mineral deposit
   HOME

TheInfoList



OR:

Ore is natural rock or
sediment Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently sediment transport, transported by the action of wind, water, or ice or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. ...
that contains one or more valuable
mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. Rafferty, ed. (2 ...
s, typically containing
metal A metal (from ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electrical resistivity and conductivity, e ...
s, that can be mined, treated and sold at a profit.Encyclopædia Britannica. "Ore". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 7 April 2021Neuendorf, K.K.E., Mehl, J.P., Jr., and Jackson, J.A., eds., 2011, Glossary of Geology: American Geological Institute, 799 p. Ore is extracted from the earth through
mining Mining is the Extractivism, extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein (geology), vein, coal mining, seam, quartz reef mining, reef, or placer deposit. The exploitation of ...
and treated or refined, often via
smelting Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore, to extract a base metal. It is a form of extractive metallurgy. It is used to extract many metals from their ores, including Silver mining#Ore processing, silver, iron-making, iron, copper extracti ...
, to extract the valuable metals or minerals. The ''grade'' of ore refers to the concentration of the desired material it contains. The value of the metals or minerals a rock contains must be weighed against the cost of extraction to determine whether it is of sufficiently high grade to be worth mining, and is therefore considered an ore. Minerals of interest are generally
oxides An oxide () is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other chemical element, element in its chemical formula. "Oxide" itself is the dianion of oxygen, an O2– (molecular) ion. with oxygen in the oxidation state of ...
,
sulfides Sulfide (British English also sulphide) is an inorganic chemistry, inorganic ion, anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions. Solutions of sulfide salts are corrosive. ''Sulfide'' also refers ...
, silicates, or
native metal A native metal is any metal that is found pure in its metallic form in nature. Metals that can be found as native element mineral, native deposits singly or in alloys include aluminium, antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, indiu ...
s such as
copper Copper is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cu (from la, cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductility, ductile metal with very high thermal conductivity, thermal and electrical conductivity. A fre ...
or
gold Gold is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Au (from la, aurum) and atomic number 79. This makes it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. It is a Brightness, bright, slightly orange-yellow, dense, s ...
. Ores must be processed to extract the elements of interest from the waste rock. Ore bodies are formed by a variety of
geological Geology () is a branch of natural science concerned with Earth and other Astronomical object, astronomical objects, the features or rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Modern geology ...
processes generally referred to as
ore genesis Various theories of ore genesis explain how the various types of mineral deposits form within Earth's crust. Ore-genesis theories vary depending on the mineral or commodity examined. Ore-genesis theories generally involve three components: sour ...
.


Ore, gangue, ore minerals, gangue minerals

In most cases, an ore does not consist entirely of a single ore mineral but it is mixed with other valuable minerals and with unwanted or valueless rocks and minerals. The part of an ore that is not economically desirable and that can not be avoided in mining is known as
gangue In mining, gangue () is the commercially worthless material that surrounds, or is closely mixed with, a wanted mineral in an ore deposit. It is thus distinct from overburden, which is the waste rock or materials overlying an ore or mineral body t ...
. The valuable ore minerals are separated from the gangue minerals by
froth flotation Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating hydrophobic materials from hydrophilic. This is used in mineral processing, paper recycling and waste-water treatment industries. Historically this was first used in the mining industry, wher ...
, gravity concentration, and other operations known collectively as
mineral processing In the field of extractive metallurgy, mineral processing, also known as ore dressing, is the process of separating commercially valuable minerals from their ores. History Before the advent of heavy machinery the raw ore was broken up using ...
or
ore dressing In the field of extractive metallurgy, mineral processing, also known as ore dressing, is the process of separating commercially valuable minerals from their ores. History Before the advent of heavy machinery the raw ore was broken up using ...
.


Ore deposits

An ore deposit is an economically significant accumulation of minerals within a host rock. This is distinct from a mineral resource as defined by the mineral resource classification criteria. An ore deposit is one occurrence of a particular ore type. Most ore deposits are named according to their location, or after a discoverer (e.g. the Kambalda nickel shoots are named after drillers), or after some whimsy, a historical figure, a prominent person, a city or town from which the owner came, something from mythology (such as the name of a god or goddess) or the code name of the resource company which found it (e.g. MKD-5 was the in-house name for the Mount Keith nickel sulphide deposit).


Classification

Ore deposits are classified according to various criteria developed via the study of economic geology, or
ore genesis Various theories of ore genesis explain how the various types of mineral deposits form within Earth's crust. Ore-genesis theories vary depending on the mineral or commodity examined. Ore-genesis theories generally involve three components: sour ...
. The classifications below are typical.


Hydrothermal epigenetic deposits

* ''Mesothermal''
lode In geology, a lode is a deposit of wikt:metalliferous, metalliferous ore that fills or is embedded in a fissure (or crack) in a rock (geology), rock formation or a vein (geology), vein of ore that is deposited or embedded between layers of rock. ...
gold deposits, typified by the Golden Mile,
Kalgoorlie Kalgoorlie is a city in the Goldfields–Esperance region of Western Australia, located east-northeast of Perth at the end of the Great Eastern Highway. It is sometimes referred to as Kalgoorlie–Boulder, as the surrounding urban area include ...
* Archaean conglomerate hosted gold-uranium deposits, typified by those at
Elliot Lake Elliot Lake is a city in Algoma District, Ontario, Canada. It is north of Lake Huron, midway between the cities of Greater Sudbury, Sudbury and Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Sault Ste. Marie in the Northern Ontario region. Once dubbed the "uranium ca ...
, Ontario, Canada and
Witwatersrand The Witwatersrand () (locally the Rand or, less commonly, the Reef) is a , north-facing Escarpment, scarp in South Africa. It consists of a hard, erosion-resistant quartzite metamorphic rock, over which several north-flowing rivers form waterfa ...
,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by of coastline that stretch along the Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the ...
* Carlin–type gold deposits, including; * ''Epithermal'' stockwork vein deposits


Granite related hydrothermal

* IOCG or iron oxide copper gold deposits, typified by the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit *
Porphyry copper Porphyry copper deposits are copper ore bodies that are formed from hydrothermal circulation, hydrothermal fluids that originate from a voluminous magma chamber several kilometers below the deposit itself. Predating or associated with those flui ...
+/- gold +/- molybdenum +/- silver deposits * Intrusive-related copper-gold +/- (tin-tungsten), typified by the
Tombstone, Arizona Tombstone is a historic city in Cochise County, Arizona, Cochise County, Arizona, United States, founded in 1877 by Prospecting, prospector Ed Schieffelin in what was then Pima County, Arizona, Pima County, Arizona Territory. It became one of t ...
deposits * Hydromagmatic
magnetite Magnetite is a mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe2+Fe3+2O4. It is one of the iron oxide, oxides of iron, and is ferrimagnetism, ferrimagnetic; it is attracted to a magnet and can be magnetization, magnetized to be ...
iron ore deposits and skarns *
Skarn Skarns or tactites are hard, coarse-grained metamorphic rocks that form by a process called metasomatism. Skarns tend to be rich in calcium-magnesium-iron-manganese-aluminium silicate minerals, which are also referred to as calc-silicate minerals ...
ore deposits of copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, etcetera


Magmatic deposits

* Magmatic nickel-copper-iron-PGE deposits including ** Cumulate vanadiferous or platinum-bearing
magnetite Magnetite is a mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe2+Fe3+2O4. It is one of the iron oxide, oxides of iron, and is ferrimagnetism, ferrimagnetic; it is attracted to a magnet and can be magnetization, magnetized to be ...
or
chromite Chromite is a crystalline mineral composed primarily of iron(II) oxide and chromium(III) oxide compounds. It can be represented by the chemical formula of FeCr2O4. It is an oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group. The element magnesium can su ...
** Cumulate hard-rock titanium (
ilmenite Ilmenite is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula . It is a weakly magnetic black or steel-gray solid. Ilmenite is the most important ore of titanium and the main source of titanium dioxide, which is used in paints, printing ...
) deposits ** Komatiite hosted Ni-Cu-PGE deposits ** Subvolcanic feeder subtype, typified by Noril'sk-Talnakh and the Thompson Belt, Canada ** Intrusive-related Ni-Cu-PGE, typified by Voisey's Bay, Canada and Jinchuan, China *
Lateritic nickel ore deposits Lateritic nickel ore deposits are surficial, weathered rinds formed on ultramafic rocks. They account for 73% of the continental world nickel resources and will be in the future the dominant source for the mining of nickel. Genesis and types of ni ...
, examples include Goro and Acoje, (
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...
) and Ravensthorpe,
Western Australia Western Australia (commonly abbreviated as WA) is a state of Australia occupying the western percent of the land area of Australia excluding external territories. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Southern Ocean to th ...
.


Volcanic-related deposits

* Volcanic hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) Cu–Pb–Zn including; ** Examples include Teutonic Bore and Golden Grove, Western Australia *** Besshi type *** Kuroko type


Metamorphically reworked deposits

* Podiform serpentinite-hosted paramagmatic
iron oxide Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen. Several iron oxides are recognized. All are black magnetic solids. Often they are nonstoichiometric, non-stoichiometric. Oxyhydroxides are a related class of compounds, perhaps the ...
-
chromite Chromite is a crystalline mineral composed primarily of iron(II) oxide and chromium(III) oxide compounds. It can be represented by the chemical formula of FeCr2O4. It is an oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group. The element magnesium can su ...
deposits, typified by Savage River, Tasmania iron ore, Coobina chromite deposit * Broken Hill Type Pb–Zn–Ag, considered to be a class of reworked SEDEX deposits


Carbonatite-alkaline igneous related

* Phosphorus-
tantalite The mineral group tantalite iron, Fe, manganese, Mn)Tantalum, Ta2oxygen, O6is the primary source of the chemical element tantalum, a corrosion (heat and acid) resistant metal. It is chemically similar to ''columbite'', and the two are often ...
-
vermiculite Vermiculite is a hydrous phyllosilicate mineral which undergoes significant expansion when heated. Exfoliation occurs when the mineral is heated sufficiently, and commercial furnaces can routinely produce this effect. Vermiculite forms by the ...
( Phalaborwa
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by of coastline that stretch along the Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the ...
) *
Rare-earth elements The rare-earth elements (REE), also called the rare-earth metals or (in context) rare-earth oxides or sometimes the lanthanides (yttrium and scandium are usually included as rare earths), are a set of 17 nearly-indistinguishable lustrous silve ...
 – Mount Weld,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of , Australia is the largest country by ...
and Bayan Obo,
Mongolia Mongolia; Mongolian script: , , ; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia" () is a landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia border, to the north and China China–Mongolia border, to the s ...
*
Diatreme A diatreme, sometimes known as a maar-diatreme volcano, is a volcanic pipe formed by a gaseous explosion. When magma rises up through a crack in Earth's crust and makes contact with a shallow body of groundwater, rapid expansion of heated water ...
hosted diamond in
kimberlite Kimberlite is an igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The three types of rocks, rock types, the others being Sedimentary rock, sedimentary and metamorphi ...
,
lamproite Lamproite is an ultrapotassic igneous rocks, ultrapotassic earth's mantle, mantle-derived volcanic rock, volcanic or subvolcanic rock. It has low Calcium oxide, CaO, Aluminium oxide, Al2O3, Sodium oxide, Na2O, high K2O/Al2O3, a relatively high Mag ...
or
lamprophyre Lamprophyres () are uncommon, small-volume ultrapotassic igneous rocks primarily occurring as dikes, lopoliths, laccolith A laccolith is a body of intrusive rock with a dome-shaped upper surface and a level base, fed by a conduit from b ...


Sedimentary deposits

*
Banded iron formation Banded iron formations (also known as banded ironstone formations or BIFs) are distinctive units of sedimentary rock consisting of alternating layers of iron oxides and iron-poor chert. They can be up to several hundred meters in thickness a ...
iron ore Iron ores are rock (geology), rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red. The iron is usually ...
deposits, including ** Channel-iron deposits or pisolite type iron ore * Heavy mineral sands ore deposits and other
sand dune A dune is a landform composed of wind- or water-driven sand. It typically takes the form of a mound, ridge, or hill. An area with dunes is called a dune system or a dune complex. A large dune complex is called a dune field, while broad, fl ...
hosted deposits *
Alluvial Alluvium (from Latin ''alluvius'', from ''alluere'' 'to wash against') is loose clay, silt, sand, or gravel that has been deposited by running water in a stream bed, on a floodplain, in an alluvial fan or beach, or in similar settings. Alluv ...
gold, diamond, tin, platinum or
black sand Black sand is sand that is black in color. One type of black sand is a heavy, glossy, partly magnetic mixture of usually fine sands containing minerals such as magnetite, found as part of a placer deposit. Another type of black sand, found on b ...
deposits * Alluvial oxide zinc deposit type: sole example Skorpion Zinc


Hydrothermal deposits formed largely from basinal brines

Hydrothermal deposits formed by basinal saline fluids, include the following main groups:Arndt, N. and others (2017) Future mineral resources, Chap. 2, Formation of mineral resources
Geochemical Perspectives, v6-1, p. 18-51
* Clastic hosted or SEDEX
Lead Lead is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Pb (from the Latin ) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metals, heavy metal that is density, denser than most common materials. Lead is Mohs scale of mineral hardness#Intermediate ...
-
zinc Zinc is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Zn and atomic number 30. Zinc is a slightly brittle metal at room temperature and has a shiny-greyish appearance when oxidation is removed. It is the first element in group 12 eleme ...
-
silver Silver is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Ag (from the Latin ', derived from the Proto-Indo-European wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/h₂erǵ-, ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47. A soft, whi ...
deposits. They are typified, among others, by Red Dog, McArthur River,
Mount Isa Mount Isa ( ) is a city in the Gulf Country region of Queensland, Australia. It came into existence because of the vast mineral deposits found in the area. Mount Isa Mines (MIM) is one of the most productive single mines in world history, base ...
, Rammelsberg.Leach, D. and others (2010) Sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits in Earth history. Economic Geology, v. 105, p. 593-625. * Mississippi valley type (MVT) zinc-lead deposits * Sediment-hosted stratiform Cu-Co-(Ag) deposit, typified by the
Copperbelt The Copperbelt () is a natural region in Central Africa which sits on the border region between northern Zambia and the southern Democratic Republic of Congo. It is known for copper mining. Traditionally, the term ''Copperbelt'' includes the ...
of
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Africa, Central, Southern Africa, Southern and East Africa, although it is typically referred to as being in Southern Africa at its most cent ...
and DRC.Sillitoe, R.H., Perello, J., Creaser, R.A., Wilton, J., Wilson, A.J., and Dawborn, T., 2017, Reply to discussions of "Age of the Zambian Copperbelt" by Hitzman and Broughton and Muchez et al.:, p. 1–5, doi: 10.1007/s00126-017-0769-x.


Astrobleme-related ores

*
Sudbury Basin The Sudbury Basin (), also known as Sudbury Structure or the Sudbury Nickel Irruptive, is a major geology, geological structure in Ontario, Canada. It is the third-largest known impact crater or astrobleme on Earth, as well as one of the oldest ...
nickel and copper, Ontario, Canada


Extraction

The basic extraction of ore deposits follows these steps: #
Prospecting Prospecting is the first stage of the geological analysis (followed by Mining engineering#Pre-mining, exploration) of a territory. It is the search for minerals, fossils, precious metals, or mineral specimens. It is also known as fossicking. ...
or
exploration Exploration refers to the historical practice of discovering remote lands. It is studied by geographers and historians. Two major eras of exploration occurred in human history: one of convergence, and one of divergence. The first, covering most ...
to find and then define the extent and value of ore where it is located ("ore body"). # Conduct resource estimation to mathematically estimate the size and grade of the deposit. # Conduct a pre-feasibility study to determine the theoretical economics of the ore deposit. This identifies, early on, whether further investment in estimation and engineering studies is warranted and identifies key risks and areas for further work. # Conduct a
feasibility study A feasibility study is an assessment of the practicality of a project or system. A feasibility study aims to objectively and rationally uncover the strengths and weaknesses of an existing business or proposed venture, opportunities and threats pr ...
to evaluate the financial viability, technical and financial risks and robustness of the project and make a decision as whether to develop or walk away from a proposed mine project. This includes mine planning to evaluate the economically recoverable portion of the deposit, the
metallurgy Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science, materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic Chemical element, elements, their Inter-metallic alloy, inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which ...
and ore recoverability, marketability and payability of the ore concentrates, engineering, milling and infrastructure costs, finance and equity requirements and a cradle to grave analysis of the possible mine, from the initial excavation all the way through to reclamation. # Development of access to an ore body and building of mine plant and equipment. # The operation of the mine in an active sense. # Reclamation to make land where a mine had been suitable for future use.


Trade

Ores (metals) are traded internationally and comprise a sizeable portion of international trade in
raw material A raw material, also known as a feedstock, unprocessed material, or primary commodity, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished goods, energy, or intermediate materials that are feedstock for future finished products. As feed ...
s both in value and volume. This is because the worldwide distribution of ores is unequal and dislocated from locations of peak demand and from smelting infrastructure. Most base metals (copper, lead, zinc, nickel) are traded internationally on the
London Metal Exchange The London Metal Exchange (LME) is a futures and forwards exchange with the world's largest market in standarised forward contracts, futures contracts and options on base metals. The exchange also offers contracts on ferrous metals and precious ...
, with smaller stockpiles and metals exchanges monitored by the COMEX and
NYMEX The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is a commodity futures exchange owned and operated by CME Group of Chicago. NYMEX is located at One North End Avenue in Brookfield Place (New York City), Brookfield Place in the Battery Park City sectio ...
exchanges in the United States and the Shanghai Futures Exchange in China. Iron ore is traded between customer and producer, though various benchmark prices are set quarterly between the major mining conglomerates and the major consumers, and this sets the stage for smaller participants. Other, lesser, commodities do not have international clearing houses and benchmark prices, with most prices negotiated between suppliers and customers one-on-one. This generally makes determining the price of ores of this nature opaque and difficult. Such metals include
lithium Lithium (from el, λίθος, lithos, lit=stone) is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Under standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions, it ...
,
niobium Niobium is a chemical element with chemical symbol Nb (formerly columbium, Cb) and atomic number 41. It is a light grey, crystalline, and ductile transition metal. Pure niobium has a Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Mohs hardness rating similar ...
-
tantalum Tantalum is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Ta and atomic number 73. Previously known as ''tantalium'', it is named after Tantalus, a villain in Greek mythology. Tantalum is a very hard, ductility, ductile, lustre (mineral ...
,
bismuth Bismuth is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Bi and atomic number 83. It is a post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens, with chemical properties resembling its lighter group 15 siblings arsenic and antimony. Elemental ...
,
antimony Antimony is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Sb (from la, wiktionary:stibium#Latin, stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony ...
and
rare earths The rare-earth elements (REE), also called the rare-earth metals or (in context) rare-earth oxides or sometimes the lanthanides (yttrium and scandium are usually included as rare earths), are a set of 17 nearly-indistinguishable lustrous silve ...
. Most of these commodities are also dominated by one or two major suppliers with >60% of the world's reserves. The London Metal Exchange aims to add uranium to its list of metals on warrant. The
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans and Grant (money), grants to the governments of Least developed countries, low- and Developing country, middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital pro ...
reports that China was the top importer of ores and metals in 2005 followed by the US and Japan.


Important ore minerals

*
Acanthite Acanthite is a form of silver sulfide Silver sulfide is an inorganic compound In chemistry, an inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks carbon–hydrogen bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound. The stud ...
(cooled polymorph of
Argentite In mineralogy, argentite (from the Latin ''argentum'', silver) is Cubic crystal system, cubic silver sulfide (Ag2S), which can only exist at temperatures above 173 °C, 177 °C or 179 °C. When it cools to ordinary temperatures it ...
): Ag2S for production of
silver Silver is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Ag (from the Latin ', derived from the Proto-Indo-European wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/h₂erǵ-, ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47. A soft, whi ...
* Barite: BaSO4 * Bauxite Al(OH)3 and AlOOH, dried to Al2O3 for production of aluminium * Beryl: Be3Al2(SiO3)6 * Bornite: Cu5FeS4 * Cassiterite: SnO2 * Chalcocite: Cu2S for production of copper * Chalcopyrite: CuFeS2 * Chromite: (Fe, Mg)Cr2O4 for production of chromium * Cinnabar: HgS for production of mercury (element), mercury * Cobaltite: (Co, Fe)AsS * Columbite-Tantalite or Coltan: (Fe, Mn)(Nb, Ta)2O6 * Galena: PbS * Native gold: Au, typically associated with quartz or as placer mining, placer deposits * Hematite: Fe2O3 * Ilmenite: FeTiO3 * Magnetite: Fe3O4 * Malachite: Cu2CO3(OH)2 * Molybdenite: MoS2 * Pentlandite: (Fe, Ni)9S8 * Pollucite: * Pyrolusite: MnO2 * Scheelite: CaWO4 * Smithsonite: ZnCO3 * Sperrylite: PtAs2 for production of platinum * Sphalerite: ZnS * Uraninite (pitchblende): UO2 for production of metallic uranium * Wolframite: (Fe, Mn)WO4


See also

* Economic geology * Extractive metallurgy (ore processing) * Froth flotation#Science of flotation, Froth Flotation * Mineral resource classification * Ore genesis * Petrology


References


Further reading


DILL, H.G. (2010) ''The "chessboard" classification scheme of mineral deposits: Mineralogy and geology from aluminum to zirconium,'' Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 100, Issue 1-4, June 2010, Pages 1-420


External links

{{Authority control Economic geology Mining