Relevance, in the common law
, is the tendency of a given item of evidence to prove or disprove one of the legal elements of the case, or to have probative value to make one of the elements of the case likelier or not. Probative is a term used in law to signify "tending to prove".
[Hill, Gerald N., and Kathleen T. Hill. "Probative Legal Definition of Probative."](_blank)
The Free Dictionary by Farlex. July 2007. Farlex Inc. 2 July 2007.
Probative evidence "seeks the truth". Generally in law, evidence that is not probative (doesn't tend to prove the proposition for which it is proffered) is inadmissible and the rules of evidence
permit it to be excluded from a proceeding or stricken from the record "if objected to by opposing counsel".
A balancing test
may come into the picture if the value of the evidence needs to be weighed versus its prejudicial nature.
Under the Federal Rules of Evidence (United States)
Until the Federal Rules of Evidence
were restyled in 2011, Rule 401 defined relevance as follows:
"Relevant evidence" means evidence having any tendency to make the existence of any fact that is of consequence to the determination of the action more probable or less probable than it would be without the evidence.
This definition incorporates the requirement that evidence be both material
("of consequence to the determination of the action") and have probative
value ("having any tendency to make the existence of any aterial
fact...more probable or less probable than it would be without the evidence"). The restyled Rule 401, however, separates these traditional concepts in order to make the rule clearer and more easily understood. The amended language essentially rewrites the rule as a test, rather than a definition, for relevance:
Evidence is relevant if:
:(a) it has any tendency to make a fact more or less probable than it would be without the evidence; and
:(b) the fact is of consequence in determining the action.
Evidence and the matter properly provable
According to the notes of the Advisory Committee appointed to draft the Federal Rules of Evidence,
Relevancy is not an inherent characteristic of any item of evidence but exists only as a relation between an item of evidence and a matter properly provable in the case.
The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
explains the concept of "matter properly provable" as follows:
The initial step in determining relevancy is therefore to identify the "matter properly provable." As Professor James explained in a highly-regarded article, ' discover the relevancy of an offered item of evidence one must first discover to what proposition it is supposed to be relevant."
Relevance and admissibility
Generally, relevant evidence is admissible. However, relevant evidence is not admissible if prohibited by the Constitution, an Act of Congress, by the Federal Rules of Evidence, or by rules prescribed by the Supreme Court. Under the Federal Rules of Evidence, relevant evidence may be excluded on the basis of enumerated grounds.
Relevance is required but may not be sufficient
Rule 402. General Admissibility of Relevant Evidence
Relevant evidence is admissible unless any of the following provides otherwise:
:* the United States Constitution;
:* a federal statute;
:* these rules; or
:* other rules prescribed by the Supreme Court.
Irrelevant evidence is not admissible.
Relevance is ordinarily a necessary condition, but not a sufficient condition
, for the admissibility of evidence. For example, relevant evidence may be excluded if its tendency to prove or disprove a fact is heavily outweighed by the possibility that the evidence will prejudice or confuse the jury.
Inadmissible versus excluded evidence
FRE 402 refers to relevant evidence as 'inadmissible' if 'otherwise provided by' several sources of law. Yet, FRE 403 refers to 'exclusion of ''relevant evidence.
[Fed. R. Evid. 403 (2011)](_blank)
/ref> It is clear that evidence excluded under FRE 403 is inadmissible. However, it is not clear that inadmissible evidence is considered 'excluded' within the meaning of the Federal Rules of Evidence.
Exclusion of relevant evidence
Under Rule 403 of the Federal Rules of Evidence, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of one or more of the enumerated grounds for exclusion.
The grounds for exclusion are:
* unfair prejudice
* confusing the issues
* misleading the jury
* undue delay
* wasting time
* needlessly presenting cumulative evidence
In an exemplary hypothetical; if 100 witnesses saw the same accident, and would each give roughly the same description of the event, the testimony of each would be equally relevant, but it would be a waste of time or a needless presentation of cumulative evidence to have all 100 repeat the same facts at trial.
Preservation of the issue
To preserve legal error for review, objections must be raised.
[Fed. R. Evid. 103(a)(1)] Often objections against the introduction of evidence are made on the basis of relevance. However, the rules and opinions demonstrate that relevant evidence includes a significant portion of typically offered evidence. Since objections are required to be specific and timely, merely objecting on the basis of relevance, without more, may prevent the review of legal error on appeal. [United States v. Wilson, 966 F.2d 243 (7th Cir. 1992)] More particularly, making an objection based on “relevance” does not preserve an error based on Rule 403. Cases that lack specific and timely objections are sometimes referred to as having "poor records" because errors made by the lower court may not be reviewed on appeal.
Public policy concerns
A variety of social policies operate to exclude relevant evidence. Thus, there are limitations on the use of evidence of liability insurance, subsequent remedial measures, settlement offers, and plea negotiations, mainly because it is thought that the use of such evidence discourages parties from carrying insurance, fixing hazardous conditions, offering to settle, and pleading guilty to crimes, respectively.
The Canadian judiciary system utilizes the term "probative", which also signifies "prove to be worthy".
[''The Queen v. Wray''](_blank)
971S.C.R. 272, 1970 CanLII 2 (S.C.C.), 1970-06-26, p.273, Accessed 2007-01-05
History of legal doctrine
In 1970, the Supreme Court of Canada was concerned with exclusionary discretion within the judicial system. In R. v. Wray,
the term "probative value" is used to explain that "judges in criminal cases do not have a discretion to exclude evidence because of how it was obtained."
The sole discretion to exclude evidence is based on the weighing of prejudicial value and probative value. Where the material evidence is being considered for exclusion:
Judges may face the need to weigh the probative value versus the prejudicial impact in nearly any case. A part of this is symbolized by a weighing scale and represents justice.
Australian rule of evidence is a mixture of statute and common law. It has a uniform ''Evidence Act'' (UEA or the 'Act') that consists of Acts of the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory, Northern Territory and Norfolk Island. The rules of evidence work to ensure that criminal trials are conducted in a manner that is fair to both parties in the proceedings with distinct focus on testing of evidence.
Relevance and Admissibility
As per Barwick CJ in Wilson, "The fundamental rule governing the admissibility of evidence is that it be relevant. In every instance the proffered evidence must ultimately be brought to that touchstone."
The scheme of Chapter 3 of the Act deals with admissibility of evidence.
[''Evidence Act'' 1995](_blank) Evidence which is relevant is generally admissible, and evidence which is irrelevant is inadmissible.
Evidence is relevant if it is evidence which, if accepted, could rationally affect (directly or indirectly) the assessment of the probability of a fact in issue in the proceedings. Since evidence that is relevant has the capability to affect the assessment of the probability of the existence of a fact in issue, it is "probative". This determination is known as logical relevance. Logical relevance merely requires evidence have a logical connection to the facts in issue.
But neither s 55 nor s 56 of the Act requires that evidence be probative to a particular degree for it to be admissible. Evidence that is of only some, even slight, probative value will be admissible, just as it is at common law. Therefore, evidence is either relevant or it is not and if the evidence is not relevant then no further question arises about its admissibility. However, logical relevance isn't sufficient to establish the potential admissibility of the evidence and is still possible for the evidence to be inadmissible. This determination is known as "legal relevance" as opposed to logical relevance and sets a demanding test for discretionary exclusion (but one that is not obligatory) where its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger that the evidence might be unfairly prejudicial. Once the legal relevance of the evidence is established, the exclusionary principles and exceptions to those principles are also to be considered.
Relevance and Reliability
Reliability considers the probative force of the evidence (the legal relevance), rather than the evidence's ability to affect the probability of the existence of a fact in issue (the logical relevance).
IMM v R
' 016HCA at 3 9
*Prejudice (legal procedure)
Category:Common law legal terminology