DescriptionOrchids are easily distinguished from other plants, as they share some very evident derived characteristics or Synapomorphy, synapomorphies. Among these are: symmetry (biology)#Bilateral symmetry, bilateral symmetry of the flower (zygomorphic, zygomorphism), many resupination#Orchidaceae, resupinate flowers, a nearly always highly modified petal (labellum), fused stamens and carpels, and extremely small seeds.
Stem and rootsAll orchids are perennial plant, perennial herbs that lack any permanent Lignin, woody structure. They can grow according to two patterns: * Monopodial: The stem grows from a single bud, leaves are added from the apex each year, and the stem grows longer accordingly. The stem of orchids with a monopodial growth can reach several metres in length, as in ''Vanda'' and ''Vanilla (genus), Vanilla''. * Sympodial: Sympodial orchids have a front (the newest growth) and a back (the oldest growth). The plant produces a series of adjacent shoots, which grow to a certain size, bloom and then stop growing and are replaced. Sympodial orchids grow laterally rather than vertically, following the surface of their support. The growth continues by development of new leads, with their own leaves and roots, sprouting from or next to those of the previous year, as in ''Cattleya''. While a new lead is developing, the rhizome may start its growth again from a so-called 'eye', an undeveloped bud, thereby branching. Sympodial orchids may have visible pseudobulbs joined by a ''rhizome'', which creeps along the top or just beneath the soil. Terrestrial orchids may be rhizome, rhizomatous or form corms or tubers. The root caps of terrestrial orchids are smooth and white. Some sympodial terrestrial orchids, such as ''Orchis'' and ''Ophrys'', have two subterranean tuberous roots. One is used as a food reserve for wintry periods, and provides for the development of the other one, from which visible growth develops. In warm and constantly humid climates, many terrestrial orchids do not need pseudobulbs. Epiphyte, Epiphytic orchids, those that grow upon a support, have modified aerial roots that can sometimes be a few meters long. In the older parts of the roots, a modified spongy epidermis (botany), epidermis, called a velamen, has the function of absorbing humidity. It is made of dead cells and can have a silvery-grey, white or brown appearance. In some orchids, the velamen includes spongy and fibrous bodies near the passage cells, called tilosomes. The cells of the root epidermis grow at a right angle to the axis of the root to allow them to get a firm grasp on their support. Nutrients for epiphytic orchids mainly come from mineral dust, organic detritus, animal droppings and other substances collecting among on their supporting surfaces. The base of the stem of sympodial epiphytes, or in some species essentially the entire stem, may be thickened to form a pseudobulb that contains nutrients and water for drier periods. The pseudobulb has a smooth surface with lengthwise grooves, and can have different shapes, often conical or oblong. Its size is very variable; in some small species of ''Bulbophyllum'', it is no longer than two millimeters, while in the largest orchid in the world, ''Grammatophyllum speciosum'' (giant orchid), it can reach three meters. Some ''Dendrobium'' species have long, canelike pseudobulbs with short, rounded leaves over the whole length; some other orchids have hidden or extremely small pseudobulbs, completely included inside the leaves. With ageing the pseudobulb sheds its leaves and becomes dormant. At this stage it is often called a backbulb. Backbulbs still hold nutrition for the plant, but then a pseudobulb usually takes over, exploiting the last reserves accumulated in the backbulb, which eventually dies off, too. A pseudobulb typically lives for about five years. Orchids without noticeable pseudobulbs are also said to have growths, an individual component of a sympodial plant.
LeavesLike most monocots, orchids generally have simple leaf, leaves with Leaf#Vein, parallel veins, although some Vanilloideae have reticulate leaf, venation. Leaves may be ovate, lanceolate, or orbiculate, and very variable in size on the individual plant. Their characteristics are often diagnostic. They are normally phyllotaxis, alternate on the stem, often folded lengthwise along the centre ("plicate"), and have no stipules. Orchid leaves often have silica, siliceous bodies called stegmata in the vascular bundle sheaths (not present in the Orchidoideae) and are fibrous. The structure of the leaves corresponds to the specific habitat of the plant. Species that typically bask in sunlight, or grow on sites which can be occasionally very dry, have thick, leathery leaves and the Leaf anatomy, laminae are covered by a waxy Plant cuticle, cuticle to retain their necessary water supply. Shade-loving species, on the other hand, have long, thin leaves. The leaves of most orchids are perennial, that is, they live for several years, while others, especially those with plicate leaves as in ''Catasetum'', shed them annually and develop new leaves together with new pseudobulbs. The leaves of some orchids are considered ornamental. The leaves of the ''Macodes sanderiana'', a semiterrestrial or rock-hugging ("lithophyte") orchid, show a sparkling silver and gold veining on a light green background. The cordate leaves of ''Psychopsis limminghei'' are light brownish-green with maroon-puce markings, created by flower pigments. The attractive mottle of the leaves of lady's slippers from tropical and subtropical Asia (''Paphiopedilum''), is caused by uneven distribution of chlorophyll. Also, ''Phalaenopsis schilleriana'' is a pastel pink orchid with leaves spotted dark green and light green. The jewel orchid (''Ludisia discolor'') is grown more for its colorful leaves than its white flowers. Some orchids, such as ''Dendrophylax lindenii'' (ghost orchid), ''Aphyllorchis'' and ''Taeniophyllum'' depend on their green roots for photosynthesis and lack normally developed leaves, as do all of the heterotrophy, heterotrophic species. Orchids of the genus ''Corallorhiza'' (coralroot orchids) lack leaves altogether and instead wrap their roots around the roots of mature trees and use specialized fungi to harvest sugars.
FlowersThe Orchidaceae are well known for the many structural variations in their flowers. Some orchids have single flowers, but most have a racemose inflorescence, sometimes with a large number of flowers. The flowering stem can be basal, that is, produced from the base of the tuber, like in ''Cymbidium'', apical, meaning it grows from the apex of the main stem, like in ''Cattleya'', or axillary, from the leaf axil, as in ''Vanda''. As an apomorphy of the clade, orchid flowers are primitively Floral symmetry#Zygomorphic, zygomorphic (symmetry (biology)#Bilateral symmetry, bilaterally symmetrical), although in some genera, such as ''Mormodes'', ''Ludisia'', and ''Macodes'', this kind of symmetry may be difficult to notice. The orchid flower, like most flowers of monocots, has two whorls of sterile elements. The outer whorl has three sepals and the inner whorl has three petals. The sepals are usually very similar to the petals (thus called tepals, 1), but may be completely distinct. The medial petal, called the Labellum (botany), labellum or lip (6), which is always modified and enlarged, is actually the upper medial petal; however, as the flower develops, the inferior ovary (7) or the Pedicel (botany), pedicel usually rotates 180°, so that the labellum arrives at the lower part of the flower, thus becoming suitable to form a platform for pollinators. This characteristic, called resupination, occurs primitively in the family and is considered apomorphy, apomorphic, a derived characteristic all Orchidaceae share. The torsion of the ovary is very evident from the longitudinal section shown (''below right''). Some orchids have secondarily lost this resupination, e.g. ''Epidendrum secundum''. The normal form of the sepals can be found in ''Cattleya'', where they form a triangle. In ''Paphiopedilum'' (Venus slippers), the lower two sepals are fused into a synsepal, while the lip has taken the form of a slipper. In ''Masdevallia'', all the sepals are fused. Orchid flowers with abnormal numbers of petals or lips are called peloric. Peloria is a genetic trait, but its expression is environmentally influenced and may appear random. Orchid flowers primitively had three stamens, but this situation is now limited to the genus ''Neuwiedia''. ''Apostasia (plant), Apostasia'' and the Cypripedioideae have two stamens, the central one being sterile and reduced to a staminode. All of the other orchids, the clade called ''Monandria'', retain only the central stamen, the others being reduced to staminodes (4). The filaments of the stamens are always adnation, adnate (fused) to the carpel, style to form cylindrical structure called the gynostemium or column (botany), column (2). In the primitive Apostasioideae, this fusion is only partial; in the Vanilloideae, it is more deep; in Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae, it is total. The Carpel, stigma (9) is very asymmetrical, as all of its lobes are bent towards the centre of the flower and lie on the bottom of the column. Pollen is released as single grains, like in most other plants, in the Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae, and Vanilloideae. In the other subfamilies, which comprise the great majority of orchids, the anther (3) carries two pollinium, pollinia. A pollinium is a waxy mass of pollen grains held together by the glue-like alkaloid viscin, containing both cellulosic strands and mucopolysaccharides. Each pollinium is connected to a filament which can take the form of a caudicle, as in ''Dactylorhiza'' or ''Habenaria'', or a ''stipe (botany), stipe'', as in ''Vanda''. Caudicles or stipes hold the pollinia to the viscidium, a sticky pad which sticks the pollinia to the body of pollinators. At the upper edge of the stigma of single-anthered orchids, in front of the anther cap, is the rostellum (5), a slender extension involved in the complex pollination mechanism. As mentioned, the ovary (plants), ovary is always inferior (located behind the flower). It is three-carpelate and one or, more rarely, three-partitioned, with parietal placentation (axile in the Apostasioideae). In 2011, ''Bulbophyllum nocturnum'' was discovered to flower nocturnally.
PollinationThe complex mechanisms that orchids have evolved to achieve Allogamy, cross-pollination were investigated by Charles Darwin and described in ''Fertilisation of Orchids'' (1862). Orchids have developed highly specialized pollination systems, thus the chances of being pollinated are often scarce, so orchid flowers usually remain receptive for very long periods, rendering unpollinated flowers long-lasting in cultivation. Most orchids deliver pollen in a single mass. Each time pollination succeeds, thousands of ovules can be fertilized. Pollinators are often visually attracted by the shape and colours of the labellum. However, some ''Bulbophyllum'' species attract male fruit flies (''Bactrocera'' and ''Zeugodacus'' spp.) solely via a floral chemical which simultaneously acts as a floral reward (e.g. methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, or zingerone) to perform pollination. The flowers may produce attractive odours. Although absent in most species, nectar may be produced in a spur (biology), spur of the labellum (8 in the illustration above), or on the point of the sepals, or in the septa of the ovary, the most typical position amongst the Asparagales. In orchids that produce pollinia, pollination happens as some variant of the following sequence: when the pollinator enters into the flower, it touches a viscidium, which promptly sticks to its body, generally on the head or abdomen. While leaving the flower, it pulls the pollinium out of the anther, as it is connected to the viscidium by the caudicle or stipe. The caudicle then bends and the pollinium is moved forwards and downwards. When the pollinator enters another flower of the same species, the pollinium has taken such position that it will stick to the stigma of the second flower, just below the rostellum, pollinating it. The possessors of orchids may be able to reproduce the process with a pencil, small paintbrush, or other similar device. Some orchids mainly or totally rely on self-pollination, especially in colder regions where pollinators are particularly rare. The caudicles may dry up if the flower has not been visited by any pollinator, and the pollinia then fall directly on the stigma. Otherwise, the anther may rotate and then enter the stigma cavity of the flower (as in ''Holcoglossum amesianum''). The slipper orchid ''Self-pollination#Paphiopedilum parishii, Paphiopedilum parishii'' reproduces by self-fertilization. This occurs when the anther changes from a solid to a liquid state and directly contacts the stigma surface without the aid of any pollinating agent or floral assembly. The labellum of the Cypripedioideae is Poke bonnet, poke bonnet-shaped, and has the function of trapping visiting insects. The only exit leads to the anthers that deposit pollen on the visitor. In some extremely specialized orchids, such as the Eurasian genus ''Ophrys'', the labellum is adapted to have a colour, shape, and odour which attracts male insects via mimicry of a receptive female. Pollination happens as the insect attempts to mate with flowers. Many neotropical orchids are pollinated by male euglossini, orchid bees, which visit the flowers to gather volatile chemicals they require to synthesize pheromone, pheromonal attractants. Males of such species as ''Euglossa imperialis'' or ''Eulaema meriana'' have been observed to leave their territories periodically to forage for aromatic compounds, such as cineole, to synthesize pheromone for attracting and mating with females. Each type of orchid places the pollinia on a different body part of a different species of bee, so as to enforce proper cross-pollination. A rare wikt:achlorophyllous, achlorophyllous Saprophyte, saprophytic orchid growing entirely underground in Australia, ''Rhizanthella slateri'', is never exposed to light, and depends on ants and other terrestrial insects to pollinate it. ''Catasetum'', a genus discussed briefly by Charles Darwin, Darwin, actually launches its viscid pollinia with explosive force when an insect touches a seta, knocking the pollinator off the flower. After pollination, the sepals and petals fade and wilt, but they usually remain attached to the ovary.
Asexual reproductionSome species, such as ''Phalaenopsis'', ''Dendrobium'', and ''Vanda'', produce offshoots or plantlets formed from one of the node (botany), nodes along the Plant stem, stem, through the accumulation of growth hormones at that point. These shoots are known as ''keiki''.
Fruits and seedsThe ovary typically develops into a capsule (fruit), capsule that is dehiscent by three or six longitudinal slits, while remaining closed at both ends. The seeds are generally almost microscopic and very numerous, in some species over a million per capsule. After ripening, they blow off like dust particles or spores. Most orchid species lack endosperm in their seed and must enter symbiotic relationships with various Orchid mycorrhiza, mycorrhizal basidiomyceteous fungi that provide them the necessary nutrients to germinate, so almost all orchid species are mycoheterotrophic during germination and reliant upon fungi to complete their lifecycles. Only a handful of orchid species have seed that can germinate without mycorrhiza, namely the species within the genus Disa with Hydrochory, hydrochorous seeds. As the chance for a seed to meet a suitable fungus is very small, only a minute fraction of all the seeds released grow into adult plants. In cultivation, germination typically takes weeks. Horticultural techniques have been devised for germinating orchid seeds on an artificial nutrient medium, eliminating the requirement of the fungus for germination and greatly aiding the propagation of ornamental orchids. The usual medium for the sowing of orchids in artificial conditions is agar gel combined with a carbohydrate energy source. The carbohydrate source can be combinations of discrete sugars or can be derived from other sources such as banana, pineapple, peach, or even tomato puree or coconut water. After the preparation of the agar medium, it is poured into test tubes or jars which are then autoclaved (or cooked in a pressure cooker) to sterilize the medium. After cooking, the medium begins to gel as it cools.
TaxonomyThe Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy of this family is in constant flux, as new studies continue to clarify the relationships between species and groups of species, allowing more taxa at several Taxonomic rank, ranks to be recognized. The Orchidaceae is currently placed in the Order (biology), order Asparagales by the APG III system of 2009. Five subfamilies are recognised. The cladogram below was made according to the APG system of 1998. It represents the view that most botanists had held up to that time. It was supported by Plant morphology, morphological Research, studies, but never received strong support in molecular phylogenetic studies. In 2015, a phylogenetic study showed strong Resampling (statistics), statistical support for the following topology of the orchid Phylogenetic tree, tree, using 9 Base pair, kb of plastid and Cell nucleus, nuclear DNA from 7 genes, a topology that was confirmed by a phylogenomic study in the same year.
EvolutionA study in the scientific journal ''Nature (journal), Nature'' has hypothesised that the origin of orchids goes back much longer than originally expected. An extinct species of stingless bee, ''Proplebeia dominicana'', was found trapped in Miocene amber from about 15-20 million years ago. The bee was carrying pollen of a previously unknown orchid taxon, ''Meliorchis caribea'', on its wings. This find is the first evidence of fossilised orchids to date and shows insects were active pollinators of orchids then. This extinct orchid, ''M. caribea'', has been placed within the extant tribe Cranichideae, subtribe Goodyerinae (subfamily Orchidoideae). An even older orchid species, ''Succinanthera baltica'', was described from the Eocene Baltic amber by George Poinar Jr., Poinar & Rasmussen (2017). Genetic sequencing indicates orchids may have arisen earlier, 76 to 84 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous. According to Mark W. Chase ''et al.'' (2001), the overall biogeography and phylogenetic patterns of Orchidaceae show they are even older and may go back roughly 100 million years. Using the molecular clock method, it was possible to determine the age of the major branches of the orchid family. This also confirmed that the subfamily Vanilloideae is a branch at the basal dichotomy of the monandrous orchids, and must have evolved very early in the evolution of the family. Since this subfamily occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, from tropical America to tropical Asia, New Guinea and West Africa, and the continents began to split about 100 million years ago, significant biotic exchange must have occurred after this split (since the age of ''Vanilla'' is estimated at 60 to 70 million years). Genome duplication occurred prior to the divergence of this taxon.
GeneraThere are around 800 genera of orchids. The following are amongst the most notable genera of the orchid family: * ''Aa (plant), Aa'' * ''Abdominea'' * ''Acampe'' * ''Acanthophippium'' * ''Aceratorchis'' * ''Acianthus'' * ''Acineta'' * ''Acrorchis'' * ''Ada (plant), Ada'' * ''Aerangis'' * ''Aeranthes'' * ''Aerides'' * ''Aganisia'' * ''Agrostophyllum'' * ''Anacamptis'' * ''Ancistrochilus'' * ''Angraecum'' * ''Anguloa'' * ''Ansellia'' * ''Aorchis'' * ''Aplectrum'' * ''Arachnis (plant), Arachnis'' * ''Arethusa (plant), Arethusa'' * ''Armodorum'' * ''Ascocenda'' * ''Ascocentrum'' * ''Ascoglossum'' * ''Australorchis'' * ''Auxopus'' * ''Baptistonia'' * ''Barkeria'' * ''Barlia'' * ''Bartholina'' * ''Beloglottis'' * ''Biermannia'' * ''Bletilla'' * ''Brassavola'' * ''Brassia'' * ''Bulbophyllum'' * ''Calanthe'' * ''Calypso (plant), Calypso'' * ''Catasetum'' * ''Cattleya'' * ''Chiloschista'' * ''Cirrhopetalum'' * ''Cleisostoma'' * ''Clowesia'' * ''Coelogyne'' * ''Coryanthes'' * ''Cycnoches'' * ''Cymbidium'' * ''Cyrtopodium'' * ''Cypripedium'' * ''Dactylorhiza'' * ''Dendrobium'' * ''Disa (plant), Disa'' * ''Dracula (plant), Dracula'' * ''Encyclia'' * ''Epidendrum'' * ''Epipactis'' * ''Eria'' * ''Eulophia'' * ''Gastrochilus'' * ''Gongora'' * ''Goodyera'' * ''Grammatophyllum'' * ''Gymnadenia'' * ''Habenaria'' * ''Herschelia'' * ''Ionopsis'' * ''Laelia'' * ''Lepanthes'' * ''Liparis (plant), Liparis'' * ''Ludisia'' * ''Lycaste'' * ''Masdevallia'' * ''Maxillaria'' * ''Meliorchis'' * ''Mexipedium'' * ''Miltonia'' * ''Mormodes'' * ''Odontoglossum'' * ''Oeceoclades'' * ''Oncidium'' * ''Ophrys'' * ''Orchis'' * ''Paphiopedilum'' * ''Papilionanthe'' * ''Paraphalaenopsis'' * ''Peristeria (plant), Peristeria'' * ''Phaius'' * ''Phalaenopsis'' * ''Pholidota (plant), Pholidota'' * ''Phragmipedium'' * ''Platanthera'' * ''Platystele'' * ''Pleione (plant), Pleione'' * ''Pleurothallis'' * ''Pomatocalpa'' * ''Promenaea'' * ''Pterostylis'' * ''Renanthera'' * ''Renantherella'' * ''Restrepia'' * ''Restrepiella'' * ''Rhynchostylis'' * ''Roezliella'' * ''Saccolabium'' * ''Sarcochilus'' * ''Satyrium (plant), Satyrium'' * ''Seidenfadenia'' * ''Selenipedium'' * ''Serapias'' * ''Sobralia'' * ''Sophronitis'' * ''Spiranthes'' * ''Stanhopea'' * ''Stelis'' * ''Thrixspermum'' * ''Tolumnia (plant), Tolumnia'' * ''Trias (plant), Trias'' * ''Trichocentrum'' * ''Trichoglottis'' * ''Vanda'' * ''Vanilla (genus), Vanilla'' * ''Yoania'' * ''Zeuxine'' * ''Zygopetalum''
EtymologyThe type (biology), type genus (biology), genus (i.e. the genus after which the family is named) is ''Orchis''. The genus name comes from the Ancient Greek ('), literally meaning "testicle", because of the shape of the twin tubers in some species of ''Orchis''. The term "orchid" was introduced in 1845 by John Lindley in ''School Botany'', as a shortened form of ''Orchidaceae''. In Middle English, the name ''bollockwort'' was used for some orchids, based on "wikt:bollock, bollock" meaning testicle and "wikt:wort#Etymology 1, wort" meaning plant.
DistributionOrchidaceae are cosmopolitan distribution, cosmopolitan, occurring in almost every habitat (ecology), habitat apart from glaciers. The world's richest diversity of orchid genera and species is found in the tropics, but they are also found above the Arctic Circle, in southern Patagonia, and two species of ''Nematoceras'' on Macquarie Island at 54th parallel south, 54° south. The following list gives a rough overview of their distribution: * Oceania: 50 to 70 genera * North America: 20 to 26 genera * tropical America: 212 to 250 genera * tropical Asia: 260 to 300 genera * tropical Africa: 230 to 270 genera * Europe and temperate Asia: 40 to 60 genera
EcologyA majority of orchids are perennial plant, perennial epiphytes, which grow anchored to trees or shrubs in the tropics and subtropics. Species such as ''Angraecum sororium'' are lithophytes, growing on rocks or very rocky soil. Other orchids (including the majority of temperate Orchidaceae) are terrestrial and can be found in habitat areas such as grasslands or forest. Some orchids, such as ''Neottia'' and ''Corallorhiza'', lack chlorophyll, so are unable to photosynthesise. Instead, these species obtain energy and nutrients by parasitism, parasitising soil fungi through the formation of orchid mycorrhizae. The fungi involved include those that form Ectomycorrhizal, ectomycorrhizas with trees and other woody plants, parasites such as ''Armillaria'', and saprotrophs. These orchids are known as myco-heterotrophs, but were formerly (incorrectly) described as saprophytes as it was believed they gained their nutrition by breaking down organic matter. While only a few species are achlorophyllous Parasitic plant, holoparasites, all orchids are myco-heterotrophic during germination and seedling growth, and even photosynthetic adult plants may continue to obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi.
PerfumeryThe scent of orchids is frequently analysed by perfumers (using headspace technology and gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry) to identify potential fragrance chemicals.
HorticultureThe other important use of orchids is their cultivation for the enjoyment of the flowers. Most cultivated orchids are tropics, tropical or subtropics, subtropical, but quite a few that grow in colder climates can be found on the market. Temperate species available at nurseries include ''Ophrys apifera'' (bee orchid), ''Gymnadenia conopsea'' (fragrant orchid), ''Anacamptis pyramidalis'' (pyramidal orchid) and ''Dactylorhiza fuchsii'' (common spotted orchid). Orchids of all types have also often been sought by collectors of both species and hybrids. Many hundreds of societies and clubs worldwide have been established. These can be small, local clubs, or larger, national organisations such as the American Orchid Society. Both serve to encourage cultivation and collection of orchids, but some go further by concentrating on conservation or research. The term "botanical orchid" loosely denotes those small-flowered, tropical orchids belonging to several genera that do not fit into the "florist" orchid category. A few of these genera contain enormous numbers of species. Some, such as ''Pleurothallis'' and ''Bulbophyllum'', contain approximately 1700 and 2000 species, respectively, and are often extremely vegetatively diverse. The primary use of the term is among orchid hobbyists wishing to describe unusual species they grow, though it is also used to distinguish naturally occurring orchid species from horticulturally created hybrid (biology), hybrids. New orchids are registered with the International Orchid Register, maintained by the Royal Horticultural Society.
Use as foodThe dried seed pods of one orchid genus, ''Vanilla (genus), Vanilla'' (especially ''Vanilla planifolia''), are commercially important as a flavouring in baking, for perfume manufacture and aromatherapy. The underground tubers of terrestrial orchids [mainly ''Orchis mascula'' (early purple orchid)] are ground to a powder and used for cooking, such as in the hot beverage ''salep'' or in the Turkish cuisine, Turkish frozen treat ''Salepi dondurma, dondurma''. The name ''salep'' has been claimed to come from the Arabic expression ', "fox testicles", but it appears more likely the name comes directly from the Arabic name '. The similarity in appearance to testes naturally accounts for ''salep'' being considered an aphrodisiac. The dried leaves of ''Jumellea fragrans'' are used to flavour rum on Reunion Island. Some saprophytic orchid species of the group ''Gastrodia'' produce potato-like tubers and were consumed as food by native peoples in Australia and can be successfully cultivated, notably ''Gastrodia sesamoides''. Wild stands of these plants can still be found in the same areas as early Aboriginal settlements, such as Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park in Australia. Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal peoples located the plants in habitat by observing where bandicoots had scratched in search of the tubers after detecting the plants underground by scent.
Cultural symbolismOrchids have many associations with symbolic values. For example, the orchid is the City Flower of Shaoxing, China. ''Cattleya mossiae'' is the national Venezuelan flower, while ''Cattleya trianae'' is the national flower of Colombia. Vanda 'Miss Joaquim', ''Vanda'' 'Miss Joaquim' is the national flower of Singapore, ''Guarianthe skinneri'' is the national flower of Costa Rica and ''Rhyncholaelia digbyana'' is the national flower of Honduras. ''Prosthechea cochleata'' is the national flower of Belize, where it is known as the ''black orchid''. ''Lycaste skinneri'' has a white variety (alba) that is the national flower of Guatemala, commonly known as ''Monja Blanca'' (White Nun). Panama's national flower is the ''Holy Ghost orchid'' (''Peristeria elata''), or 'the flor del Espiritu Santo'. Rhynchostylis retusa, ''Rhynchostylis'' ''retusa'' is the state flower of the Indian state of Assam where it is known as ''Kopou Phul.'' Orchids native to the Mediterranean are depicted on the ''Ara Pacis'' in Rome, until now the only known instance of orchids in ancient art, and the earliest in European art.
See also* Adaptation (film), ''Adaptation'' (film), based on ''The Orchid Thief'' * Distribution of orchid species * Italian Group for Research on Wild Orchid * Orchid Conservation Coalition * Orchid Pavilion Gathering * Orchidelirium, the Victorian era of flower madness in which collecting and discovering orchids reached extraordinary levels * Orchids of the Philippines * Orchids of Western Australia * Shangsi Festival