metropolitan borough
   HOME

TheInfoList



OR:

A metropolitan borough (or metropolitan district) is a type of
local government district
local government district
in England. Created in 1974 by the
Local Government Act 1972 The Local Government Act 1972 (c. 70) is an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed local government in the United Kingdom, local government in England and Wales on 1 April 1974. It was one of the most sig ...
, metropolitan boroughs are defined in
English law English law is the common law list of national legal systems, legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly English criminal law, criminal law and Civil law (common law), civil law, each branch having its own Courts of England and Wales, ...
as metropolitan districts within metropolitan counties. All of the metropolitan districts have been granted or regranted
royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in Civil law (legal system), civil law ...

royal charter
s giving them borough status (and in some cases, they also have
city status City status is a symbolic and legal designation given by a national or subnational government. A municipality may receive city status because it already has the qualities of a city, or because it has some special purpose. Historically, city status ...
).Local Government Act 1972, Schedule I, Part I, Metropolitan Counties and Metropolitan Districts Metropolitan boroughs have been effectively
unitary authority A unitary authority is a local government, local authority responsible for all local government functions within its area or performing additional functions that elsewhere are usually performed by a higher level of sub-national government or the ...
areas since the abolition of metropolitan county councils by the Local Government Act 1985.Local Government Act 1985 c.51 Metropolitan boroughs pool much of their authority in joint boards and other arrangements that cover whole metropolitan counties, such as city regions or combined authorities, with most of the latter having a metro mayor.


History


London metropolitan boroughs (1900–1965)

The term "metropolitan borough" was first used for administrative subdivisions of the
County of London The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the general introduction of elected county government in England, by way of the Local Government A ...
between 1900 and 1965. There were 28 of these metropolitan boroughs, which were replaced by a new system of larger
London boroughs The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that together with the City of London make up the administrative area of Greater London; each is governed by a London borough council. The present London boroughs ...

London boroughs
in 1965, when the County of London was replaced by
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England#Greater London, administrative area in England governed by the Greater London Authority. It is organised into 33 Districts of England, local government districts: the ...

Greater London
.


Current metropolitan boroughs

The current metropolitan boroughs were created in 1974 as subdivisions of the new metropolitan counties, created to cover the six largest urban areas in England outside Greater London. The new districts replaced the previous system of
county borough County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control, similar to the Unitary authorities of England, unitary authorities created si ...
s,
municipal borough Municipal boroughs were a type of local government district which existed in England and Wales between 1835 and 1974, in Northern Ireland from 1840 to 1973 and in the Republic of Ireland from 1840 to 2002. Broadly similar structures existed in S ...
s, and urban and
rural district Rural districts were a type of local government area – now superseded – established at the end of the 19th century in England, Wales, and Ireland for the administration of predominantly rural areas at a level lower than that of the Ad ...
s. The districts typically have populations of 174,000 to 1.1 million. Metropolitan districts were originally parts of a two-tier structure of local government, and shared power with the metropolitan county councils. They differed from
non-metropolitan district Non-metropolitan districts, or colloquially "shire districts", are a type of local government district in England. As created, they are sub-divisions of non-metropolitan counties (colloquially ''shire counties'') in a two-tier arrangement. Non ...
s in the division of powers between district and county councils. Metropolitan districts were local education authorities, and were also responsible for social services and
libraries A library is a collection of Document, materials, books or media that are accessible for use and not just for display purposes. A library provides physical (hard copies) or electronic media, digital access (soft copies) materials, and may be a ...

libraries
, but in non-metropolitan counties these services were the responsibility of
county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries. Ireland The county councils created under British rule in 1899 continue to exist in Irela ...
s. In 1986, the metropolitan county councils were abolished under the Local Government Act 1985 and most of their functions were devolved to the metropolitan boroughs, making them, to a large extent, unitary authorities in all but name. At the same time, however, some of the functions of the abolished metropolitan county councils were taken over by joint bodies such as passenger transport authorities, and joint
fire Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material (the fuel) in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemistry), products. At a certain point in the combustion reaction, called the ignition ...
,
police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citize ...
and
waste disposal Waste management or waste disposal includes the processes and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the Waste collection, collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, togeth ...
authorities.


Metropolitan district councils

The metropolitan districts are administered by metropolitan district councils. They are the principal local authorities in the six metropolitan counties and are responsible for running most local services, such as schools, social services, waste collection, and roads. The 36 metropolitan boroughs are:


See also

*
Metropolitan boroughs of the County of London The term metropolitan borough was used from 1900 in the United Kingdom, 1900 to 1965 in the United Kingdom, 1965, for the subdivisions of the County of London and were created by the London Government Act 1899. History Parliamentary boroughs co ...
*
Borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, constituent state, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geo ...
*
Non-metropolitan district Non-metropolitan districts, or colloquially "shire districts", are a type of local government district in England. As created, they are sub-divisions of non-metropolitan counties (colloquially ''shire counties'') in a two-tier arrangement. Non ...
*
County borough County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control, similar to the Unitary authorities of England, unitary authorities created si ...
*
Subdivisions of England The subdivisions of England constitute a hierarchy of administrative divisions and non-administrative ceremonial areas. Overall, England is divided into Regions of England, nine regions and Ceremonial counties of England, 48 ceremonial countie ...
* ISO 3166-2:GB, subdivision codes for the United Kingdom * Political make-up of local councils


References


External links


Map of the UK counties and unitary administrations

Map of all UK local authorities
{{Terms for types of administrative territorial entities, state=collapsed * Districts of England established in 1974 Interested parties in planning in England Types of subdivision in the United Kingdom