red-tailed black-cockatoo
   HOME

TheInfoList



OR:

The red-tailed black cockatoo (''Calyptorhynchus banksii'') also known as Banksian- or Banks' black cockatoo, is a large black
cockatoo A cockatoo is any of the 21 parrot species belonging to the family (biology), family Cacatuidae, the only family in the superfamily Cacatuoidea. Along with the Psittacoidea (true parrots) and the Strigopoidea (large New Zealand parrots), the ...
native to
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of , Australia is the largest country by ...
. Adult males have a characteristic pair of bright red panels on the tail that gives the species its name. It is more common in the drier parts of the continent. Five
subspecies In Taxonomy (biology), biological classification, subspecies is a rank below species, used for populations that live in different areas and vary in size, shape, or other physical characteristics (Morphology (biology), morphology), but that ca ...
are recognised, differing chiefly in beak size. Although the more northerly subspecies are widespread, the two southern subspecies, the forest red-tailed black cockatoo and the south-eastern red-tailed black cockatoo are under threat. The species is usually found in
eucalyptus ''Eucalyptus'' () is a genus of over seven hundred species of Flowering plant, flowering trees, shrubs or Mallee (habit), mallees in the Myrtaceae, myrtle Family (biology), family, Myrtaceae. Along with several other genera in the Tribe (biology) ...
woodlands, or along water courses. In the more northerly parts of the country, these cockatoos are commonly seen in large flocks. They are seed eaters and cavity nesters, and as such depend on trees with fairly large diameters, generally ''Eucalyptus''. Populations in southeastern Australia are threatened by
deforestation Deforestation or forest clearance is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land that is then land conversion, converted to non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban area, urban ...
and other habitat alterations. Of the black cockatoos, the red-tailed is the most adaptable to
aviculture Aviculture is the practice of keeping and animal husbandry, breeding birds, especially of wild birds in captivity. Types There are various reasons that people get involved in aviculture. Some people breed birds to preserve a species. Some peop ...
, although black cockatoos are much rarer and much more expensive in aviculture outside Australia.


Taxonomy and naming

The species complex was first described by the
ornithologist Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the "methodological study and consequent knowledge of birds with all that relates to them." Several aspects of ornithology differ from related disciplines, due partly to the high visibility and th ...
John Latham in 1790 as ''Psittacus banksii'', commemorating English
botanist Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek ...
Sir
Joseph Banks Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, (19 June 1820) was an English Natural history, naturalist, botanist, and patron of the natural sciences. Banks made his name on the European and American voyages of scientific exploration, 1766 natural-history ...
. The red-tailed black cockatoo also has the distinction of being the first bird from Eastern Australia illustrated by a European, as a female, presumably collected at
Endeavour River The Endeavour River ( Guugu Yimithirr: ''Wabalumbaal''), inclusive of the Endeavour River Right Branch, the Endeavour River South Branch, and the Endeavour River North Branch, is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usual ...
in north
Queensland ) , nickname = Sunshine State , image_map = Queensland in Australia.svg , map_caption = Location of Queensland in Australia , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = Australia , established_title = Before federation , established_ ...
, was sketched by Banks' draughtsman Sydney Parkinson in 1770.Forshaw, p. 94 Narrowly predating Latham, English naturalist George Shaw described ''Psittacus magnificus'' from a specimen collected somewhere in the
Port Jackson Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove River, Lane Cove and Parramatta River, Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or harbor, natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. T ...
(now
Sydney Sydney ( ) is the capital city of the States and territories of Australia, state of New South Wales, and the most populous city in both Australia and List of cities in Oceania by population, Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metro ...
) region. For many years, the species was referred to as ''Calyptorhynchus magnificus'',Lendon, p. 64 proposed by
Gregory Mathews Gregory Macalister Mathews Order of the British Empire, CBE FRSE FZS FLS (10 September 1876 – 27 March 1949) was an Australian-born amateur ornithologist who spent most of his later life in England. Life He was born in Biamble, New South Wal ...
in 1927 as Shaw's name had predated Latham's 1790 description. For several decades, Mathews' proposal was accepted by many authorities, although it was unclear whether the original Port Jackson reference had actually referred to the red-tailed black or, more likely, the glossy black cockatoo. In 1994, an application to conserve ''Calyptorhynchus banksii'' as the scientific name was accepted by the
ICZN The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that stu ...
. The red-tailed black cockatoo is the
type species In zoological nomenclature, a type species (''species typica'') is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological Type (biology), ...
of the genus ''
Calyptorhynchus Described by French naturalist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest in 1826, the genus ''Calyptorhynchus'' has two species of cockatoos. They are all mostly black in colour, and the taxa may be differentiated partly by size and partly by small areas of red, ...
'',Forshaw, p. 55 the name of which is derived from the
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group. *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language family. **Proto-Greek language, the assumed last common ancestor ...
''calypto-''/καλυπτο- "hidden" and ''rhynchus''/ρυγχος "beak". The change was first made by
Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest (6 March 1784 – 4 June 1838) was a French zoologist Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the Animal, anima ...
in 1826. In 1827, Jennings proposed the name ''Psittacus niger'' for the bird. The binomial combination had already been used by
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement in 1761 as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalise ...
for the
lesser vasa parrot The lesser vasa parrot or black parrot (''Coracopsis nigra'') is a black coloured parrot Endemism, endemic to most of Madagascar. It is one of four species of vasa parrots, the others being the greater vasa parrot ''C. vasa'', the Seychelles blac ...
in 1758, and by
Johann Friedrich Gmelin Johann Friedrich Gmelin (8 August 1748 – 1 November 1804) was a German natural history, naturalist, botanist, entomologist, herpetologist, and malacologist. Education Johann Friedrich Gmelin was born as the eldest son of Philipp Friedrich Gme ...
for the
palm cockatoo The palm cockatoo (''Probosciger aterrimus''), also known as the goliath cockatoo or great black cockatoo, is a large smoky-grey or black Psittaciformes, parrot of the cockatoo family native to New Guinea, Aru Islands Regency, Aru Islands, and ...
in 1788; it was thus invalid even though both other species were already known by different names at the time. Alternate common names include ''Banks' black cockatoo'', ''Banksian black cockatoo'', or simply ''black cockatoo''. Indigenous people of the central
Cape York Peninsula Cape York Peninsula is a large peninsula A peninsula (; ) is a landform that extends from a mainland and is surrounded by water on most, but not all of its borders. A peninsula is also sometimes defined as a piece of land bordered by water ...
have several names for the bird: ''(minha) pachang'' in Pakanh; ''(inh -) inhulg'' in Uw Oykangand; and ''(inh -) anhulg'' in Uw Olkola. (The bracketed prefix (''inh-'' or ''minha'') is a qualifier meaning 'meat' or 'animal'.) ''Ngarnarrh'' or ''karnamarr'' are terms used by the Kunwinjku of
Arnhem Land Arnhem Land is a historical region of the Northern Territory of Australia, with the term still in use. It is located in the north-eastern corner of the territory and is around from the territory capital, Darwin, Northern Territory, Darwin. In 16 ...
. In
Central Australia Central Australia, also sometimes referred to as the Red Centre, is an inexactly defined region associated with the geographic centre of Mainland Australia, Australia. In its narrowest sense it describes a region that is limited to the town of ...
, southwest of
Alice Springs Alice Springs ( aer, Mparntwe) is the third-largest town in the Northern Territory of Australia. Known as Stuart until 31 August 1933, the name Alice Springs was given by surveyor William Mills (surveyor), William Whitfield Mills after Alice ...
, the
Pitjantjatjara The Pitjantjatjara (; or ) are an Aboriginal people of the Central Australia Central Australia, also sometimes referred to as the Red Centre, is an inexactly defined region associated with the geographic centre of Mainland Australia, Au ...
term for the subspecies ''C. b. samueli'' is ''iranti''. ''Karrak'' is a
Noongar The Noongar (, also spelt Noongah, Nyungar , Nyoongar, Nyoongah, Nyungah, Nyugah, and Yunga ) are Aboriginal Australian peoples who live in the South West, Western Australia, south-west corner of Western Australia, from Geraldton, Western Au ...
term derived from the call for the southwestern race ''C. b. naso''. In the language of the
Bungandidj The Bungandidj people are an Aboriginal Australian people from the Mount Gambier, South Australia, Mount Gambier region in south-eastern South Australia, and also in western Victoria, Australia, Victoria. Their language is the Bungandidj langua ...
of south-eastern South Australia and western Victoria this bird was called ''treen''.


Classification

The red-tailed black cockatoo's closest relative is the glossy black cockatoo; the two species form the subgenus ''Calyptorhynchus'' within the genus of the same name.Forshaw, p. 89 They are distinguished from the other black cockatoos of the subgenus '' Zanda'' by their significant
sexual dimorphism Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the sexes of the same animal and/or plant species exhibit different Morphology (biology), morphological characteristics, particularly characteristics not directly involved in reproduction. The conditio ...
and calls of the juveniles; one a squeaking begging call, the other a vocalization when swallowing food. A 1999 mtDNA
phylogenetic In biology, phylogenetics (; from Greek language, Greek wikt:φυλή, φυλή/wikt:φῦλον, φῦλον [] "tribe, clan, race", and wikt:γενετικός, γενετικός [] "origin, source, birth") is the study of the evolutionary his ...
study of cockatoos utilizing among others, the red-tailed black cockatoo supported the hypotheses that cockatoos originated in Australia before the
Paleogene The Paleogene ( ; British English, also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period, geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous Period million yea ...
and
Neogene The Neogene ( ), informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary, is a Geologic time scale#Terminology, geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period million years ago (Year#Abbreviations yr and ya, ...
periods (66 mya, marking the end of the Mesozoic, to 2.6 mya) and that the genus ''Cacatua'' diversified in two separate radiations to the islands of Indonesia, New Guinea, and the South Pacific. It concluded that the first extant cockatoo to diverge from the ancestral cockatoos was the
palm cockatoo The palm cockatoo (''Probosciger aterrimus''), also known as the goliath cockatoo or great black cockatoo, is a large smoky-grey or black Psittaciformes, parrot of the cockatoo family native to New Guinea, Aru Islands Regency, Aru Islands, and ...
, followed by a subclade containing the black cockatoos. A 2008
mitochondrial A mitochondrion (; ) is an organelle found in the Cell (biology), cells of most Eukaryotes, such as animals, plants and Fungus, fungi. Mitochondria have a double lipid bilayer, membrane structure and use aerobic respiration to generate adenosi ...
and nuclear DNA phylogenetic study of the parrots, cockatoos and related
taxa In biology, a taxon (back-formation from ''Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy''; plural taxa) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known ...
by utilizing among others the
yellow-tailed black cockatoo The yellow-tailed black cockatoo (''Zanda funerea'') is a large cockatoo native to the south-east of Australia measuring in length. It has a short crest on the top of its head. Its plumage is mostly brownish black and it has prominent yellow ...
, provides confirmatory evidence for a
Gondwanaland Gondwana () was a large landmass, often referred to as a supercontinent, that formed during the late Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) and began to break up during the Jurassic, Jurassic period (about 180 million years ago). The fi ...
origin of the ancestral parrots in the
Cretaceous The Cretaceous ( ) is a geological period that lasted from about 145 to 66 mya (unit), million years ago (Mya). It is the third and final period of the Mesozoic Era (geology), Era, as well as the longest. At around 79 million years, it is the long ...
period, and an
Australasia Australasia is a region that comprises Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. ...
divergence of the ancestral cockatoos from the parrots in either late Cretaceous (66 mya) or Paleogene (45 mya) periods depending on baseline assumptions. Five subspecies are recognised; they differ mainly in the size and shape of the beak, the overall bird size and female colouration: *''C. b. banksii'' is found in Queensland and, rarely, in far northern
New South Wales ) , nickname = , image_map = New South Wales in Australia.svg , map_caption = Location of New South Wales in AustraliaCoordinates: , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = Australia , established_title = Before federation , es ...
; it is the largest subspecies by overall body size and has a moderate-sized bill. It merges with subspecies ''macrorhynchus'' around the
Gulf of Carpentaria The Gulf of Carpentaria (, ) is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the eastern Arafura Sea (the body of water that lies between Australia and New Guinea). The northern boundary is ...
. It has disappeared from much of its former range in northern New South Wales and southeast Queensland. *''C. b. graptogyne'', ''(Endangered)'' known as the south-eastern red-tailed black cockatoo, is found in southwestern Victoria and southeastern
South Australia South Australia (commonly abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest o ...
in an area bordered by Mount Gambier to the west,
Portland Portland most commonly refers to: * Portland, Oregon, the largest city in the state of Oregon, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States * Portland, Maine, the largest city in the state of Maine, in the New England region of the northeas ...
to the south,
Horsham Horsham is a market town on the upper reaches of the River Arun on the fringe of the Weald in West Sussex, England. The town is south south-west of London, north-west of Brighton and north-east of the county town of Chichester. Nearby town ...
to the northeast and Bordertown to the north. The smallest of the five subspecies, it was only recognised as distinct in the 1980s. It is predominantly dependent on stands of ''
Eucalyptus baxteri ''Eucalyptus baxteri'', commonly known as brown stringybark, is a medium-sized tree that is endemic Endemism is the state of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of Taxonomy (biology), classification and a taxonomic rank o ...
'' (brown stringybark), ''
Eucalyptus camaldulensis ''Eucalyptus camaldulensis'', commonly known as the river red gum, is a tree that is Endemism, endemic to Australia. It has smooth white or cream-coloured bark, lance-shaped or curved adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven or nine, white ...
'' (river redgum) and '' Allocasuarina luehmannii'' (buloke) for feeding and nesting. These tree species have been all threatened by land clearing and most remaining are on private land; possibly only 500–1000 individuals remain. The subspecies and its habitat are the subject of a national recovery plan. In 2007 local landowners are being reimbursed for assisting in regenerating suitable habitat. *''C. b. macrorhynchus'', given the name great-billed cockatoo by Mathews, is found across northern Australia. Although thought to be widespread and abundant, this subspecies has been little studied. It is also large and has a large beak, as its subspecific name implies. Females lack red colouration in their tails. *''C. b. naso'' ''(Vulnerable)'' is known as the forest red-tailed black cockatoo and is found in the southwest corner of Western Australia between
Perth Perth is the list of Australian capital cities, capital and largest city of the Australian states and territories of Australia, state of Western Australia. It is the list of cities in Australia by population, fourth most populous city in Aust ...
and Albany. This form has a larger bill, and favours marri ( ''Corymbia'' (formerly ''Eucalyptus) calophylla''), jarrah ('' E. marginata'') and karri ('' E. diversicolor''). *''C. b. samueli'' exists in four scattered populations: in central coastal Western Australia from the
Pilbara The Pilbara () is a large, dry, thinly populated regions of Western Australia, region in the north of Western Australia. It is known for its Indigenous Australians, Aboriginal peoples; its ancient landscapes; the red earth; and its vast mine ...
south to the northern Wheatbelt in the vicinity of Northam, and inland river courses in Central Australia, southwestern Queensland and the upper
Darling River The Darling River (Paakantyi (Darling language), Paakantyi: ''Baaka'' or ''Barka'') is the third-longest river in Australia, measuring from its source in northern New South Wales to its conflu ence with the Murray River at Wentworth, New South ...
system in Western New South Wales. Birds of this subspecies are generally smaller with smaller bills than the nominate ''banksii''.Forshaw, p. 91–2


Description

Red-tailed black cockatoos are around 60 centimetres (24 in) in length and
sexually dimorphic Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the sexes of the same animal and/or plant species exhibit different Morphology (biology), morphological characteristics, particularly characteristics not directly involved in reproduction. The conditio ...
. The male's plumage is all black with a prominent black crest made up of elongated feathers from the forehead and crown. The bill is dark grey. The tail is also black with two lateral bright red panels. Females are black with yellow-orange stripes in the tail and chest, and yellow grading to red spots on the cheeks and wings. The bill is pale and horn-coloured. The underparts are barred with fine yellow over a black base. Male birds weigh between 670 and 920 grams (1.5–2  lb), while females weigh slightly less at 615–870 grams (1.25–1.75 lb).Forshaw, p. 90 In common with other cockatoos and parrots, red-tailed black cockatoos have
zygodactyl In biology Biology is the scientific study of life. It is a natural science with a broad scope but has several unifying themes that tie it together as a single, coherent field. For instance, all organisms are made up of Cell (biology), ce ...
feet, two toes facing forward and two backward, that allow them to grasp objects with one foot while standing on the other, for feeding and manipulation. Black cockatoos are almost exclusively left-footed (along with nearly all other cockatoos and most parrots). Juvenile red-tailed black cockatoos resemble females until puberty, which occurs around four years of age, but have paler yellow barred underparts. As the birds reach maturity, males gradually replace their yellow tail feathers with red ones; the complete process takes around four years.Lendon, p. 66 As with other cockatoos, the red-tailed black cockatoo can be very long-lived in captivity; in 1938, ornithologist Neville Cayley reported one over fifty years old at
Taronga Zoo Taronga Zoo is a zoo located in Sydney Sydney ( ) is the capital city of the States and territories of Australia, state of New South Wales, and the most populous city in both Australia and List of cities in Oceania by population, Oceania. ...
.Lendon, p. 68 Another bird residing at London and Rotterdam Zoos was 45 years and 5 months of age when it died in 1979. Several calls of red-tailed black cockatoos have been recorded. The bird's contact call is a rolling metallic ''krur-rr'' or ''kree'', which may carry long distances and is always given while flying; its alarm call is sharp. Displaying males vocalize a sequence of soft growling followed by a repetitive ''kred-kred-kred-kred''.


Distribution and habitat

The red-tailed black cockatoo principally occurs across the drier parts of Australia. It is widespread and abundant in a broad band across the northern half of the country, where it has been considered an agricultural pest, with more isolated distribution in the south. It is found in a wide variety of habitats, from shrublands and grasslands through
eucalypt Eucalypt is a descriptive name for woody plants with Capsule (fruit), capsule fruiting bodies belonging to seven closely related genera (of the tribe Eucalypteae) found across Australasia: ''Eucalyptus'', ''Corymbia'', ''Angophora'', ''Stockwelli ...
, sheoak and ''
Acacia ''Acacia'', commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus Genus ( plural genera ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV class ...
'' woodlands, to dense tropical
rainforest Rainforests are characterized by a closed and continuous tree Canopy (biology), canopy, moisture-dependent vegetation, the presence of epiphytes and lianas and the absence of wildfire. Rainforest can be classified as tropical rainforest or tem ...
s. The bird is dependent on large, old eucalypts for nesting hollows, although the specific gums used vary in different parts of the country. Cockatoos are not wholly migratory, but they do exhibit regular seasonal movements in different parts of Australia. In the northern parts of the Northern Territory, they largely leave areas of high humidity in the summer
wet season The wet season (sometimes called the Rainy season) is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs. It is the time of year where the majority of a country's or region's annual precipitation occurs. Generally, the sea ...
. In other parts of the country cockatoo seasonal movements tend to follow food sources, a pattern recorded in Northern Queensland, and New South Wales. In southwest Western Australia, both extant subspecies appear to have a north–south pattern; northwards after breeding in the case of subspecies ''naso'', while movements by subspecies ''samueli'' in the wheatbelt can be irregular and unrelated to the seasons.


Behaviour

Red-tailed black cockatoos are diurnal, raucous and noisy, and are often seen flying high overhead in small flocks, sometimes mixed with other cockatoos. Flocks of up to 500 birds are generally only seen in the north or when the birds are concentrated at some food source. Otherwise, they are generally rather shy of humans. In northern and central Australia, birds may feed on the ground, while the two southern subspecies, ''graptogyne'' and ''naso'', are almost exclusively
arboreal Arboreal locomotion is the Animal locomotion, locomotion of animals in trees. In habitats in which trees are present, animals have evolved to move in them. Some animals may scale trees only occasionally, but others are exclusively arboreal. Th ...
.Forshaw, p. 97–8 They tend to fly rather slowly with intermittent deep flapping wingbeats, markedly different from the shallow wingbeats of the similar glossy black cockatoo. They also often fly at considerable height.


Breeding

The male red-tailed black cockatoo courts by puffing up crest and cheek feathers, and hiding the beak; it then sings and struts, ending in a jump and a flash of red tail feathers toward the female who will most often reply by defensively biting him.Forshaw, p. 100 Breeding generally takes place from May to September except in the case of the South-eastern subspecies, which nests during summer (December to February). Pairs of the subspecies ''samueli'' in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia may produce two broods, while those of South-eastern subspecies only produce one. Nesting takes place in large vertical tree hollows of tall trees. Isolated trees are generally chosen, so birds can fly to and from them relatively unhindered. The same tree may be used for many years. Hollows can be 1 to 2 metres (3–7 ft) deep and 0.25–0.5 metres (10–20 in) wide, with a base of woodchips. A clutch consists of 1 to 2 white, lustreless eggs, although the second chick is in most cases neglected and perishes in infancy. File:Th RedTailBlackCcockatoo1hourback.jpg, Chick at 1 hour old File:RedTailAt1Day.jpg , Chick at 1 day old File:RedTailAt1WeekOld.jpg , Chick at 1 week old file:RedtailBlackCockatoo2Weeks.jpg , Chick at 2 weeks old File:RedtailBlackCockatooAt3Weeks.jpg , Chick at 3 weeks old File:RedTailBlackCockatoo4weeks.jpg , Chick at 4 weeks old File:RedTailBlackCockatoo5Weeks.jpg, Chick at 5 weeks old File:RedTailBlackCockatooAt6Weeks.jpg, Chick at 6 weeks old


Feeding

Although red-tailed black cockatoos feed on a wide variety of native and introduced grains, the mainstay of their diet is
eucalyptus ''Eucalyptus'' () is a genus of over seven hundred species of Flowering plant, flowering trees, shrubs or Mallee (habit), mallees in the Myrtaceae, myrtle Family (biology), family, Myrtaceae. Along with several other genera in the Tribe (biology) ...
seeds. There is a specific relationship between the species and larger-fruited species of gums. These vary across Australia but include the marri in Southwest Western Australia, Darwin woollybutt '' E. miniata'' across the north of the country, '' E. baxteri'' in Victoria and the bloodwood species '' Corymbia polycarpa'' and '' C. intermedia'' in Queensland. Cockatoos bite off branchlets with clusters of seed capsules, then hold them with their feet while chewing and harvesting seeds before littering the ground with debris. Among other seeds and nuts consumed are those of ''
Acacia ''Acacia'', commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus Genus ( plural genera ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV class ...
'', ''
Allocasuarina ''Allocasuarina'' is a genus of trees in the flowering plant family Casuarinaceae. They are endemic (ecology), endemic to Australia, occurring primarily in the south. Like the closely related genus ''Casuarina'', they are commonly called sheoa ...
'', ''
Banksia ''Banksia'' is a genus of around 170 species in the plant family Proteaceae. These Australian wildflowers and popular garden plants are easily recognised by their characteristic flower spikes, and fruiting "cones" and heads. ''Banksias'' range ...
'', ''
Grevillea ''Grevillea'', commonly known as spider flowers, is a genus of about 360 species of evergreen flowering plants in the family Proteaceae. Plants in the genus ''Grevillea'' are shrubs, rarely trees, with the leaves arranged alternately along the b ...
'' and ''
Hakea ''Hakea'' ( ) is a genus of about 150 species of plants in the Family (biology), Family ''Proteaceae'', Endemism, endemic to Australia. They are shrubs or small trees with leaves that are sometimes flat, otherwise circular in cross section in whi ...
'', as well as berries, fruits and various insects.Forshaw, p. 99–100 Cockatoos have adapted to eating some introduced plants such as the doublegee ('' Emex australis''). There is some evidence of consumption of wild radish (''Raphanus raphanistrum''), wild turnip ('' Brassica tournefortii'') and melon (''
Citrullus ''Citrullus'' is a genus of seven species of desert vines, among which ''Citrullus lanatus'' (the watermelon) is an important crop. Taxonomy Molecular data, including sequences from the original collection of ''Momordica lanata'' made near Cape ...
'' or ''
Cucumis __NOTOC__ ''Cucumis'' is a genus of twining, tendril In botany, a tendril is a specialized Plant stem, stem, leaf or Petiole (botany), petiole with a threadlike shape used by climbing plants for support and attachment, as well as cellular in ...
''). Red-tailed black cockatoos have been implicated as agricultural pests of
peanut The peanut (''Arachis hypogaea''), also known as the groundnut, goober (US), pindar (US) or monkey nut (UK), is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible Seed, seeds. It is widely grown in the tropics and subtropics, important to both small ...
and other crops at Lakeland Downs in
Far North Queensland Far North Queensland (FNQ) is the northernmost part of the States and territories of Australia, Australian state of Queensland. Its largest city is Cairns, Queensland, Cairns and it is dominated geographically by Cape York Peninsula, which stret ...
. Here the cockatoos, in flocks of up to several hundred birds, have learned to sever the peanut plants above ground level before pulling the peanuts out of the ground by their stems and shelling them. They also damage electrical cables on pivot irrigators.Ahmet, Mike. (1998). The damage caused by Red-tailed Black-Cockatoos (''Calyptorhynchus banksii'') on peanut and other crops within the farming district of Lakeland Downs, Cape York Peninsula. Report to Queensland Department of Environmen

/ref>Garnett, Stephen. (1998). Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo damage and damage mitigation at Lakeland Downs, Cape York Peninsula. ''Eclectus'' 5: 26-34.


Conservation status

The red-tailed black cockatoo is protected under the Australian ''Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Wildlife Protection) Act 2001''. These birds are listed internationally under Appendix II of
CITES CITES (shorter name for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals from the threats of intern ...
, which allows international trade in live wild-caught and captive-bred specimens, if such exports are not detrimental to wild populations. However, the current Australian restrictions on commercial exports from Australia are not imposed by CITES. ''C. b. graptogyne'' is also specifically listed as endangered on the Australian
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 The ''Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999'' (Cth) is an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of Australia that provides a framework for protection of the Environment of Australia, Australian environment, including ...
. Status of the red-tailed black cockatoo as a species, and as a subspecies, also varies from state to state within Australia. For example: *The south-eastern red-tailed black cockatoo subspecies ''C. b. graptogyne'' is listed as endangered on Schedule 7 of the ''
National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 Protected areas of South Australia consists of protected areas located within South Australia and its Territorial waters, immediate onshore waters and which are managed by Government of South Australia, South Australian Government agencies. As ...
'' of South Australia. and is the smallest of the species. Though a June, 2012 count of approximately 1500 individuals is a notable increase from the 2007 count of just 1000, it remains in danger of extinction. *''C. b. graptogyne'' is also listed as threatened on the Victorian '' Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988''. Under this Act, an ''Action Statement'' for the recovery and future management of this species has been prepared. However, it should also be noted that the red-tailed black cockatoo is listed under this Act under its previous Latin name, ''Calyptorhynchus magnificus''. On the 2007 advisory list of threatened
vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all animal Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms in the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually ...
fauna Fauna is all of the animal life present in a particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is ''flora'', and for fungi, it is ''funga''. Flora, fauna, funga and other forms of life are collectively referred to as ''Biota (ecology ...
in Victoria, this subspecies is listed as
endangered An endangered species is a species that is very likely to become extinct in the near future, either worldwide or in a particular political jurisdiction. Endangered species may be at risk due to factors such as habitat loss, poaching and invas ...
. *The red-tailed black cockatoo is listed as vulnerable on the NSW '' Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995'' Like many Australian cockatoos and parrots, the red-tailed black cockatoo is threatened by the thriving illegal
trade Trade involves the transfer of goods and services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system or network that allows trade as a market (economics), market. An early form of trade, barter, s ...
in bird smuggling. High demand and high transit mortality mean that many more birds are taken from the wild than actually sold. In 1997, the Northern Territory Government's Department of Natural Resources, Environment and The Arts (now defunct) proposed a plan for management of the trade in eggs and nestlings of ''C. b. macrorhynchus''. To date the plan has not been implemented. The
Australian Senate The Senate is the upper house of the Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives (Australia), House of Representatives. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Chapter ...
inquiry into the Commercial Utilisation of Australian Native Wildlife concluded in early 1998 that routine capture and commercial use of adult wild birds should be prohibited. The bird is part of an annual census, the Great Cocky count, that has been held every year since 2009 to track the population change of Red-tailed and other black cockatoos.


Aviculture

In the late 1990s, red-tailed black cockatoos fetched prices of $1750 in Australia and $8900 (~US$6000) overseas.Online summary
Hand-raised birds can be bought for anywhere between $15,000 to $40,000 in the United States, where they are seldom seen in aviculture. Hand-reared birds are able to learn a few words and can be quite affectionate, although males may become imprinted and unlikely to breed. The red-tailed black cockatoo is the most commonly seen of the black cockatoos in captivity,Forshaw, p. 103 and can be hardy and long-lived if given plenty of space. Until now, most birds in captivity have been of subspecies ''C. b. banksii'' and ''C. b. samueli''. Birds were often previously bred without much attention to subspecies of origin. However, with an increase in interest in conservation, more aviculturists are concerned about maintaining the integrity of the separate subspecies in cultivation, and so avoid
crossbreeding A crossbreed is an organism with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or populations. ''Crossbreeding'', sometimes called "designer crossbreeding", is the process of breeding such an organism, While crossbreeding is used to main ...
. The birds breed easily in captivityForshaw, p. 104 and can lay eggs every 3 weeks between February and November. Once the female has one egg in her nest, she will not lay another. An egg takes about 30 days to hatch.Forshaw, p. 102 The eyes of the young open around 3 weeks and the yellow down will show black pin feathers at about 6 weeks. The best time for hand raising is at about 10 weeks when their black feathers are in place but the tail feathers are still short. Young birds fledge after about 4 months and both sexes have the colouring of their mother. Mature male birds will become aggressive to young male birds at puberty (4 years); they must be separated if caged. The large and powerful bills of these birds can quickly and easily open a
Brazil nut The Brazil nut (''Bertholletia excelsa'') is a South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere at the north ...
(normally requiring crushing in a vise or pounding with a hammer), shearing it as neatly as a laser. They can also demolish a whole coconut with husk in 3 days. Captive breeding guidelines may be found in ''Husbandry Guidelines for the Red-tailed Black Cockatoo'' (Bennett, 2008).


Cultural depictions

* A red-tailed black cockatoo, named Karak, was the official mascot of the
2006 Commonwealth Games The 2006 Commonwealth Games, officially the XVIII Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Melbourne 2006 (Boonwurrung language, Boonwurrung/Woiwurrung–Taungurung language, Woiwurrung: ''Narrm 2006'' or ''Naarm 2006''), was an International ...
held in
Melbourne Melbourne ( ; Boonwurrung language, Boonwurrung/Woiwurrung–Taungurung language, Woiwurrung: ''Narrm'' or ''Naarm'') is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population, most populous city of the St ...
. Promotion coincided with an implementation of initiatives to ensure the survival of the South-eastern subspecies ''graptogyne'', as well as increased environmental awareness at the games. * A traditional story from western
Arnhem Land Arnhem Land is a historical region of the Northern Territory of Australia, with the term still in use. It is located in the north-eastern corner of the territory and is around from the territory capital, Darwin, Northern Territory, Darwin. In 16 ...
tells of Black Cockatoo and her husband Crow, who are Bird-people, sprouting black feathers after becoming afflicted with a sickness from across the sea to the north. In fear of being buried underground, they transform into birds and fly high in the sky. * In the folklore of the
Tiwi people The Tiwi people (or Tunuvivi) are one of the many Aboriginal Australian, Aboriginal groups of Australia. Nearly 2,000 Tiwi people live on Bathurst Island (Northern Territory), Bathurst and Melville Island, Northern Territory, Melville Islands, w ...
, the red-tailed black cockatoo is said to accompany the dead to heaven.Goodfellow, Denise Lawungkurr. ''pers. comm.''


References


Notes


Cited texts

* * * * Garnett, S. (1993) ''Threatened and Extinct Birds of Australia''. RAOU. National Library, Canberra.


External links


World Parrot Trust
Parrot Encyclopedia – Species Profiles

{{Taxonbar, from=Q638242
red-tailed black cockatoo The red-tailed black cockatoo (''Calyptorhynchus banksii'') also known as Banksian- or Banks' black cockatoo, is a large black cockatoo native to Australia. Adult males have a characteristic pair of bright red panels on the tail that gives t ...
Endemic birds of Australia Talking birds
red-tailed black cockatoo The red-tailed black cockatoo (''Calyptorhynchus banksii'') also known as Banksian- or Banks' black cockatoo, is a large black cockatoo native to Australia. Adult males have a characteristic pair of bright red panels on the tail that gives t ...