monument
   HOME

TheInfoList



A monument is a type of
structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A ...

structure
that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance. Some of the first monuments were
dolmen A dolmen () is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb A megalith is a large pre-historic stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. There are over 35,000 in Europe alone, lo ...

dolmen
s or
menhir Dry Tree menhir – a standing stone at Goonhilly Downs Cornwall">Goonhilly_Downs.html" ;"title="Dry Tree menhir – a standing stone at Goonhilly Downs">Dry Tree menhir – a standing stone at Goonhilly Downs Cornwall A menhir (from Britton ...

menhir
s, megalithic constructions built for religious or funerary purposes. Examples of monuments include statues, (war) memorials, historical buildings, archaeological sites, and cultural assets. If there is a public interest in its preservation, a monument can for example be listed as a UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
.


Etymology

The origin of the word "monument" comes from the Greek ''mnemosynon'' and the Latin ''moneo'', ''monere'', which means 'to remind', 'to advise' or 'to warn', suggesting a monument allows us to see the past thus helping us visualize what is to come in the future. In
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
the word "monumental" is often used in reference to something of extraordinary size and power, as in
monumental sculpture The term monumental sculpture is often used in art history and Art criticism, criticism, but not always consistently. It combines two concepts, one of function, and one of size, and may include an element of a third more subjective concept. It is ...

monumental sculpture
, but also to mean simply anything made to commemorate the dead, as a
funerary monument Funerary art is any work of art forming, or placed in, a repository for the remains of the death, dead. The term encompasses a wide variety of forms, including cenotaphs ("empty tombs"), tomb-like monuments which do not contain human remains, a ...

funerary monument
or other example of
funerary art , d. 1450 File:Istanbul - Süleymaniye camii - Türbe di Roxellana - Foto G. Dall'Orto 28-5-2006.jpg, upright=1.4, Türbe of Roxelana (d. 1558), Süleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul Funerary art is any work of art forming, or placed in, a repository for ...
.


Creation and functions

Monuments have been created for thousands of years, and they are often the most durable and famous symbols of ancient civilizations. Prehistoric
tumuli File:Gamla uppsala.jpg, The Royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala in Sweden from the 5th and 6th centuries originally the site had 2,000 to 3,000 tumuli, but due to quarrying and agriculture only 250 remain. A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of Soi ...

tumuli
,
dolmen A dolmen () is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb A megalith is a large pre-historic stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. There are over 35,000 in Europe alone, lo ...

dolmen
s, and similar structures have been created in a large number of prehistoric cultures across the world, and the many forms of monumental tombs of the more wealthy and powerful members of a society are often the source of much of our information and art from those cultures. As societies became organized on a larger scale, so monuments so large as to be difficult to destroy like the
Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture with thousands of years of r ...

Egyptian
Pyramid A pyramid (from el, πυραμίς ') is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act ...

Pyramid
s, the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
Parthenon The Parthenon (; grc, Παρθενών, , ; ell, Παρθενώνας, , ) is a former temple A temple (from the Latin ) is a building reserved for spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. Religions which erect te ...

Parthenon
, the
Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typica ...

Great Wall of China
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on the south, the on the southwest, and the on the southeast, it shares land borders wit ...

India
n
Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal (; , ), is an ivory-white marble mausoleum A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A monument without th ...

Taj Mahal
or the
Moai Moai or moʻai ( es, moái, rap, moʻai, meaning "statue" in Rapa Nui Easter Island ( rap, Rapa Nui; es, Isla de Pascua) is an island and special territory of Chile Chile (, ; ), officially the Republic of Chile (), is a count ...

Moai
of
Easter Island Easter Island ( rap, Rapa Nui; es, Isla de Pascua) is an island and special territory of Chile in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania. The island is most famous for its nearly ...

Easter Island
have become symbols of their civilizations. In more recent times, monumental structures such as the
Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty (''Liberty Enlightening the World''; French: ''La Liberté éclairant le monde'') is a List of colossal sculpture in situ, colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the Un ...

Statue of Liberty
and
Eiffel Tower The Eiffel Tower ( ; french: links=yes, tour Eiffel ) is a on the in , France. It is named after the engineer , whose company designed and built the tower. Locally nicknamed "''La dame de fer''" (French for "Iron Lady"), it was const ...

Eiffel Tower
have become iconic emblems of modern nation-states. The term ''monumentality'' relates to the symbolic status and physical presence of a monument. In this context, German art historian Helmut Scharf states that “A monument exists in the form of an object and also as symbol thereof. As a language symbol, a monument usually refers to something concrete, in some rare cases it is also used metaphorically .... A monument can be a language symbol for a unity of several monuments ... or only for a single one, but in a broader sense it can also be used in nearly all knowable planes of being. ... What is considered a monument always depends on the importance it attributes to the prevailing or traditional consciousness of a specific historical and social situation.” Basically, the definition framework of the term monument depends on the current historical frame conditions. Aspects of the Culture of Remembrance and cultural memory are also linked to it, as well as questions about the concepts of public sphere and durability (of the one memorized) and the form and content of the monument (work-like monument). From an art historical point of view, the dichotomy of content and form opens up the problem of the “linguistic ability” of the monument. It becomes clear that language is an eminent part of a monument and it is often represented in “non-objective” or “architectural monuments”, at least with a plaque. In this connection, the debate touches on the social mechanisms that combine with Remembrance. These are acceptance of the monument as an object, the conveyed contents and the impact of these contents. Monuments are frequently used to improve the appearance of a city or location. Planned cities such as
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
,
New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the Capital city, capital of India and a part of the NCT Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is the seat of all three branches of the government of India, hosting the Rashtrapati Bhavan, Pa ...

New Delhi
and
Brasília Brasília (; ) is the of and seat of of the . The city is located at the top of the in the country's region. It was founded by President on April 21, 1960, to serve as the new national capital. Brasilia is estimated to be Brazil's . Among ...

Brasília
are often built around monuments. For example, the
Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped park within the National Mall and Memorial Parks, an official unit of the National Park Service#National Park System, Un ...

Washington Monument
's location was conceived by
L'EnfantL'Enfant could refer to: * L'Enfant (film), ''L'Enfant'' (film), a 2005 Belgian film * L'Enfant (poster), a noted 1987 photographic poster * Pierre Charles L'Enfant, an architect and civil engineer credited with planning the city of Washington, D.C. ...

L'Enfant
to help organize public space in the city, before it was designed or constructed. Older cities have monuments placed at locations that are already important or are sometimes redesigned to focus on one. As Shelley suggested in his famous poem "
Ozymandias "Ozymandias" ( ) is a sonnet written by the English Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822). It was first published in the 11 January 1818 issue of '' The Examiner'' of London. The poem was included the following year in Shelley's c ...

Ozymandias
" ("''Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!''"), the purpose of monuments is very often to impress or awe. Structures created for other purposes that have been made notable by their age, size or historic significance may also be regarded as monuments. This can happen because of great age and size, as in the case of the
Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typica ...

Great Wall of China
, or because an event of great importance occurred there such as the village of
Oradour-sur-Glane Oradour-sur-Glane ( oc, Orador de Glana) is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, ...

Oradour-sur-Glane
in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
. Many countries use
Ancient monument In British law, an ancient monument is an early historical structure or monument (e.g. an archaeological site) worthy of preservation and study due to archaeological or heritage interest. The term differs from the American term " national monu ...

Ancient monument
or similar terms for the official designation of protected structures or
archeological site An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also kno ...

archeological site
s which may originally have been ordinary domestic houses or other buildings. Monuments are also often designed to convey historical or political information, and they can thus develop an active socio-political potency. They can be used to reinforce the primacy of contemporary political power, such as the
column of Trajan Trajan's Column ( it, Colonna Traiana, la, COLVMNA·TRAIANI) is a Roman triumphal column in Rome, Italy, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Trajan's Dacian Wars, Dacian Wars. It was probably constructed under the supervision ...

column of Trajan
or the numerous statues of
Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of th ...

Lenin
in the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. They can be used to educate the populace about important events or figures from the past, such as in the renaming of the old General Post Office Building in New York City to the James A. Farley Building, after
James Farley James Aloysius Farley (May 30, 1888 – June 9, 1976) was an American politician from New York. A member of the Democratic Party, he was one of the first Irish Catholic politicians in American history to achieve success on a national level. He ...
, former
Postmaster General of the United States The United States postmaster general (PMG) is the chief executive officer of the United States Postal Service (USPS). The postmaster general is responsible for managing and directing the day-to-day operations of the Postal Service. The postmaste ...
. To fulfill its informative and educative functions a monument needs to be open to the public, which means that its spatial dimension, as well as its content can be experienced by the public, and be sustainable. The former may be achieved either by situating the monument in public space or by a public discussion about the monument and its meaning, the latter by the materiality of the monument or if its content immediately becomes part of the collective or cultural memory. The social meanings of monuments are rarely fixed and certain and are frequently 'contested' by different social groups. As an example: whilst the former East German socialist state may have seen the Berlin Wall as a means of 'protection' from the ideological impurity of the west, dissidents and others would often argue that it was symbolic of the inherent repression and paranoia of that state. This contention of meaning is a central theme of modern 'post processual' archaeological discourse.


Loss and destruction

While many ancient monuments still exist today, there are notable incidents of monuments being intentionally or accidentally destroyed and many monuments are likely to have disappeared through the passage of time and natural forces such as erosion. In 772 during the
Saxon Wars#REDIRECT Saxon Wars The Saxon Wars were the campaigns and insurrections of the thirty-three years from 772, when Charlemagne Charlemagne (; ) or Charles the Great or ''Carolus'', whence in English or in German (for this individual, spec ...
,
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (fro ...

Charlemagne
intentionally destroyed an
Irminsul An Irminsul (Old Saxon 'great pillar') was a sacred Column, pillar-like object attested as playing an important role in the Germanic paganism of the Saxons. Medieval sources describe how an Irminsul was destroyed by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars ...

Irminsul
monument in order to desecrate the pagan religion. In 1687 the
Parthenon The Parthenon (; grc, Παρθενών, , ; ell, Παρθενώνας, , ) is a former temple A temple (from the Latin ) is a building reserved for spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. Religions which erect te ...

Parthenon
in
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 rect 15 475 485 874 rect 500 475 ...

Athens
was partially destroyed and looted by a Venetian soldier who shot a reserve of gunpowder stored there. A recent archeological dig in central
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
uncovered the remains of a
Megalithic A megalith is a large stone A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rocks form t ...

Megalithic
monument that had been previously destroyed "Like some monuments, including Belz in
Morbihan Morbihan (; ; br, Mor-Bihan, ) is a departments of France, department in the Regions of France, administrative region of Brittany (administrative region), Brittany, situated in the northwest of France. It is named after the Gulf of Morbihan, Morbi ...

Morbihan
, the menhirs of
Veyre-Monton
Veyre-Monton
were knocked down in order to make them disappear from the landscape. Pushed into large pits, sometimes mutilated or covered with earth, these monoliths have been destroyed. 'object of iconoclastic gestures, a sort of condemnation perhaps linked to some change of community or beliefs "


Protection and preservation

The term is often used to describe any structure that is a significant and legally protected historic work, and many countries have equivalents of what is called in
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
legislation a
Scheduled Monument In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to ...
, which often include relatively recent buildings constructed for residential or industrial purposes, with no thought at the time that they would come to be regarded as "monuments". Until recently, it was customary for
archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological, ...

archaeologist
s to study large monuments and pay less attention to the everyday lives of the societies that created them. New ideas about what constitutes the
archaeological record The archaeological record is the body of physical (Recorded history, not written) scientific evidence, evidence about the past. It is one of the core concepts in archaeology, the academic discipline concerned with documenting and interpreting the ar ...
have revealed that certain legislative and theoretical approaches to the subject are too focused on earlier definitions of monuments. An example has been the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
's
Scheduled Ancient Monument In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to ...
laws. Other than municipal or national government that protecting the monuments in their jurisdiction, there are institutions dedicated on the efforts to protect and preserve monuments that considered to possess special natural or cultural significance for the world, such as
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
's
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
programme and
World Monuments Fund World Monuments Fund (WMF) is a private, international, non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a c ...
. Cultural monuments are also considered to be the memory of a community and are therefore particularly at risk in the context of modern asymmetrical warfare. The enemy's cultural heritage is to be sustainably damaged or even destroyed. In addition to the national protection of cultural monuments, international organizations (cf.
UNESCO World Heritage A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...

UNESCO World Heritage
,
Blue Shield International The Blue Shield, formerly the International Committee of the Blue Shield, is an international organization founded in 1996 to protect the world's cultural heritage from threats such as armed conflict and natural disasters. Originally intended as ...
) therefore try to protect cultural monuments. Recently, more and more monuments are being preserved digitally (in 3D models) through organisations as
CyArk CyArk is a 501(c)(3) A 501(c)(3) organization is a corporation, trust, unincorporated association, or other type of organization exempt from federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) of Title 26 of the United States Code. It is one of the 29 type ...
.


Types

* Benchmarks placed by a government agency or private survey firm. *
Building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a w ...

Building
s designed as
landmark A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.Bowditch, 2003:7 ...

landmark
s, usually built with an extraordinary feature, such being designed as the tallest, largest, or most distinctive design, e.g., the
Burj Khalifa The Burj Khalifa ( ar, برج خليفة, ; pronounced , literally "Khalifa Tower" in English), known as the Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration in 2010, is a skyscraper in , . With a total height of 829.8 m (2,722 ft, just over half a mi ...
in Dubai, the world's tallest structure or the
One World Trade Center One World Trade Center (also known as One World Trade, One WTC, and formerly Freedom Tower) is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center (2001–present), World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. One WTC is the L ...

One World Trade Center
, the
tallest building in the United States The world's Early skyscrapers, first skyscraper was built in Chicago in 1885. Since then, the United States has been home to some of the world's tallest skyscrapers. New York City, specifically the borough of Manhattan, notably has the talle ...
, built to memorialize the attack on September 11. *
Cenotaph A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been reinterred elsewhere. Although the vast majority of cenot ...

Cenotaph
s (intended to honour the dead who are buried elsewhere) and other
memorial A memorial is an object which serves as a focus for the memory or the commemoration of something, usually an influential, deceased person or a historical, tragic event. Popular forms of memorials include landmark objects or works of art such a ...

memorial
s to commemorate the dead, usually war casualties, e.g.,
India Gate The India Gate (formerly known as the All India War Memorial) is a war memorial located astride the Rajpath Rajpath (formerly known as Kingsway) is a ceremonial boulevard A boulevard ( French, originally meaning bastion, abbre ...

India Gate
and
Vimy Ridge Memorial french: À la vaillance de ses fils pendant la Grande Guerre et en mémoire de ses soixante mille morts, le peuple canadien a élevé ce monument. , source = , embedded = The Canadian National Vimy Memorial is a war memorial site in F ...
, or disaster casualties, such as the ''Titanic'' Memorial, Belfast. * Church monuments to commemorate the faithful dead, located above or near their grave, often featuring an effigy, e.g., St. Peter's Basilica or the medieval church Santa Maria di Collemaggio, Sta Maria di Collemaggio in L'Aquila. * Columns, often topped with a statue, e.g., Berlin Victory Column, Nelson's Column in London, and Trajan's Column in Rome. * Eternal flames that are kept burning continuously, usually lit to honor unknown soldiers, e.g., at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Moscow), Tomb of Unknown Soldier in Moscow or at the John F. Kennedy gravesite in Virginia's Arlington National Cemetery. * Fountains, water-pouring structures usually placed in formal gardens or town squares, e.g., Fontaines de la Concorde and Gardens of Versailles. * Headstone, Gravestones, small monuments to the deceased, placed at their gravesites, e.g., the tombs and vaults of veterans in Les Invalides and Srebrenica Genocide Memorial. * Mausoleums and tombs to honor the dead, e.g., the Great Pyramid of Giza, Libyco-Punic Mausoleum of Dougga and
Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal (; , ), is an ivory-white marble mausoleum A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A monument without th ...

Taj Mahal
. * Monoliths erected for religious or commemorative purposes, e.g., Stonehenge. * Mosques, Mosque Monuments, places of worship that generally have domes and minarets that stand out against the skyline. They also usually feature highly skilled Islamic calligraphy and geometric artwork, e.g., the Mosque of the Prophet. * Mounds erected to commemorate great leaders or events, e.g., Kościuszko Mound. * Obelisks, usually erected to commemorate great leaders, e.g., Cleopatra's Needle (London), Cleopatra's Needle in London, the National Monument (Indonesia), National Monument ("Monas") in Central Jakarta, and the
Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped park within the National Mall and Memorial Parks, an official unit of the National Park Service#National Park System, Un ...

Washington Monument
in Washington, D.C. * Palaces, imposing royal residences designed to impress people with their grandeur and greatness, e.g., Forbidden City in Beijing, Palace of Versailles, and Schwerin Palace in Schwerin. * Searchlights to project a powerful beam of light, e.g., ''Tribute in Light'' in the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, commemorating the September 11 attacks of 2001. * Statues of famous individuals or symbols, e.g., the Niederwalddenkmal (''Germania'') in Hesse, ''Liberty Enlightening the World'' (commonly known as the
Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty (''Liberty Enlightening the World''; French: ''La Liberté éclairant le monde'') is a List of colossal sculpture in situ, colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the Un ...

Statue of Liberty
) in New York City, and ''The Motherland Calls'' in Volgograd. * Temples or religious structures built for pilgrimage, ritual or commemorative purposes, e.g., Borobudur in Magelang and Kaaba in Mecca. * Terminating Vistas, layout design for urban monuments on the end of an avenue, e.g., Opera Garnier in Paris. * Triumphal arches, almost always to commemorate military successes, e.g., the Arch of Constantine in Rome and Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile in Paris. * War memorials, e.g., the Marine Corps War Memorial, Iwo Jima Memorial in Arlington, VA, the Laboe Naval Memorial, the Lorraine American Cemetery and Memorial in St Avold, and the Soviet War Memorial (Treptower Park), Soviet War Memorial in Berlin.


Examples of notable monuments

File:Memorial a Victoria, Londres, Inglaterra, 2014-08-07, DD 008.JPG, Victoria Memorial, London, Victoria monument in London, a memorial to Queen Victoria of the British Empire File:Statue of Berehynia.jpg, Independence Monument, Kiev, Independence Monument in Kyiv commemorate the Independence of Ukraine File:Columna de la Independencia de Mêxico.JPG, El Ángel national monument built to commemorate the independence of Mexico File:Statue of liberty 01.jpg, The
Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty (''Liberty Enlightening the World''; French: ''La Liberté éclairant le monde'') is a List of colossal sculpture in situ, colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the Un ...

Statue of Liberty
(''Liberty Enlightening the World''), the symbol of the United States' freedom File:Aerial view of the Statue of Christ the Redeemer.jpg, ''Christ the Redeemer (statue), Christ the Redeemer'', a modern religious monument in Brazil File:Martyrs Memorial. Algiers, Algeria.jpg, The Martyrs' Memorial, Algiers, Maqam Echahid, in Algiers, iconic concrete monument commemorating the Algerian War, Algerian war for independence File:Eiffel Tower Day Sept. 2005 (10).jpg, The
Eiffel Tower The Eiffel Tower ( ; french: links=yes, tour Eiffel ) is a on the in , France. It is named after the engineer , whose company designed and built the tower. Locally nicknamed "''La dame de fer''" (French for "Iron Lady"), it was const ...

Eiffel Tower
, in Paris, a monument commemorating the French Revolution for its centenary File:Merdeka Square Monas.JPG, National Monument (Indonesia), Monas in Jakarta, commemorates the Indonesian National Revolution, Indonesian struggle for independence File:میدان آزادی، میدان شهیاد، برج آزادی، برج شهیاد، تهران Azadi Tower, Azadi Square, Meydea-e Azadi, Meydan-e Shahyad, Tehran province, Iran Flag colors - panoramio.jpg, Azadi tower in Tehran, commemorates the 2,500 years of the Persian Empire and the history of Iran File:Braniborská brána.jpg, Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, national symbol of Germany and its German reunification, unity File:Lenin's mausoleum 2.jpg, Lenin mausoleum in Moscow, an enduring symbol of
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
Communism and Cold War File: Chiang Kai-shek memorial amk.jpg, The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Chiang Kai-shek Memorial in Taipei is a monument to honour Chiang Kai-shek Catedral de Santiago de Compostela agosto 2018 (cropped).jpg, The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela where James, son of Zebedee, Saint James is buried File:Krakow 2006 195.jpg, Kościuszko Mound, Poland commemorates Tadeusz Kościuszko File: Alexander Graham Bell Brantford Monument 0.98.jpg, The Bell Telephone Memorial, commemorates the invention of the telephone, Brantford, Ontario File:HiroshimaCenotaphDome7016.jpg, The Hiroshima Hiroshima Peace Memorial, Cenotaph and Atomic Bomb Dome to remember the victims of Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, August 6, 1945 atomic bombing


See also

* Antiquities Act * English Heritage Archive, holds data on England's monuments * Memorial * Monumental sculpture * National memorial * National monument


References


Further reading

* * * * * * Judith Dupre. ''Monuments: America's History in Art and Memory'' (2007). Random House.


External links


Website of Monuments and Sculptures in UK



Pictures and Articles of Monuments from around the world

Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina
{{Authority control Monuments and memorials,