occupancy
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Within the context of
building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a ...

building
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
and
building code A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, u ...
s, "occupancy" refers to the use, or intended use, of a building, or portion of a building, for the shelter or support of persons, animals or property. A closely related meaning is the number of units in such a building that are rented,
lease A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the user (referred to as the ''lessee'') to pay the owner (the Lessor (leasing), ''lessor'') for use of an asset. Property, buildings and vehicles are common assets that are leased. Industrial o ...

lease
d, or otherwise in use. Lack of occupancy, in this sense, is known as "vacancy".


Building codes

It is possible to have multiple occupancies (or building uses) within one building. For example, a high-rise
building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a ...

building
can have retail stores occupying the lower levels, while the upper levels are residential. Different occupancies within a building are separated by a fire barrier with a defined
fire-resistance rating A fire-resistance rating typically means the duration for which a passive fire protection Passive fire protection (PFP) is components or systems of a building or structure that slows or impedes the spread the effects of fire or smoke without sys ...
. It is common for a penetration (such as a fire door) to have a fire protection rating lower than the wall fire–resistance rating in which it is installed. For example, a two-hour fire separation normally requires fire doors rated at 90 minutes. For some high challenge occupancies, the code requirements for an occupancy separation are more stringent than for other fire barriers, even with an identical fire resistance rating. In this case, an occupancy separation with a two-hour fire-resistance rating may not be able to "de-rate" its closures, such
fire door A fire door is a door A door is a hinge A barrel hinge A hinge is a mechanical bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. Two objects connected by an ideal hinge rotate r ...

fire door
s and
firestop A firestop or fire-stopping is a form of passive fire protection Passive fire protection (PFP) is components or systems of a building or structure that slows or impedes the spread the effects of fire or smoke without system activation, and usually ...
s. For example, a two-hour rated "high challenge fire wall" requires two-hour rated fire doors. Firestops in occupancy separations are also more likely to require an equal fire protection rating (a fire resistance rating for closures). They also must provide a
temperature Temperature ( ) is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy Thermal radiation in visible light can be seen on this hot metalwork. Thermal energy refers to several distinct physical concept ...

temperature
rating ensuring that the components of the firestop systems, including the penetrants are not permitted to rise in temperature above 140°C (284°F) on average or 180°C (356°F) at any single point, to lower the likelihood of auto-ignition on the unexposed side. In this manner, occupancy separations are treated similarly to fire walls which are structurally stable in case of a fire, thus limiting the danger of fire-induced building collapse. In this sense, there are two occupancies in many
single-family home A stand-alone house (also called a single-detached dwelling, detached residence or detached house) is a free-standing residential building. It is sometimes referred to as a single-family home, as opposed to a multi-family residential dwelling ...

single-family home
s: the garage and the living space of the
home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for one or many Human, humans. It is a fully or semi sheltered space and can have both interior and exterior aspects to it. Homes provide sheltered spaces for ...

home
. Because
automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on Track (rail transport), rails (such as trains o ...

automobile
gasoline Gasoline () or petrol () (see the etymology Etymology ()The New Oxford Dictionary of English ''The'' () is a grammatical article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated word ...

gasoline
is
flammable , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , g ...
, an occupancy separation is often required between the two should there be a
vehicle fire on fire in Pasadena, California A vehicle fire is an undesired conflagration (uncontrolled burning) involving a motor vehicle. Also termed car fire or a carbecue, it is one of the most common causes of fire-related property damage. What to do ...
. Water heaters and
central heating A central heating system provides warmth to the number of spaces within a building and optionally also able to heat domestic hot water from one main source of heat unlike heating, ventilation, and air conditioning File:Control circuit in hou ...
are often placed in this space as well for their use of
natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane and commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxid ...

natural gas
,
propane Propane () is a three-carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's ...

propane
, or other
fossil fuel A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon In , a hydrocarbon is an consisting entirely of and . Hydrocarbons are examples of s. Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and hydrophobic with only weak odours. Because of their diverse molecular structure ...
s in
combustion Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke. Combustion ...
. This also helps to prevent
carbon monoxide poisoning Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing Breathing (or ventilation) is the process of moving air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie repr ...
.


Building utilization

Occupancy can also refer to the number of units in use, such as
hotel A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Facilities provided inside a hotel room may range from a modest-quality mattress in a small room to large suites with bigger, higher-quality beds, a dresser, a ref ...

hotel
room In a building, a room is any space Space is the boundless extent in which and events have relative and . In , physical space is often conceived in three s, although modern s usually consider it, with , to be part of a boundless known ...

room
s,
apartment flat
apartment flat
s, or
office An office is a space where an Organization, organization's employees perform Business administration, administrative Work (human activity), work in order to support and realize objects and Goals, plans, action theory, goals of the organizatio ...

office
s. When a
motel A motel, also known as a motor hotel or motor lodge, is a hotel A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Facilities provided inside a hotel room may range from a modest-quality mattress in a small ...

motel
is at full occupancy, it is common practice to turn on a NO VACANCY
neon sign Neon is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior ...

neon sign
. Completely vacant buildings can also attract
crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...

crime
. A 2017 study found that demolishing vacant buildings "reduce crime by about 8 percent on the block group in question and 5 percent on nearby block groups". Occupancy can also refer to the number of persons using an undivided space, such as a
meeting room A small conference room in Playa Vista, Los Angeles in May 2006. A conference hall, conference room, or meeting room is a room In a building, a room is any space Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events ...
,
ballroom Image:Catherine Palace ballroom.jpg, An opulent ballroom at the Catherine Palace near St. Petersburg, Russia A ballroom or ballhall is a large room (architecture), room inside a building, the primary purpose of which is holding large formal par ...

ballroom
,
auditorium An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances. For movie theatre . The picture the projector is displaying is the 1997 Universal Pictures Universal Pictures (legally Universal City Studios LLC, also ...

auditorium
, or
stadium A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow spectators to st ...

stadium
. As with building codes, fire protection authorities often set a limit on the number of people that can occupy a space at one time. These limits are established primarily to allow all occupants safe passage through
exit Exit(s) may refer to: Architecture and engineering * Door * Portal (architecture), an opening in the walls of a structure * Emergency exit * Overwing exit, a type of emergency exit on an airplane * Exit ramp, a feature of a road interchange (road ...

exit
s, but can also be employed to preserve the
integrity Integrity is the practice of being honest and showing a consistent and uncompromising adherence to strong moral and ethical principles and values. In ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, def ...

integrity
of a
structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. ...

structure
. An
occupancy sensor An occupancy sensor is an indoor motion detecting device used to detect the presence of a person to automatically control lights or temperature or ventilation systems. The sensors use infrared Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is ...
is a device that can tell if someone is in a room, and is often used in
home automation Home automation or domotics is building automation Building automation is the automatic centralized control of a building's HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), electrical, lighting Lighting or illumination is the d ...
and
security system A security alarm is a system designed to detect intrusion, such as unauthorized entry, into a building or other areas such as a home or school. Security alarms used in residential, commercial, industrial, and military properties protect against ...
s. These are typically more advanced than
motion sensor A motion detector is an electrical device that utilizes a sensor to detect nearby motion. Such a device is often integrated as a component of a system that automatically performs a task or alerts a user of motion in an area. They form a vital compo ...
s, which can only detect
motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its position (mathematics), position over time. Motion is mathematically described in terms of Displacem ...
.


Other meanings

In
transport engineering Transportation engineering or transport engineering is the application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide for th ...
, occupancy can refer to: #The number of
passenger A passenger (also abbreviated as pax) is a person who travels in a vehicle but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination or otherwise operate the vehicle. The vehicles may be bicycl ...

passenger
s occupying a
vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine A molecular machine, nanite, or ...

vehicle
#The percentage of time in which a
detector In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. A sensor is alway ...

detector
is occupied by a vehicle #The average number of particles occupying a state In
football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called ''football'' include (known as ''soccer'' ...
, occupancy can refer to: #A team that does not currently have a manager, a president, or a home stadium


See also

*
Building code A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, u ...
*
Construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

Construction
*
Fire protection Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, suppression and investigation of fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxid ...
*
Fire-resistance rating A fire-resistance rating typically means the duration for which a passive fire protection Passive fire protection (PFP) is components or systems of a building or structure that slows or impedes the spread the effects of fire or smoke without sys ...
*
Fireproofing Fireproofing is rendering something (structures A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act accor ...

Fireproofing
*
Firestop A firestop or fire-stopping is a form of passive fire protection Passive fire protection (PFP) is components or systems of a building or structure that slows or impedes the spread the effects of fire or smoke without system activation, and usually ...
*
List of human habitation forms This is a list of house types. Houses can be built in a large variety of configurations. A basic division is between free-standing or single-family detached homes and various types of attached or multi-family residential dwellings. Both may vary ...
*
Passive fire protection Passive fire protection (PFP) is components or systems of a building or structure that slows or impedes the spread the effects of fire or smoke without system activation, and usually without movement. Examples of passive systems include floor-ceil ...
* Penetrant


References

{{Real estate Fire protection