the musical elements of rhythm and blues (R">4 4 time because the symmetrical rhythmic pattern does not lend itself to other time signatures such as 3 4. One of the most easily recognizable elements is offbeat rhythms; staccato chords played by a guitar or piano (or both) on the offbeats of the measure, often referred to as the skank .

This rhythmic pattern accents the second and fourth beats in each bar and combines with the drum's emphasis on beat three to create a unique sense of phrasing. The reggae offbeat can be counted so that it falls between each count as an "and" (example: 1 and 2 and 3 and 4, etc.) or counted as a half-time feel at twice the tempo so it falls on beats 2 and 4. This is in contrast to the way most other popular genres focus on beat one, the "downbeat".

The tempo of reggae is usually slower than ska but faster than rocksteady . It is this slower tempo, the guitar/piano offbeats, the emphasis on the third beat, and the use of syncopated , melodic bass lines that differentiate reggae from other music, although other musical styles have incorporated some of these innovations.

Harmonically the music is essentially the same as any other modern popular genre with a tendency to make use of simple chord progressions. Reggae
Reggae
sometimes uses the dominant chord in its minor form therefore never allowing a perfect cadence to be sounded; this lack of resolution between the tonic and the dominant imparts a sense of movement "without rest" and harmonic ambiguity. Extended chords like the major seventh chord (" Waiting in Vain " by Bob Marley
Bob Marley
) and minor seventh chord are used though suspended chords or diminished chords are rare. Minor keys are commonly used especially with the minor chord forms of the subdominant and dominant chord (for example in the key of G minor the progression may be played Gm – Dm – Gm – Dm – Cm – Dm – Cm – Dm). A simple progression borrowed from rhythm and blues and soul music is the tonic chord followed by the minor supertonic chord with the two chords repeated continuously to form a complete verse (" Just My Imagination " by The Temptations C – Dm7).

The concept of "call and response" can be found throughout reggae music, in the vocals but also in the way parts are composed and arranged for each instrument. The emphasis on the "third beat" of the bar also results in a different sense of musical phrasing, with bass lines and melody lines often emphasizing what might be considered "pick up notes" in other genres.

DRUMS AND OTHER PERCUSSION

A standard drum kit is generally used in reggae, but the snare drum is often tuned very high to give it a timbales -type sound. Some reggae drummers use an additional timbale or high-tuned snare to get this sound. Cross-stick technique on the snare drum is commonly used, and tom-tom drums are often incorporated into the drumbeat itself. Robbie Shakespeare

Reggae
Reggae
drumbeats fall into three main categories: One drop , Rockers, and Steppers. With the One drop, the emphasis is entirely on the backbeat (usually on the snare, or as a rim shot combined with bass drum). Beat one is empty except for a closed high hat commonly used, which is unusual in popular music. There is some controversy about whether reggae should be counted so that this beat falls on two and four, or whether it should be counted twice as fast, so it falls on three. An example played by Barrett can be heard in the Bob Marley
Bob Marley
and the Wailers song "One Drop". Barrett often used an unusual triplet cross-rhythm on the hi-hat , which can be heard on many recordings by Bob Marley
Bob Marley
and the Wailers, such as "Running Away" on the Kaya album. Sly Dunbar

An emphasis on the backbeat is found in all reggae drumbeats, but with the Rockers beat, the emphasis is on all four beats of the bar (usually on bass drum). This beat was pioneered by Sly and Robbie , who later helped create the "Rub-a-Dub" sound that greatly influenced dancehall. Sly has stated he was influenced to create this style by listening to American drummer Earl Young as well as other disco and R"> Aston Barret

The bass guitar often plays the dominant role in reggae, and the drum and bass is often the most important part of what is called, in Jamaican music, a riddim (rhythm), a (usually simple) piece of music that's used repeatedly by different artists to write and record songs with. Literally hundreds of reggae singers have released different songs recorded over the same rhythm. The central role of the bass can be particularly heard in dub music — which gives an even bigger role to the drum and bass line, reducing the vocals and other instruments to peripheral roles.

The bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, and equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized. The bass line is often a repeated two or four bar riff when simple chord progressions are used. The simplest example of this might be Robbie Shakespeare's bass line for the Black Uhuru hit "Shine Eye Gal". In the case of more complex harmonic structures, such as John Holt 's version of "Stranger In Love", these simpler patterns are altered to follow the chord progression either by directly moving the pattern around or by changing some of the interior notes in the phrase to better support the chords.

GUITARS

Al Anderson

The guitar in reggae usually plays on the off beat of the rhythm. So if one is counting in 4 4 time and counting 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 +, one would play a downstroke on the "and" part of the beat. A musical figure known as skank or the 'bang" has a very dampened, short and scratchy chop sound, almost like a percussion instrument. Sometimes a double chop is used when the guitar still plays the off beats, but also plays the following eighth-note beats on the up-stroke. An example is the intro to "Stir It Up " by The Wailers. Artist and producer Derrick Harriott says, “What happened was the musical thing was real widespread, but only among a certain sort of people. It was always a down-town thing, but more than just hearing the music. The equipment was so powerful and the vibe so strong that we feel it.”

KEYBOARDS

From the earliest days of Ska
Ska
recordings, a piano was used to double the rhythm guitar's skank, playing the chords in a staccato style to add body, and playing occasional extra beats, runs and riffs. The piano part was widely taken over by synthesizers during the 1980s, although synthesizers have been used in a peripheral role since the 1970s to play incidental melodies and countermelodies . Larger bands may include either an additional keyboardist, to cover or replace horn and melody lines, or the main keyboardist filling these roles on two or more keyboards.

The reggae organ-shuffle is unique to reggae. In the original version of reggae, the drummer played a reggae groove that was used in the four bar introduction, allowing the piano to serve as a percussion instrument. Typically, a Hammond organ
Hammond organ
-style sound is used to play chords with a choppy feel. This is known as the bubble. This may be the most difficult reggae keyboard rhythm. The organ bubble can be broken down into 2 basic patterns. In the first, the 8th beats are played with a space-left-right-left-space-left-right-left pattern, where the spaces represent downbeats not played—that and the left-right-left falls on the ee-and-a, or and-2-and if counted at double time. In the second basic pattern, the left hand plays a double chop as described in the guitar section while the right hand plays longer notes on beat 2 (or beat 3 if counted at double time) or a syncopated pattern between the double chops. Both these patterns can be expanded on and improvised embellishments are sometimes used.

HORNS

Horn sections are frequently used in reggae, often playing introductions and counter-melodies. Instruments included in a typical reggae horn section include saxophone, trumpet or trombone. In more recent times, real horns are sometimes replaced in reggae by synthesizers or recorded samples. The horn section is often arranged around the first horn, playing a simple melody or counter melody. The first horn is usually accompanied by the second horn playing the same melodic phrase in unison, one octave higher. The third horn usually plays the melody an octave and a fifth higher than the first horn. The horns are generally played fairly softly, usually resulting in a soothing sound. However, sometimes punchier, louder phrases are played for a more up-tempo and aggressive sound.

VOCALS

UB40 's former frontman Ali Campbell performing in 2009.

The vocals in reggae are less of a defining characteristic of the genre than the instrumentation and rhythm, as almost any song can be performed in a reggae style. However, it is very common for reggae to be sung in Jamaican Patois
Jamaican Patois
, Jamaican English
Jamaican English
, and Iyaric dialects. Vocal harmony parts are often used, either throughout the melody (as with vocal groups such as the Mighty Diamonds ), or as a counterpoint to the main vocal line (as with the backing vocalists, the I-Threes ). More complex vocal arrangements can be found in the works of groups like The Abyssinians and British reggae band Steel Pulse .

An unusual aspect of reggae singing is that many singers use tremolo (volume oscillation) rather than vibrato (pitch oscillation). Notable exponents of this technique include Horace Andy and vocal group Israel Vibration . The toasting vocal style is unique to reggae, originating when DJs improvised spoken introductions to songs (or "toasts") to the point where it became a distinct rhythmic vocal style, and is generally considered to be a precursor to rap . It differs from rap mainly in that it is generally melodic, while rap is generally more a spoken form without melodic content.

Lyrical Themes

Reggae
Reggae
is noted for its tradition of social criticism in its lyrics, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love and socializing. Many early reggae bands covered Motown or Atlantic soul and funk songs. Some reggae lyrics attempt to raise the political consciousness of the audience, such as by criticizing materialism , or by informing the listener about controversial subjects such as Apartheid
Apartheid
. Many reggae songs promote the use of cannabis (also known as herb, ganja, or sinsemilla), considered a sacrament in the Rastafari movement . There are many artists who utilize religious themes in their music — whether it be discussing a specific religious topic, or simply giving praise to God ( Jah ). Other common socio-political topics in reggae songs include black nationalism , anti-racism , anti-colonialism , anti-capitalism and criticism of political systems and "Babylon" . .

In recent years, Jamaican (and non-Jamaican) reggae musicians have used more positive themes in reggae music. The music is widely considered a treasured cultural export for Jamaica, so musicians who still desire progress for their island nation have begun focusing on themes of hopefulness, faith, and love. For elementary children, reggae songs such as "Give a Little Love," "One Love," or "Three Little Birds," all written by Bob Marley, can be sung and enjoyed for their optimism and cheerful lyrics.

Criticism Of Dancehall And Ragga Lyrics

See also: Stop Murder Music

The wide cultural exposure which has enhanced the recognizability of reggae has been achieved primarily through a corporate commercialization effected at the expense of both the lyrical and instrumental essence of the music. This process has involved coerced or voluntary assimilation of more commercially compatible characteristics, appropriation by white mainstream artists, and an overall dispersal of ideological and musical meaning and creative value.The mainstream Euro-American audience has continually demonstrated a propensity for adopting reggae-oriented material on the basis of its aesthetically pleasing surface qualities rather than for explicitly political or deeper musical content, causing authenticity problems for reggae fans.

Some dancehall and ragga artists have been criticised for homophobia , including threats of violence. Buju Banton 's song "Boom Bye-Bye" states that gays "haffi dead". Other notable dancehall artists who have been accused of homophobia include Elephant Man , Bounty Killer and Beenie Man . The controversy surrounding anti-gay lyrics has led to the cancellation of UK tours by Beenie Man and Sizzla. Toronto, Canada
Canada
has also seen the cancellation of concerts due to artists such as Elephant Man and Sizzla refusing to conform to similar censorship pressures.

After lobbying from the Stop Murder Music coalition, the dancehall music industry agreed in 2005 to stop releasing songs that promote hatred and violence against gay people. In June 2007, Beenie Man, Sizzla and Capleton signed up to the Reggae
Reggae
Compassionate Act, in a deal brokered with top dancehall promoters and Stop Murder Music activists. They renounced homophobia and agreed to "not make statements or perform songs that incite hatred or violence against anyone from any community". Five artists targeted by the anti-homophobia campaign did not sign up to the act, including Elephant Man, TOK , Bounty Killa and Vybz Kartel . Buju Banton and Beenie Man both gained positive press coverage around the world for publicly renouncing homophobia by signing the Reggae
Reggae
Compassion Act. However, both of these artists have since denied any involvement in anti-homophobia work and both deny having signed any such act.

* ^ Stephen Davis. "Reggae." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web.16 Feb. 2016. * ^ "Frederick "Toots" Hibbert Biography". biography.com. Retrieved 2016-07-02. * ^ "reggae". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. Retrieved 2016-07-10. * ^ Geoffey Himes (1979-01-28). "Return of Reggae". The Washington Post. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ "Reggae." The Oxford Dictionary of Music, 2nd ed. rev. Ed. Michael Kennedy. Oxford Music Online.Oxford University Press. Web. 16 Feb. 2016. * ^ Wilton, Peter. "reggae." The Oxford Companion to Music. Ed. Alison Latham. Oxford Music Online.Oxford University Press. Web. 16 Feb. 2016. * ^ Stephen Davis. "Reggae" (second ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Anderson, Rick. “ Reggae
Reggae
Music: A History and Selective Discography”. Notes 61.1 (2004): 206–214. * ^ A B All About Jazz
Jazz
(2009-10-01). "Various Artists Rocksteady: The Roots Of Reggae". Allaboutjazz.com. Retrieved 2012-05-29. * ^ Cooper, Carolyn J. “reggae”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. May 15, 2015. Retrieved November 23, 2016. * ^ Havel, Edward. “Rhetoric of Reggae
Reggae
Research Paper”. The Dread Library, University of Vermont. Web. 12/2/09. Retrieved November 22, 2016. * ^ Campbell, Howard. “Jackie Jackson: Bass player extraordinaire”. Jamaica
Jamaica
Observer. Web. March 16, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2016. * ^ “100 Greatest Drummers of All Time”. Rolling Stone (magazine). Web. March 31, 2016. Retrieved November 22, 2016. * ^ “Skatalites Bassist Lloyd Brevett Dead at 80”. Billboard (magazine). Web. 5/3/2012. Retrieved November 22, 2016. * ^ Katz, David. "Toots and the Maytals’ Live: From Stage to Wax in 24 Hours." Red Bull Music Academy. Red Bull Music Academy, 19 June 2013. Web. 18 Sept. 2016. Retrieved November 23, 2016. * ^ “ Lloyd Knibb revolutionised Jamaican drumming, says PJ”. Jamaica
Jamaica
Observer. Web. May 27, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2016. * ^ Pareles, Jon. “Winston Grennan, 56, Jamaican Drummer”. The New York Times. Web. November 4, 2000. Retrieved November 22, 2016. * ^ "Sly and Robbie." Contemporary Musicians. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Nov. 2016 . Retrieved November 22, 2016. * ^ Moskowitz, David Vlado. “Caribbean Popular Music: An Encyclopedia of Reggae, Mento, Ska, Rock Steady, and Dancehall”. Greenwood Publishing Group. November 2005. Print. Page 308. Retrieved November 22, 2016. * ^ Ben Ratliff (1999-09-20). "It's About New Beginnings And Keeping the Faith". The New York Times. p. 5. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Bennetzen, Jørgen, and Kirsten Maegaard. “Reggae”. Fontes Artis Musicae 29.4 (1982): 182–186. * ^ 1967 Dictionary of Jamaican English * ^ A B C D "History of Jamaican Music 1953–1973". Niceup.com. Retrieved 2013-06-18. * ^ Sturges, Fiona (2004) "Frederick "Toots" Hibbert: The reggae king of Kingston", The Independent
The Independent
, 4 June 2004, retrieved 11 December 2009; cf. many similar statements by Hibbert in recent years. In earlier interviews, Hibbert used to claim the derivation was from English 'regular', in reference to the beat. * ^ Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley, Timothy White, p. 16 * ^ "Ska." Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 4th ed. Ed. Colin Larkin. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 16 Feb. 2016. * ^ Salter, Richard C.. “Sources and Chronology in Rastafari Origins”. Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions 9.1 (2005): 5–31. * ^ Cut \'N\' Mix: Culture, Identity, and Caribbean Music By Dick Hebdige. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-06-18. * ^ Leonard Joseph McCarthy (2007). The significance of corporeal factors and choreographic rhythms in Jamaican popular music between 1957--1981 (Ska, Rocksteady, Reggae), with an historical and critical survey of all relevant literature dealing with Jamaican folk, religious and popular musics and dance. p. 151. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Muther, Christopher (10 August 2000). "The beat goes on: Ska and Reggae
Reggae
scene serves up sounds to suit every taste". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 21 April 2017. * ^ "Reggae." Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 4th ed. Ed. Colin Larkin. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 16 Feb. 2016. * ^ "Shocks Of Mighty: An Upsetting Biography". Upsetter.net. 1936-03-20. Retrieved 2013-06-18. * ^ Kevin O'Brien Chang, 1998, Reggae
Reggae
Routes, p. 44. * ^ Garnice, Michael. " Bob Marley
Bob Marley
and the Wailers' Mento Roots." Beat 25.2 (2006): p.50. * ^ Allmusic biography of Millie Small * ^ Sexton, Paul. “A Legend in His Own Time.” Billboard - The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment 113.39 (29 Sep. 2001): p. C-8. * ^ Steffens, Roger. ‘The Harder They Come: 30 Years After.” The Beat 22.1 (2003): p. 36 * ^ Gaar, Gillian G. “The Beat goes on.” Goldmine 38.14 (Dec 2012): p. 26-29 * ^ RHYTHM OF RESISTANCE ROOTS, ROCK, REGGAE SALSA KONKOMBE The Beat8.3 (1989): 59-62. * ^ Oumano, E. (1996, Jan 27). Women increase number, scope of roles in reggae.Billboard - the International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment, 108, 1-1, 37. * ^ Meschino, P. (2008, Mar 15). Music: Reggae
Reggae
- reclaiming reggae revenue. Billboard - the International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment, 120, 36. * ^ Johnston, Richard (2004). How to Play Rhythm Guitar, p.72. ISBN 0-87930-811-7 . * ^ Lynn, V. M. (1973, Feb 18). Sound. Chicago
Chicago
Tribune (1963-Current File) * ^ Hombach, Jean-Pierre (2010). Bob Marley
Bob Marley
the Father of Music, p.14. ISBN 9781471620454 . " Reggae
Reggae
is most easily recognized by...the skank." * ^ Levitin, Daniel J. (2006). This Is Your Brain On Music , pp. 113-114 ISBN 978-0-452-28852-2 . * ^ Dawson, M. (2012, 08). Jamaican drum sounds. Modern Drummer, 36, 70. * ^ "www.reggaeguitarlessons.com". 2012-07-18. Retrieved 2013-06-18. * ^ Bradley, Lloyd. This Is Reggae
Reggae
Music:The Story Of Jamaica's Music. New York:Grove Press, 2001 * ^ Simon, A. (2006, Summer). Jazz
Jazz
piano stylings: A contemporary approach. Piano
Piano
Today, 26, 38. * ^ "The 1970\'s Reggae
Reggae
Revolution: resistance against Western Imperialism by Jeremie Kroubo-Dagnini". Manioc.org. 2010-01-21. Retrieved 2013-06-18. * ^ Mills, Susan W. " Reggae
Reggae
For Standards-Based Music Learning." General Music Today 17.1 (2003): 11-17. Music Index. Web. 15 Feb. 2016. * ^ Alleyne, M. (2000). White reggae: Cultural dilution in the record industry. Popular Music and Society, 24(1), 15-30. * ^ " Reggae
Reggae
Stars Renounce Homophobia, Condemn Anti-gay Violence". Towleroad.com. Retrieved 2013-06-18. * ^ "The Most Homophobic Place on Earth?". Time . 2006-04-12. Retrieved June 18, 2008. * ^ " Toronto
Toronto
- Reggae\'s Elephant Man nixed from Toronto
Toronto
concert" * ^ " Sizzla Refuses To \'Bow\' – Toronto
Toronto
Show Cancelled". Dancehall.mobi. Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2013-06-18. * ^ Flick, Larry, "Gay vs. reggae: the reggae music industry makes changes in response to gay activists\' protesting violently homophobic lyrics. The artists have no comment", The Advocate, April 12, 2005 * ^ "Sizzl - Reggae
Reggae
Industry to Ban Homophobia". Contactmusic.com. 2005-02-08. Retrieved 2013-06-18. * ^ " Reggae
Reggae
stars renounce homophobia - Beenie Man, Sizzla and Capleton sign deal". Jamaicans.com. Archived from the original on 2013-04-29. Retrieved 2013-06-18. * ^ "Peter Tatchell stands by Beenie Man and Banton signatures". PinkNews.co.uk. 2007-07-26. Retrieved 2012-05-29. * ^ A B C D E "From the vaults: The 20 best reggae 7"s ever made - The Vinyl Factory". thevinylfactory.com. Retrieved 2017-03-17. * ^ Britt, Bruce (10 August 1989). "The 45-rpm single will soon be history". Spokesman-Review. Los Angeles Daily News. p. C4. * ^ "Oil prices under threat". jamaica-gleaner.com. Retrieved 2017-03-17. * ^ Jérémie Kroubo Dagnini (2010). "The importance of Reggae music in the worldwide cultural universe". Revue Etudes Caribéennes, n° 16. https://etudescaribeennes.revues.org/4740 * ^ Davis, S. F. (2009). Reggae
Reggae
in cuba and the hispanic caribbean: Fluctuations and representations of identities. Black Music Research Journal, 29(1), 25-49. * ^ Béhague, G. (2006). Globalization/Modernization - rap, reggae, rock, or samba: The local and the global in brazilian popular music (1985-95). Latin American Music Review/Revista De Música Latinoamericana, 27(1), 79-90. * ^ " Reggae
Reggae
Musicians from Hawaii". Mele.com. Retrieved 2013-06-18.

* ^ "Ithaca Reggae
Reggae
Festival History". Ithaca Reggae
Reggae
Festival. Ithaca Reggae
Reggae
Festival. * ^ Merica, Dan. "Q and A with Matisyahu: \'Hasidic reggae superstar\' sans the Hasidim". CNN. Retrieved 22 March 2013. * ^ Hopkinson, Ashley. Chronixx brings roots reggae to Coachella. The Desert Sun. 24 April 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2017. * ^ Miller, Jeff. Coachella Day 3: Toots and the Maytals, Sofi Tukker, Skepta & More Midday Highlights. Billboard. 16 April 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2017. * ^ Toots for Coachella fest. Jamaica
Jamaica
Observer. 8 January 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2017. * ^ Stemkovsky, I. (2012, 08). Reggae-core. Modern Drummer, 36, 60-62. * ^ A B C D E F Vladimir Krakov, "Grad zvani Vavilon", Trecisvijet.wordpress.com, originally published on Politika.rs * ^ (in Russian) Superstar 2008. Team of USSR ALEXANDER BARYKIN * ^ Habekost, C. ". (1990, REGGAE SUNSPLASH GERMANY. The Beat, 9, 26-27. * ^ Cibula, Matt (2013-01-07). "Why 2012 Is the Year of Ethiopian Hybrid Music". PopMatters. Retrieved 2013-06-18. * ^ "Pitchfork media review of Ethiopia\'s Dub Collosus". Pitchfork.com. 2009-01-15. Retrieved 2013-06-18. * ^ Robin Denselow (2008-11-21). "The Guardian\'s review of Dub Collosus". Guardian. Retrieved 2013-06-18. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-09. Retrieved 2013-12-09. * ^ " Reggae
Reggae
In India". * ^ Bridge, Thaikkudam. "Thaikkudam Bridge, reggae". Thaikkudam!. Govind Menon, Siddhart Menon. Retrieved 5 March 2015. * ^ Wilurarra Creative 2010.Wilurarra Creative Music Development Archived October 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Quotes - The online biography * ^ Weiss, M. (2006, Reggae
Reggae
in paradise: New Zealand vibes. The Beat, 25, 40-41. * ^ Meschino, P. (2007, Aug 04). UpFront: Reggae
Reggae
- sumfest still smoking: After 15 years reggae festival is jamaica's premier showcase. Billboard - the International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment, 119, 9.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Jérémie Kroubo Dagnini (2008). Les origines du reggae: retour aux sources. Mento, ska, rocksteady, early reggae, L'Harmattan, coll. Univers musical. ISBN 978-2-296-06252-8 (in French) * Jérémie Kroubo Dagnini (2011). Vibrations jamaïcaines. L'Histoire des musiques populaires jamaïcaines au XXe siècle, Camion Blanc. ISBN 978-2-35779-157-2 (in French) * Manuel, Peter, with Kenneth Bilby and Michael Largey (2006). Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae
Reggae
(2nd edition). Temple University Press, 2006. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-59213-463-7 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * O'Brien Chang, Kevin & Chen, Wayne (1998). Reggae
Reggae
Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music. Ian Randle Publishers. ISBN 976-8100-67-2 . * Leymarie, Isabelle (1996). Du tango au reggae: musiques noires d’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes. Paris: Flammarion. ISBN 2082108139 . * Leymarie, Isabelle (1998). Músicas del Caribe. Madrid: Akal. ISBN 8440677057 . * Larkin, Colin (ed.) (1998). The Virgin Encyclopedia of Reggae. Virgin. ISBN 0-7535-0242-9 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Barrow, Steve & Dalton, Peter (2004). The Rough Guide to Reggae (3rd ed.). Rough Guides. ISBN 1-84353-329-4 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * Morrow, Chris (1999). Stir It Up: Reggae
Reggae
Cover Art. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28154-8 . * Jahn, Brian & Weber, Tom (1998). Reggae
Reggae
Island: Jamaican Music in the Digital Age. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80853-6 . * Hurford, Ray (ed.) (1987). More Axe. Erikoispaino Oy. ISBN 951-99841-4-3 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Potash, Chris (ed.) (1997). Reggae, Rasta, Revolution: Jamaican Music from Ska
Ska
to Dub. Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-8256-7212-0 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Baek, Henrik & Hedegard, Hans (1999). Dancehall Explosion, Reggae Music Into the Next Millennium. Samler Borsen Publishing, Denmark. ISBN 87-981684-3-6 . * Katz, David (2000). People Funny Boy: The Genius of Lee Scratch Perry. Payback Press, UK. ISBN 0-86241-854-2 . * Lesser, Beth (2002). King Jammy's. ECW Press. ISBN 1-55022-525-1 .

* Stolzoff, Norman C. (2000). Wake The Town And Tell The People. Duke University Press , USA. ISBN 0-8223-2514-4 . * Davis, Stephen & Simon, Peter (1979). Reggae
Reggae
Bloodlines: In Search of the Music and Culture of Jamaica. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80496-4 . * Katz, David (2003). Solid Foundation - An Oral history of Reggae. Bloomsburry, UK. ISBN 1-58234-143-5 . * de Koningh, Michael & Cane-Honeysett, Laurence (2003). Young Gifted and Black - The Story of Trojan Records. Sanctuary Publishing, UK. ISBN 1-86074-464-8 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * de Koningh, Michael & Griffiths, Marc (2003). Tighten Up - The History of Reggae
Reggae
in the UK. Sanctuary Publishing, UK. ISBN 1-86074-559-8 . * Bradley, Lloyd (2001). Bass Culture. When Reggae
Reggae
Was King. Penguin Books Ltd, UK. ISBN 0-14-023763-1 . * Bradley, Lloyd (2000). This Is Reggae
Reggae
Music. The Story of Jamaica's Music. Penguin Books Ltd, UK. ISBN 0-802-13828-4 . * Chang, Jeff (2005). Can\'t Stop, Won\'t Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation . St. Martin's Press, 2005. ISBN 0-312-30143-X .

FURTHER READING

* Bradley, Lloyd (1996). Reggae
Reggae
on CD: The Essential Collection. London: Kyle-Cathie. 368 p. ISBN 1-85636-577-8 . The ISBN is from the back cover; the ISBN on the verso of the t.p. is incomplete.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Find more aboutREGGAEat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Wikimedia

.