private bill
   HOME

TheInfoList



Proposed bills are often categorized into public bills and private bills. A public bill is a proposed
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundari ...
which would apply to everyone within its
jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
. This is unlike a private bill which is a proposal for a law that would apply to a particular individual or group of individuals, or corporate entity. After a bill is enacted, these bills become public acts and private acts, respectively. Private law can afford relief from another law, grant a unique benefit or powers not available under the general law, or relieve someone from legal responsibility for some allegedly wrongful act. There are many examples of such private law in
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the a ...

democratic
countries, although its use has changed over time. A private bill is not to be confused with a
private member's bill A private member's bill in a parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατ ...
, which is a bill introduced by a "private member" of the legislature rather than by the ministry. The term "public bill" differentiates such a bill from a private bill, which is a legislative bill affecting only a single person, group, or area, such as a bill granting a named person
citizenship Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and th ...

citizenship
or, previously, granting named persons a legislative
divorce Divorce (also known as dissolution of marriage) is the optional process of terminating a marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people calle ...

divorce
. In practice, a (technically) public act can have the effect of a private act by the addition of restrictions such as limiting the act's effect to areas falling within a certain population bracket.


United Kingdom


Public bills

Public bills are the most common bills introduced in the
Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the of the , the and the . It alone possesses and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is but has three parts, consisting of the ...
. If they are enacted, they become Public General Acts (in contrast with Local and Personal Acts).


Private bills

There are two types of private Act in the United Kingdom. The first are acts for the benefit of individuals (known as private or personal acts) which have historically often dealt with divorces or granting British nationality to foreigners, but in modern times are generally limited to authorising marriages which would otherwise not be legal.Chronological Table of the Private and Personal Acts Part 33 (1910-1987)
Office of Public Sector Information – retrieved 23 May 2009
The second type are Acts for the benefit of organisations, or authorising major projects such as railways or canals, or granting extra powers to
local authorities Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geograp ...
(known as local acts).


Private Members bills

A bill proposed by a backbencher or member of the House of Lords. These rarely get through as the government does not allow much time for them to be debated on the agenda.


Hybrid bills

In the United Kingdom, there is another classification known as a ''hybrid'' instruments which share characteristics of both public and private bills.


United States


Public bills

Public bills are the most common type of law in the United States.


Private bills

In the United States, private bills were previously common. Now federal agencies are able to deal with most of the issues that were previously dealt with under private bills as these agencies have been granted sufficient discretion by the
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with ...

United States Congress
to deal with exceptions to the general legislative scheme of various laws. The kinds of private bills that are still introduced include grants of
citizenship Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and th ...

citizenship
to individuals who are otherwise ineligible for normal
visa Visa most commonly refers to: *Visa Inc., a US multinational financial and payment cards company ** Visa Debit card issued by the above company ** Visa Electron, a debit card ** Visa Plus, an interbank network *Travel visa, a document that allows e ...
processing; alleviation of tax liabilities; armed services decorations and veteran benefits. In some cases, where the recipient of a benefit of a private bill did not want it identified as such (especially in the case of tax relief), a public law would be proposed, but restricted to a certain class of persons usually identified by being in a specific location, having a specific kind of tax event, and occurring during a narrow window of time. For example, if
Acme Corporation The Acme Corporation is a fictional corporation that features prominently in the '' Road Runner/Wile E. Coyote'' animated shorts as a running gag A running gag, or running joke, is a literary device that takes the form of an amusing joke or a ...
were incorporated in the (fictional) State of Winnemac on January 14, 1967, and wanted relief from a tax on the sale of a subsidiary in the City of Zenith for $18 million in stock, that occurred on April 5, 2012, their Member of Congress might write a statute declaring "such tax of the type shall not be imposed on any corporation chartered in the State of Winnemac after January 12, 1967 and on or before January 14, 1967 for an intrastate transaction involving a stock transfer of not less than $12 million nor more than $20 million which occurred after April 2, 2001 and on or before April 5, 2012." By making the terms of the law apply to only one organization it has the effect of a private law without actually naming the party to be granted relief. Private laws are published individually as
slip law In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washing ...
s and included chronologically in
United States Statutes at Large The ''United States Statutes at Large'', commonly referred to as the ''Statutes at Large'' and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by United States Congress, Congress. Acts can ...
. Slip laws and U.S. Statutes at Large are available in most academic libraries and
Federal Depository Library Program The Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) is a government program created to make Federal government of the United States, U.S. federal government publications available to the public at no cost. As of April 2021, there are 1,114 depository li ...
institutions, and at the U.S. Government Publishing Office.Federal Depository Libraries
/ref>


See also

*
Private member's bill A private member's bill in a parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατ ...
* List of beneficiaries of immigration/nationality-related United States Private Bills/Laws


References


External links


List of recent beneficiaries of immigration-related private bills

Canada: Table of Private Acts (1867 to December 31, 2013)
Proposed laws of Canada, Proposed laws of the United Kingdom, Proposed laws of the United States, Statutory law Public sphere, Bill {{law-stub