percussion instrument
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A percussion instrument is a
musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. A person who play ...
that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a
beater Beater may refer to: Clothes *Beater (weaving), a tool used to force woven yarn into place *A shortening of wifebeater (shirt), "wifebeater" (shirt), a colloquialism for particular style of sleeveless shirt Music *Any of various types of percussi ...
including attached or enclosed beaters or
rattle Rattle may refer to: Instruments * Rattle (percussion instrument), a type of percussion instrument * Rattle (percussion beater), a part of some percussion instruments * Ratchet (instrument), a percussion instrument * Bird-scaring rattle, a S ...
s struck, scraped or rubbed by hand or struck against another similar instrument. Excluding zoomusicological instruments and the human voice, the percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments.''
The Oxford Companion to Music ''The Oxford Companion to Music'' is a music reference book in the series of Oxford Companions produced by the Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of University of Oxford. It is the largest univers ...
'', 10th edition, p.775,
The
percussion section File:Crotales1.jpg, Pitched percussion: A glockenspiel and a set of Crotales, crotales in use. The percussion section is one of the main divisions of the orchestra and the concert band. It includes most percussion instruments and all unpitched ...
of an orchestra most commonly contains instruments such as the
timpani Timpani (; ) or kettledrums (also informally called timps) are musical instruments in the percussion instrument, percussion family. A type of drum categorised as a hemispherical drum, they consist of a Membranophone, membrane called a drumhead, ...

timpani
,
snare drum The snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin. Snare drums are often use ...
,
bass drum The bass drum, or kick drum, is a large drum , at the Battle of Gettysburg The Battle of Gettysburg () was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( ) ( pdc, Pennsilfaani), ...

bass drum
,
cymbals A cymbal is a common percussion instrument A percussion instrument is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be consid ...
,
triangle A triangle is a polygon In geometry, a polygon () is a plane (mathematics), plane Shape, figure that is described by a finite number of straight line segments connected to form a closed ''polygonal chain'' (or ''polygonal circuit''). The b ...
and
tambourine The tambourine is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the obje ...
. However, the section can ''also'' contain non-percussive instruments, such as
whistle A whistle is an instrument which produces sound from a stream of gas, most commonly air. It may be mouth-operated, or powered by air pressure, steam, or other means. Whistles vary in size from a small slide whistle or nose flute type to a large m ...

whistle
s and sirens, or a blown
conch Conch () is a common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is some ...
shell. Percussive techniques can even be applied to the human body itself, as in
body percussion Body percussion may be performed on its own or as an accompaniment to music and/or dance. Examples of countries' folk traditions that incorporate body percussion include Indonesian saman, Ethiopian armpit music, palmas in flamenco, and the Juba danc ...

body percussion
. On the other hand,
keyboard instruments A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that t ...
, such as the
celesta The celesta or celeste , also called a bell-piano, is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard instrument, keyboard. It looks similar to an upright piano (four- or five-octave), albeit with smaller keys and a much smaller cabinet, or a la ...

celesta
, are not normally part of the percussion section, but
keyboard percussion A keyboard percussion instrument, also known as mallet percussion, is a chromatic melodic percussion instrument arranged in a similar pattern to a piano keyboard and played with hands or percussion mallets. Keyboard instruments for children, such a ...
instruments such as the
glockenspiel The glockenspiel ( or , ''Glocken'': bells and ''Spiel'': Play) is a percussion A percussion instrument is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any obje ...

glockenspiel
and
xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek words —''xylon'', "wood" + —''phōnē'', "sound, voice", literally meaning "sound of wood") is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In princi ...

xylophone
(which do not have piano keyboards) are included. Percussion instruments are most commonly divided into two classes:
pitched percussion A pitched percussion instrument is a percussion instrument used to produce note (music), musical notes of one or more pitch (music), pitches, as opposed to an unpitched percussion instrument which is used to produce sounds of indefinite pitch. P ...
instruments, which produce notes with an identifiable
pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency * Pitch (music), the perceived frequency of sound including "definite pitch" and "indefinite pitch" ** Absolute pitch or "perfect pitch" ** Pitch class, a set of all pitches that are a whole number of octaves ...
, and
unpitched percussion An unpitched percussion instrument is a percussion instrument A percussion instrument is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces s ...
instruments, which produce notes or sounds in an indefinite pitch.http://www.miayf.org/percussion/


History


Function

Percussion instruments may play not only
rhythm Rhythm (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million a ...
, but also
melody A melody (from Greek language, Greek μελῳδία, ''melōidía'', "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice or line, is a Linearity#Music, linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most literal ...

melody
and
harmony In music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societies. General definitions of music include common element ...

harmony
. Percussion is commonly referred to as "the backbone" or "the heartbeat" of a
musical ensemble A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform Instrumental music, instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name. Some music ensembles consist solely of i ...
, often working in close collaboration with bass instruments, when present. In jazz and other popular music ensembles, the pianist, bassist, drummer and sometimes the guitarist are referred to as the
rhythm section A rhythm section is a group of musicians within a music ensemble or band (music), band that provides the underlying rhythm, harmony and Pulse (music), pulse of the accompaniment, providing a rhythmic and harmonic reference and "beat" for the rest ...
. Most classical pieces written for full orchestra since the time of
Haydn Franz Joseph Haydn (; ; 31 March 173231 May 1809) was an Austrian composer A composer (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spo ...

Haydn
and
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 17565 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. Born in Salzburg, in the Holy Roman Empire Th ...

Mozart
are orchestrated to place emphasis on the
strings String or strings may refer to: *String (structure), a long flexible structure made from threads twisted together, which is used to tie, bind, or hang other objects Arts, entertainment, and media Films * Strings (1991 film), ''Strings'' (1991 fil ...

strings
, woodwinds, and
brass Brass is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appear ...
. However, often at least one pair of
timpani Timpani (; ) or kettledrums (also informally called timps) are musical instruments in the percussion instrument, percussion family. A type of drum categorised as a hemispherical drum, they consist of a Membranophone, membrane called a drumhead, ...

timpani
is included, though they rarely play continuously. Rather, they serve to provide additional accents when needed. In the 18th and 19th centuries, other percussion instruments (like the
triangle A triangle is a polygon In geometry, a polygon () is a plane (mathematics), plane Shape, figure that is described by a finite number of straight line segments connected to form a closed ''polygonal chain'' (or ''polygonal circuit''). The b ...
or
cymbal A cymbal is a common . Often used in pairs, cymbals consist of thin, normally round plates of various s. The majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a definite note (such as ...
s) have been used, again generally sparingly. The use of percussion instruments became more frequent in the 20th century classical music. In almost every style of music, percussion plays a pivotal role. In military
marching band A marching band is a group of musical instrument, instrumental musicians who perform while marching, often for entertainment or competition. Instrumentation typically includes brass instrument, brass, woodwind instrument, woodwind, and percuss ...

marching band
s and pipes and drums, it is the beat of the bass drum that keeps the soldiers in step and at a regular speed, and it is the snare that provides that crisp, decisive air to the tune of a regiment. In classic jazz, one almost immediately thinks of the distinctive rhythm of the hi-hats or the ride cymbal when the word-swing is spoken. In more recent popular-music culture, it is almost impossible to name three or four rock, hip-hop, rap, funk or even soul charts or songs that do not have some sort of percussive beat keeping the tune in time. Because of the diversity of percussive instruments, it is not uncommon to find large musical ensembles composed entirely of percussion. Rhythm, melody, and harmony are all represented in these ensembles.


Percussion notation

Music for pitched percussion instruments can be notated on a
staff Staff may refer to: Pole * Staff, a weapon used in stick-fighting Stick-fighting, stickfighting, or stick fighting is a variety of martial arts which use simple long, slender, blunt, hand-held, generally wooden "sticks" for fighting, such as a gun ...

staff
with the same
treble
treble
and
bass Bass or Basses may refer to: Fish * Bass (fish) Bass () is a name shared by many species of fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. Included in thi ...

bass
clef A clef (from French: 'key') is a musical symbol used to indicate which notes are represented by the lines and spaces on a musical stave. When a clef is placed on a stave it assigns a particular note to one of the five lines. This line bec ...

clef
s used by many non-percussive instruments. Music for percussive instruments without a definite pitch can be notated with a specialist rhythm or
percussion-clef
percussion-clef
. The guitar also has a special "tab" staff. More often a bass clef is substituted for rhythm clef.


Classification

Percussion instruments are classified by various criteria sometimes depending on their construction, ethnic origin, function within musical theory and orchestration, or their relative prevalence in common knowledge. The word percussion derives from the Latin verb ''percussio'' to beat, strike in the musical sense, and the noun ''percussus'', a beating. As a noun in contemporary English, Wiktionary describes it as the collision of two bodies to produce a sound. The term is not unique to music, but has application in medicine and weaponry, as in
percussion cap The percussion cap or percussion primer, introduced in the early 1820s, is a type of single-use percussion ignition device for muzzle loader A muzzleloader is any firearm A firearm is any type of gun designed to be readily carried and us ...
. However, all known uses of ''percussion'' appear to share a similar lineage beginning with the original Latin percussus. In a musical context then, the ''percussion instruments'' may have been originally coined to describe a family of musical instruments including drums, rattles, metal plates, or blocks that musicians beat or struck to produce sound. The
Hornbostel–Sachs Hornbostel–Sachs or Sachs–Hornbostel is a system of musical instrument classification In the study of musical instruments, organology, there are many different methods of classifying musical instruments. Most methods are specific to a partic ...
system has no high-level section for ''percussion''. Most percussion instruments as the term is normally understood are classified as
idiophone An idiophone is any musical instrument that creates sound primarily by the vibration of the instrument itself, without the use of air flow (as with aerophones), strings (music), strings (chordophones), acoustic membrane, membranes (membranophone ...
s and
membranophoneA membranophone is any musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the objec ...
s. However the term ''percussion'' is instead used at lower-levels of the Hornbostel–Sachs hierarchy, including to identify instruments struck with either a non sonorous object hand, stick, striker or against a non-sonorous object
human body The human body is the structure of a Human, human being. It is composed of many different types of Cell (biology), cells that together create Tissue (biology), tissues and subsequently organ systems. They ensure homeostasis and the life, viabil ...

human body
, the ground. This is opposed to ''concussion'', which refers to instruments with two or more complementary sonorous parts that strike against each other and other meanings. For example: 111.1 '' Concussion idiophones or clappers'', played in pairs and beaten against each other, such as
zill upDancing girl playing Zills from Qajar Era. Zills or zils (from Turkish 'cymbals'), also called finger cymbals, are small metallic cymbal A cymbal is a common percussion instrument. Often used in pairs, cymbals consist of thin, normally r ...
s and
clapstick Clapsticks, also spelt clap sticks and also known as bilma, bimli, clappers, musicstick or just stick, are a traditional Australian Aboriginal instrument. They serve to maintain rhythm in voice chants, often as part of an Aboriginal ceremony. ...
s. 111.2 '' Percussion idiophones'', includes many percussion instruments played with the hand or by a
percussion mallet A percussion mallet or beater is an object used to strike or beat a percussion instrument in order to produce its sound. The term beater is slightly more general. A mallet is normally held in the hand while a beater may be foot or mechanically ...
, such as the hang,
gong A gongFrom Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the ...

gong
s and the
xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek words —''xylon'', "wood" + —''phōnē'', "sound, voice", literally meaning "sound of wood") is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In princi ...

xylophone
, but not
drum , at the Battle of Gettysburg The Battle of Gettysburg () was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( ) ( pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a U. ...

drum
s and only some
cymbal A cymbal is a common . Often used in pairs, cymbals consist of thin, normally round plates of various s. The majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a definite note (such as ...
s. 21 ''Struck drums'', includes most types of drum, such as the timpani, snare drum, and tom-tom. 412.12 '' Percussion reeds'', a class of wind instrument unrelated to ''percussion'' in the more common sense There are many instruments that have some claim to being percussion, but are classified otherwise: *
Keyboard instrument A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that t ...
s such as the
celesta The celesta or celeste , also called a bell-piano, is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard instrument, keyboard. It looks similar to an upright piano (four- or five-octave), albeit with smaller keys and a much smaller cabinet, or a la ...

celesta
and
piano The piano is an acoustic Acoustic may refer to: Music Albums * Acoustic (Bayside EP), ''Acoustic'' (Bayside EP) * Acoustic (Britt Nicole EP), ''Acoustic'' (Britt Nicole EP) * Acoustic (Joey Cape and Tony Sly album), ''Acoustic'' (Joey Cape a ...

piano
.Note however that percussion instruments such as the
xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek words —''xylon'', "wood" + —''phōnē'', "sound, voice", literally meaning "sound of wood") is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In princi ...

xylophone
, which share the layout of the
piano keyboard A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers or keys on a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a mus ...
but themselves have no keyboard, are termed
keyboard percussion A keyboard percussion instrument, also known as mallet percussion, is a chromatic melodic percussion instrument arranged in a similar pattern to a piano keyboard and played with hands or percussion mallets. Keyboard instruments for children, such a ...
and are universally regarded as being within the percussion family.
*
Stringed instruments String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instru ...
played with beaters such as the
hammered dulcimer The hammered dulcimer (also called the hammer dulcimer, dulcimer, santouri, or tympanon) is a percussion-string instrument, stringed instrument which consists of strings typically stretched over a trapezoidal resonant sound board (music), sound bo ...
. * Unpitched whistles and similar instruments, such as the
pea whistle A whistle is an instrument which produces sound from a stream of gas, most commonly air. It may be mouth-operated, or powered by air pressure, steam, or other means. Whistles vary in size from a small slide whistle or nose flute type to a large m ...
and Acme siren. Percussion instruments are sometimes classified as musical pitch, pitched or unpitched. While valid, this classification is widely seen as inadequate. Rather, it may be more informative to describe percussion instruments in regards to one or more of the following four paradigms:


By methods of sound production

Many texts, including ''Teaching Percussion'' by Gary Cook of the University of Arizona, begin by studying the physical characteristics of instruments and the methods by which they can produce sound. This is perhaps the most scientifically pleasing assignment of nomenclature whereas the other paradigms are more dependent on historical or social circumstances. Based on observation and experimentation, one can determine how an instrument produces sound and then assign the instrument to one of the following four categories:


Idiophone

"Idiophones produce sounds through the vibration of their entire body."Gary D. Cook, ''Teaching Percussion'', p.2, 3rd edn, 2006, Thomson Schirmer, Examples of idiophones: * Bells * Bock-a-da-bock * Cabasa * Cajón * Castanets * Celesta * Chimes * Claves * Cowbell (instrument), Cowbell * Cymbals#Crash cymbals, Crash cymbals * Crotales * Daxophone * Flexatone * Güiro * Handbells * Hi-hat * Lummi stick * Maraca * Marimba * Orchestra bells * Quadrangularis Reversum * Ratchet (instrument), Ratchet * Singing bowls * Slit drum * Steelpan * Suspended cymbal * Temple blocks * Thumb piano (or Kalimba) * Triangle (musical instrument), Triangle * Txalaparta * Vibraphone * Vibraslap * Woodblock (instrument), Wood block * Xylophone


Membranophone

Most objects commonly known as
drum , at the Battle of Gettysburg The Battle of Gettysburg () was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( ) ( pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a U. ...

drum
s are membranophones. Membranophones produce sound when the membrane or head is struck with a hand, mallet, stick, beater, or improvised tool. Examples of membranophones: *Bass drum *Bongo drum, Bongos *Conga *Darbuka *Djembe *Mridangam *Octoban *Parai *Rototom *Snare drum *Tabla *Thavil *Timpani *Tom-tom drum, Tom-tom *Lion's roar (instrument), Lion's roar *Urumi (drum) *Wind machine


Chordophone

Most instruments known as chordophones are defined as string instruments, wherein their sound is derived from the vibration of a string, but some such as these examples ''also'' fall under percussion instruments. *Hammered dulcimer, Cimbalom *Onavillu *Piano *Berimbau *Jhallari *Kolitong *Takumbo


Aerophone

Most instruments known as aerophones are defined as wind instruments such as a saxophone whereby sound is produced by a stream of air being blown through the object. Although most aerophones are played by specialist players who are trained for that specific instrument, in a traditional ensemble setting, aerophones are played by a percussionist, generally due to the instrument's unconventional nature. Examples of aerophones played by percussionists *Apito or samba whistle *Siren (noisemaker), Siren *Slide whistle *Udu *Whistle or police whistle


By musical function or orchestration

When classifying instruments by function it is useful to note if a percussion instrument makes a definite pitch or indefinite pitch. For example, some percussion instruments such as the marimba and
timpani Timpani (; ) or kettledrums (also informally called timps) are musical instruments in the percussion instrument, percussion family. A type of drum categorised as a hemispherical drum, they consist of a Membranophone, membrane called a drumhead, ...

timpani
produce an obvious fundamental pitch and can therefore play
melody A melody (from Greek language, Greek μελῳδία, ''melōidía'', "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice or line, is a Linearity#Music, linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most literal ...

melody
and serve harmony, harmonic functions in music. Other instruments such as crash cymbals and
snare drum The snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin. Snare drums are often use ...
s produce sounds with such complex overtones and a wide range of prominent frequencies that no pitch is discernible.


Definite pitch of Music

Percussion instruments in this group are sometimes referred to as pitched or tuned. Examples of percussion instruments with definite pitch: * Chimes/Tubular bells * Crotales * Glass harmonica * Glass harp * Glockenspiel * Handbells * Marimba * Mridangam * Rototom * Steelpan * Tabla * Timpani * Triangle (musical instrument), Tuned Triangle * Vibraphone * Wind chimes * Xylophone * Xylorimba, Xylo-marimba


Indefinite pitch

Instruments in this group are sometimes referred to as non-pitched, unpitched, or untuned. Traditionally these instruments are thought of as making a sound that contains such complex frequencies that no discernible pitch can be heard. In fact many traditionally unpitched instruments, such as triangles and even cymbals, have also been produced as tuned sets. Examples of percussion instruments with indefinite pitch: * Bass drum * Castanets * Cymbals * Rainstick * Slapstick (instrument), Slapstick or whip * Snare drum * Gong, Tamtam * Tom-tom drum, Tom-tom


By prevalence in common knowledge

It is difficult to define what is common knowledge but there are instruments percussionists and composers use in contemporary music that most people wouldn't consider
musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. A person who play ...
s. It is worthwhile to ''try'' to distinguish between instruments based on their acceptance or consideration by a general audience. For example, most people would not consider an anvil, a brake drum (on a vehicle with drum brakes, the circular hub the brake shoes press against), or a fifty-five gallon steel pan, oil barrel musical instruments yet composers and percussionists use these objects. Percussion instruments generally fall into the following categories:


Conventional or popular

*Drum kit *Gong, Gong (tamtam) *Tambourine *Triangle (musical instrument), Triangle


Unconventional

*Automobile Drum_brake#Use_in_music, brake drum *Beer kegs *Brooms *Clay pots *Firearms or explosive charges *Five gallon buckets *Garbage cans *Glass bottles *Hammer *Metal pipes *Metal pots *Plastic bottles *Plastic bag *Rocks in a bucket *Shopping carts *Spokes on a bicycle wheel *Tableware One pre-20th century example of found percussion is the use of cannon usually loaded with blank charges in Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Tchiakovsky's ''1812 Overture''. John Cage, Harry Partch, Edgard Varèse, and Peter Schickele, all noted composers, created entire pieces of music using unconventional instruments. Beginning in the early 20th century perhaps with ''Ionisation (Varèse), Ionisation'' by Edgard Varèse which used air-raid sirens among other things, composers began to require that percussionists invent or find objects to produce desired sounds and textures. Another example the use of a hammer and saw in Penderecki's ''De Natura Sonoris No. 2''. By the late 20th century, such instruments were common in modern percussion ensemble music and popular productions, such as the off-Broadway show, Stomp dance troupe, Stomp. Rock band Aerosmith used a number of unconventional instruments in their song Sweet Emotion, including shotguns, brooms, and a sugar bag. The metal band Slipknot (band), Slipknot is well known for playing unusual percussion items, having two percussionists in the band. Along with deep sounding drums, their sound includes hitting baseball bats and other objects on beer kegs to create a distinctive sound.


By cultural significance or tradition

It is not uncommon to discuss percussion instruments in relation to their cultural origin. This led to a division between instruments considered common or modern, and folk instruments with significant history or purpose within a geographic region or culture.


Folk percussion instruments

*Berimbau *Bodhrán *Bombo legüero *Bongo drum *Cajon *Conga *Dhaa *Dhime *Dhol *Dholak *Djembe *Dunun *Gamelan *Ghatam *Kalimba (Thumb Piano) *Kpanlogo (drum), Kpanlogo *Monkey stick, Lagerphone *Latin percussion *Madal *Marimba *Marimbula *Naykheen *Pogo cello *Skrabalai *Spoon (musical instrument), Spoons *Steelpan *Tabla *Taiko *Tambourine *Thavil *Timbales *Tonbak *Urumi (drum), Urumee *Udukai


"Common" drums

This category includes instruments that are widely available and popular throughout the world: * Drum kit, typically consisting of: ** Bass drum ** Crash cymbal ** Ride cymbal ** Floor tom ** Hi-hat (instrument), Hi-Hat cymbals ** Snare drum ** Tom-tom drums * Marching percussion instruments * Orchestral percussion instruments


By capability of melodic production

*Non-melodic percussion: bongos,
snare drum The snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin. Snare drums are often use ...
, etc. *Melodic percussion: glass marimba, gendér, etc.


By percussive beater

The percussionist uses various objects to strike a percussion instrument to produce sound. * Hands: hand drums,
body percussion Body percussion may be performed on its own or as an accompaniment to music and/or dance. Examples of countries' folk traditions that incorporate body percussion include Indonesian saman, Ethiopian armpit music, palmas in flamenco, and the Juba danc ...

body percussion
* Sticks: drum kit * Mallets: mallet percussion,
timpani Timpani (; ) or kettledrums (also informally called timps) are musical instruments in the percussion instrument, percussion family. A type of drum categorised as a hemispherical drum, they consist of a Membranophone, membrane called a drumhead, ...

timpani
* Auxiliary:
triangle A triangle is a polygon In geometry, a polygon () is a plane (mathematics), plane Shape, figure that is described by a finite number of straight line segments connected to form a closed ''polygonal chain'' (or ''polygonal circuit''). The b ...
,
cymbal A cymbal is a common . Often used in pairs, cymbals consist of thin, normally round plates of various s. The majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a definite note (such as ...
s * Feet: Step dance, Tap dance


Names for percussionists

The general term for a musician who plays percussion instruments is "percussionist" but the terms listed below often describe specialties: *Balafonist: a balafon player *Bombisto: a bombo legüero player *Bongocero: someone who plays Bongo drum, bongos and usually cencerro (a Cowbell (instrument), cow bell) *Congalero, conguero: someone who plays congas *Cymbalist: someone who plays
cymbal A cymbal is a common . Often used in pairs, cymbals consist of thin, normally round plates of various s. The majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a definite note (such as ...
s *Djembefola: djembe player. *Drummer: someone who plays the Drum kit, drumset, hand drums or a single drum such as Snare drum. *Dununfola: dunun player. *Glockenspielist: someone who plays the
glockenspiel The glockenspiel ( or , ''Glocken'': bells and ''Spiel'': Play) is a percussion A percussion instrument is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any obje ...

glockenspiel
. *Güirero: someone who plays the güira, a Dominican scraper used in merengue music *Marimbist: a marimba player *Panman, pannist: a steelpan player *Timbalero, timbero: someone who plays timbales *Timpanist: a
timpani Timpani (; ) or kettledrums (also informally called timps) are musical instruments in the percussion instrument, percussion family. A type of drum categorised as a hemispherical drum, they consist of a Membranophone, membrane called a drumhead, ...

timpani
player *Vibraphone, Vibraphonist: a vibraphone player *Xylophonist: a
xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek words —''xylon'', "wood" + —''phōnē'', "sound, voice", literally meaning "sound of wood") is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In princi ...

xylophone
player Within rock music, the term "percussionist" is often used to refer to someone who plays percussion instruments but is not primarily a drummer. The term is especially found in bands where one person plays drums and another plays other hit instruments.


See also

* Beat boxing * Bock-a-da-bock * Drum * Drum beat * Drum Corps International * Drum Kit * Drumline * Drum machine * Electronic drum * Hand percussion * Klopotec * Latin percussion * List of percussion instruments * List of percussionists * Lists of tuned and untuned percussion instruments * Melodic percussion instrument * Musical Stones of Skiddaw * Orchestral percussion * Percussion notation * Pipe band, Pipes and Drums Corps * Practice pad * Vocal percussion * Rudimental percussion *Percussion Ensemble


Notes and references


Further reading

*James Blades, ''Percussion Instruments and Their History'', (1970). *Shen, Sinyan, Acoustics of Ancient Chinese Bells, Scientific American, 256, 94 (1987). *


External links

*
Drummer Brasil
— Website for drummers and percussionists
Video clips of percussion instruments demonstratedDrum Museum, Information about antique hand drums from Africa, New Guinea and the HimalayasAkul Raval - Maximum Innovative Musical Instruments Created By A Percussionist honored by World Records India
{{DEFAULTSORT:Percussion Instrument Percussion music Percussion instruments, Percussion,