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A photographer (the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
φῶς (''phos''), meaning "light", and γραφή (''graphê''), meaning "drawing, writing", together meaning "drawing with light") is a person who makes
photographs 396x396px, ''View from the Window at Le Gras'' (1826 or 1827), by Nicéphore Niépce, the earliest known surviving photograph of a real-world scene, made with a camera obscura. Original (left) & Film colorization, colorized reoriented enhanceme ...
.


Duties and types of photographers

As in other arts, the definitions of
amateur An amateur (; ; ) is generally considered a person who pursues an avocation independent from their source of income. Amateurs and their pursuits are also described as popular, informal, autodidacticism, self-taught, user-generated, do it yourself, ...
and
professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the particular knowled ...
are not entirely categorical. An ''
amateur An amateur (; ; ) is generally considered a person who pursues an avocation independent from their source of income. Amateurs and their pursuits are also described as popular, informal, autodidacticism, self-taught, user-generated, do it yourself, ...
photographer'' takes snapshots for pleasure to remember events, places or friends with no intention of selling the images to others. A ''professional photographer'' is likely to take
photograph 396x396px, '' View from the Window at Le Gras'' (1826 or 1827), by Nicéphore Niépce, the earliest known surviving photograph of a real-world scene, made with a camera obscura A camera obscura (plural ''camerae obscurae'' or ''camera obsc ...
s for a session and image purchase fee, by salary or through the display, resale or use of those photographs. A professional photographer may be an employee, for example of a newspaper, or may contract to cover a particular planned event such as a
wedding A wedding is a ceremony A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gesture A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication or non-vocal communication Communication (from Latin ''communica ...
or graduation, or to illustrate an
advertisement Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.William J. Stanton. ''Fundamentals of Marketing''. McGraw-Hill (1984). Sponsors of advertising are ...

advertisement
. Others, like
fine art photographers FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main fair trade networks: *F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) *I International Fair Trade Association, now the World Fair Trade Organization (WFTO) * ...
, are
freelancer ''Freelance'' (sometimes spelled ''free-lance'' or ''free lance''), ''freelancer'', or ''freelance worker'', are terms commonly used for a person who is self-employed and not necessarily committed to a particular employer long-term. Freelance w ...

freelancer
s, first making an image and then licensing or making printed copies of it for sale or display. Some workers, such as
crime scene A crime scene is any location that may be associated with a committed crime. Crime scenes contain physical evidence that is pertinent to a criminal investigation. This evidence is collected by crime scene investigators (CSIs) and law enforcement ...

crime scene
photographers, estate agents, journalists and scientists, make photographs as part of other work. Photographers who produce moving rather than still pictures are often called
cinematographer A cinematographer or director of photography (sometimes shortened to DP or DOP) is the person responsible for the photographing or recording of a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art ...

cinematographer
s,
videographer Videography refers to the process of capturing moving image An SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is visible as ...

videographer
s or
camera operator A camera operator, or depending on the context cameraman or camerawoman, is a professional operator of a film camera A movie camera, film camera or cine-camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on an ...

camera operator
s, depending on the commercial context. The term professional may also imply preparation, for example, by academic study or apprenticeship by the photographer in pursuit of photographic skills. A hallmark of a professional is often that they invest in continuing education through associations. While there is no compulsory registration requirement for professional photographer status, operating a business requires having a business license in most cities and counties. Similarly, having commercial insurance is required by most venues if photographing a wedding or a public event. Photographers who operate a legitimate business can provide these items. Photographers can be categorized based on the subjects they photograph. Some photographers explore subjects typical of paintings such as
landscape A landscape is the visible features of an area of land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and ...

landscape
,
still life , ''Still Life with Game Fowl, Vegetables and Fruits'' (1602), Museo del Prado Madrid A still life (plural: still lifes) is a work of art depicting mostly wikt:inanimate, inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which are either n ...

still life
, and
portrait A portrait is a painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is mo ...

portrait
ure. Other photographers specialize in subjects unique to photography, including
sports photography Image:SportsPhotographer.jpg, Photographer on the sideline of an American football game with multiple cameras, long lenses, and monopods. Sports photography refers to the genre of photography that covers all types of sports. In the majority o ...
,
street photography Street photography, also sometimes called candid photography, is photography Photography is the art, application, and practice of creating durable images by recording light, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by me ...

street photography
,
documentary photography Documentary photography usually refers to a popular form of photography used to chronicle events or environments both significant and relevant to history and historical events as well as everyday life. It is typically undertaken as professional phot ...
,
fashion photography Fashion photography is a genre of photography Photography is the art, application, and practice of creating durable images by recording light, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive mater ...

fashion photography
,
wedding photography A Royal Wedding with formal portraits Wedding photography is a specialty in photography Photography is the art, application, and practice of creating durable images by recording light, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chem ...
,
war photography War photography involves photographing armed conflict and its effects on people and places. Photographers who participate in this genre may find themselves placed in harm's way, and are sometimes killed trying to get their pictures out of the war a ...
,
photojournalism Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that employs images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images ...
,
aviation photography Aviation photography is the act of taking images of aircraft, either in flight, or on the ground. Types of aviation photography include air-to-air, ground-to-air, ground-static, and remote photography. Military aviation photography, especially a ...
and commercial photography. The type of work commissioned will have pricing associated with the image's usage.


Photographers

Beckenbauer Pressefotografen2.jpg, A group photographing retired footballer
Franz Beckenbauer Franz Anton Beckenbauer (, ; born 11 September 1945) is a German former professional footballer A football player or footballer is a sportsperson, sport person who plays one of the different types of football. The main types of football are ...

Franz Beckenbauer
. Urmas Tartes 2.jpg, Urmas Tartes working on an outdoor environment. Douglas Osheroff photographing along CA-1 May 2011 003.jpg, A photographer (
Douglas Osheroff Douglas Dean Osheroff (born August 1, 1945) is a physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In classica ...

Douglas Osheroff
) setting up a shot with the aid of a tripod. Photographing a model.jpg, Photographing a model. An assistant is holding a reflector (photography), reflector. Photographer (48010186141).jpg, Sports photographer during 2019 Pocono 400 Parliament Square Ramsey memorial with bibbed photographers.jpg, Sanctioned motorsport photographers identified by individually numbered white Bib (garment)#Sports, bibs on a road-course in the Isle of Man with public spectator area behind. Storformatskamera - Malmö-1985.jpg, A photographer and a his large format camera 1985.


Selling photographs

The exclusive right of photographers to copy and use their products is protected by copyright. Countless industries purchase photographs for use in publications and on products. The photographs seen on magazine covers, in television advertising, on greeting cards or calendars, on websites, or on products and packages, have generally been purchased for this use, either directly from the photographer or through an photo agency, agency that represents the photographer. A photographer uses a contract to sell the "license" or use of his or her photograph with exact controls regarding how often the photograph will be used, in what territory it will be used (for example U.S. or U.K. or other), and exactly for which products. This is usually referred to as usage fee and is used to distinguish from production fees (payment for the actual creation of a photograph or photographs). An additional contract and royalty would apply for each additional use of the photograph. The contract may be for only one year, or other duration. The photographer usually charges a royalty as well as a one-time fee, depending on the terms of the contract. The contract may be for non-exclusive use of the photograph (meaning the photographer can sell the same photograph for more than one use during the same year) or for exclusive use of the photograph (i.e. only that company may use the photograph during the term). The contract can also stipulate that the photographer is entitled to audit the company for determination of royalty payments. Royalties vary depending on the industry buying the photograph and the use, for example, royalties for a photograph used on a poster or in television advertising may be higher than for use on a limited run of brochures. A royalty is also often based on the size at which the photo will be used in a magazine or book, and cover photos usually command higher fees than photos used elsewhere in a book or magazine. Photos taken by a photographer while working on assignment are often work for hire belonging to the company or publication unless stipulated otherwise by contract. Professional Portrait photography, portrait and wedding photographers often stipulate by contract that they retain the copyright of their photos, so that only they can sell further prints of the photographs to the consumer, rather than the customer reproducing the photos by other means. If the customer wishes to be able to reproduce the photos themselves, they may discuss an alternative contract with the photographer in advance before the pictures are taken, in which a larger up front fee may be paid in exchange for reprint rights passing to the customer. There are major companies who have maintained catalogues of stock photography and images for decades, such as Getty Images and others. Since the turn of the 21st century many online stock photography catalogues have appeared that invite photographers to sell their photos online easily and quickly, but often for very little money, without a royalty, and without control over the use of the photo, the market it will be used in, the products it will be used on, time duration, etc. Commercial photographers may also promote their work to advertising and editorial art buyers via printed and online marketing vehicles.


Photo sharing

Many people upload their Photo sharing, photographs to social networking websites and other websites, in order to share them with a particular group or with the general public. Those interested in legal precision may explicitly release them to the public domain or under a free content license. Some sites, including Wikimedia Commons, are punctilious about licenses and only accept pictures with clear information about permitted use.


References


External links

* * {{Authority control Photography Photographers, Mass media occupations