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Loriini is a
tribe The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human social group. The predominant worldwide usage of the term in English language, English is in the discipline of anthropology. This definition is contested, in p ...
of small to medium-sized arboreal
parrot Parrots, also known as psittacines (), are birds of the roughly 398 species in 92 genus (biology), genera comprising the order (biology), order Psittaciformes (), found mostly in tropics, tropical and subtropics, subtropical regions. The order ...
s characterized by their specialized brush-tipped tongues for feeding on nectar of various blossoms and soft fruits, preferably berries. The species form a
monophyletic In cladistics for a group of organisms, monophyly is the condition of being a clade—that is, a group of taxa composed only of a common ancestor (or more precisely an ancestral population Population typically refers to the number of ...
group within the parrot family
Psittaculidae Psittaculidae is a family containing Old World parrots. It consists of five subfamilies: Agapornithinae, Loriinae Loriinae is a subfamily of Parrot, psittacine birds, one of the five subfamilies that make up the family Psittaculidae. It consis ...
. The group consists of the lories and lorikeets. Traditionally, they were considered a separate subfamily (Loriinae) from the other subfamily (
Psittacinae Psittacinae is a subfamily In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: ', plural ') is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family (biology), family but more inclusive than genus. Standard nomenclature rules end subfa ...
) based on the specialized characteristics, but recent molecular and morphological studies show that the group is positioned in the middle of various other groups. They are widely distributed throughout the Australasian region, including south-eastern Asia,
Polynesia Polynesia () "many" and νῆσος () "island"), to, Polinisia; mi, Porinihia; haw, Polenekia; fj, Polinisia; sm, Polenisia; rar, Porinetia; ty, Pōrīnetia; tvl, Polenisia; tkl, Polenihia (, ) is a subregion of Oceania, made up of ...
,
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (abbreviated PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country i ...
,
Timor Leste East Timor (), also known as Timor-Leste (), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, is an island country in Southeast Asia. It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the exclave of Oecusse on the island's north-wester ...
and Australia, and the majority have very brightly coloured plumage.


Etymology

The word "lory" comes from the
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language Malay (; ms, Bahasa Melayu, links=no, Jawi alphabet, Jawi: , Rejang script, Rencong: ) is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language that is an official language of Brunei, Indo ...
''lūri'', a name used for a number of species of colourful parrots. The name was used by the Dutch writer
Johan Nieuhof Johan Nieuhof (22 July 1618 in Uelsen – 8 October 1672 in Madagascar) was a Dutch traveler who wrote about his journeys to Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest c ...
in 1682 in a book describing his travels in the
East Indies The East Indies (or simply the Indies), is a term used in historical narratives of the Age of Discovery. The Indies refers to various lands in East (disambiguation)#Geography, the East or the Eastern hemisphere, particularly the islands and ...
. The spelling "laurey" was used by English naturalist
Eleazar Albin Eleazar Albin ( fl. 1690 – c. 1742)Michael A. Salmon, Peter Marren, Basil Harley. ''The Aurelian Legacy'' (University of California Press, 2000) pp. 109-110. was an English naturalist and watercolourist illustrator who wrote and illust ...
in 1731 for a species of parrot from Brazil, and then in 1751 the English naturalist George Edwards used the spelling "lory" when introducing names for five species of parrot from the East Indies in the fourth volume of his ''A Natural History of Uncommon Birds''. Edwards credited Nieuhof for the name. The choice of the terms "lory" and "lorikeet" is subjective, like the use of "
parrot Parrots, also known as psittacines (), are birds of the roughly 398 species in 92 genus (biology), genera comprising the order (biology), order Psittaciformes (), found mostly in tropics, tropical and subtropics, subtropical regions. The order ...
" and "
parakeet A parakeet is any one of many small to medium-sized species of parrot, in multiple Genus, genera, that generally has long tail feathers. Etymology and naming The name ''parakeet'' is derived from the French wor''perroquet'' which is reflec ...
". Species with longer tapering tails are generally referred to as "lorikeets", while species with short blunt tails are generally referred to as "lories".


Taxonomy

Traditionally, lories and lorikeets have either been classified as the subfamily, Loriinae, or as a family on their own, Loriidae, but they are currently classified as a
tribe The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human social group. The predominant worldwide usage of the term in English language, English is in the discipline of anthropology. This definition is contested, in p ...
. Neither traditional view is confirmed by molecular studies. Those studies show that the lories and lorikeets form a single group, closely related to the
budgerigar The budgerigar ( ; ''Melopsittacus undulatus''), also known as the common parakeet or shell parakeet, is a small, long-tailed, seed-eating parrot usually nicknamed the budgie ( ), or in American English, the parakeet. Budgies are the only spe ...
and the
fig parrot Fig parrots (Cyclopsittini) are a small Tribe (biology), tribe of Australasian parrots in the family Psittaculidae, made up of five species in two genera (''Cyclopsitta'' and ''Psittaculirostris''). Fig parrots are found on and around the island ...
s ('' Cyclopsitta'' and ''
Psittaculirostris ''Psittaculirostris'' is a genus of parrots in the family Psittaculidae found in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.Leo Joseph, Alicia Toon, Erin E. Schirtzinger,petie's code name Timothy F. Wright, Richard Schodde. 2012. A revised nomenclature and ...
''). A comprehensive
molecular phylogenetic Molecular phylogenetics () is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominantly in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. From these analyses, it is possible to ...
study of the Loriini published in 2020 led to major changes in the generic boundaries. The reorganisation involved the resurrection of four genera: '' Charminetta'', '' Hypocharmosyna'', '' Charmosynopsis'' and '' Glossoptilus'', as well as the erection of three entirely new genera: '' Synorhacma'', '' Charmosynoides'' and ''
Saudareos ''Saudareos'' is a genus of parrot in the family Psittaculidae. Taxonomy The genus ''Saudareos'' was introduced in 2020 for a clade of lorikeets that form a sister taxon, sister clade to ''Eos''. The type species is the ornate lorikeet. The genu ...
''. One genus disappeared, as the
collared lory The collared lory (''Vini solitaria'') is a species of parrot in the family Psittaculidae. It is endemic to the islands of Fiji. It is the only Fijian rainforest bird to adapt to urban area, urban landscapes and can be found in urban Suva. Measur ...
, which had previously been placed in the
monotypic In biology Biology is the scientific study of life. It is a natural science with a broad scope but has several unifying themes that tie it together as a single, coherent field. For instance, all organisms are made up of Cell (biology), c ...
genus ''Phigys'', was found to be embedded in the genus '' Vini''. The extinct New Caledonian lorikeet, although not sampled, was assumed to be a member of the genus ''Vini'' on plumage and
biogeographic Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species In biology, a species is the basic unit of Taxonomy (biology), classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as ...
grounds. The tribe Loriini now contains 61 species divided into 19 genera.


Genera


Morphology

Lories and lorikeets have specialized brush-tipped tongues for feeding on nectar and soft fruits. They can feed from the flowers of about 5,000 species of plants and use their specialized tongues to take the nectar. The tip of their tongues have tufts of papillae (extremely fine hairs), which collect nectar and pollen. The multi-coloured
rainbow lorikeet The rainbow lorikeet (''Trichoglossus moluccanus'') is a species of parrot found in Australia. It is common along the eastern states of Australia, eastern seaboard, from northern Queensland to South Australia. Its habitat is rainforest, coastal ...
was one of the species of parrots appearing in the first edition of ''The Parrots of the World'' and also in
John Gould John Gould (; 14 September 1804 – 3 February 1881) was an English ornithologist. He published a number of monographs on birds, illustrated by plates produced by his wife, Elizabeth Gould (illustrator), Elizabeth Gould, and several other art ...
's lithographs of the Birds of Australia. Then and now, lories and lorikeets are described as some of the most beautiful species of parrot.


Diet

In the wild, rainbow lorikeets feed mainly on pollen and nectar, and possess a tongue adapted especially for their particular diet. Many fruit orchard owners consider them a pest, as they often fly in groups and strip trees containing fresh fruit. They are also frequent visitors at bird feeders that supply lorikeet-friendly treats, such as store-bought nectar, sunflower seeds, and fruits such as apples, grapes and pears. Occasionally they have been observed feeding on meat.


Conservation

The ultramarine lorikeet is endangered. It is now one of the 50 rarest birds in the world. The blue lorikeet is classified as vulnerable. The introduction of European rats to the small island habitats of these birds is a major cause of their endangerment.Steadman D, (2006). ''Extinction and Biogeography in Tropical Pacific Birds'', University of Chicago Press. Various conservation efforts have been made to relocate some of these birds to locations free of predation and habitat destruction.


In literature

A "Lory" famously appears in Chapter III of
Lewis Carroll Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (; 27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English author, poet and mathematician. His most notable works are ''Alice's Adventures in Wonderland'' (1865) and its sequel ...
's
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland ''Alice's Adventures in Wonderland'' (commonly ''Alice in Wonderland'') is an 1865 English novel by Lewis Carroll. It details the story of a young girl named Alice (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland), Alice who falls through a rabbit hole into a ...
. Alice argues with the
Lory Loriini is a tribe The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human social group. The predominant worldwide usage of the term in English language, English is in the discipline of anthropology. This defini ...
about its age.


Gallery

File:BlackWingedLorikeet.jpg,
Black-winged lory The black-winged lory (''Eos cyanogenia'') also known as Biak red lory is a medium-sized, about long, long-tailed lory. It has a bright red plumage, black shoulder, red iris, an orange red bill and violet ear-patch behind eye. The underwings ar ...
Black lory (Chalcopsitta atra), Gembira Loka Zoo, Yogyakarta 2015-03-15 03.jpg, Black lories File:RainbowLorikeetOregonZoo.jpg, Green-naped lorikeet (subspecies of
rainbow lorikeet The rainbow lorikeet (''Trichoglossus moluccanus'') is a species of parrot found in Australia. It is common along the eastern states of Australia, eastern seaboard, from northern Queensland to South Australia. Its habitat is rainforest, coastal ...
) File:Scalybreastedlorikeet.jpg, Scaly-breasted lorikeet File:Trichoglossus euteles -Indianapolis Zoo -6.jpg, Olive-headed lorikeet File:Chalcopsitta sintillata -Fuengirola Zoo-8-1c.jpg, Yellow-streaked lory File:Musk Lorikeet 2.jpg, Musk lorikeet File:Dusky lory (Pseudeos fuscata), Gembira Loka Zoo, Yogyakarta, 2015-03-15 03.jpg, Dusky lory File:BlueStreakedLory.jpg, Blue-streaked lory File:Charmosyna josefinae.jpg, Josephine's lorikeet File:Stellas Lory 2.jpg, Papuan lorikeet File:Aus Rainbow Lorikeet cropped.jpg, Australian rainbow lorikeet (subspecies of
rainbow lorikeet The rainbow lorikeet (''Trichoglossus moluccanus'') is a species of parrot found in Australia. It is common along the eastern states of Australia, eastern seaboard, from northern Queensland to South Australia. Its habitat is rainforest, coastal ...
) File:Blackcappedlorikeet.jpg, Black-capped lory at the Cincinnati Zoo File:Lorius_garrulus-20070107.jpg, Chattering lory at
Jurong Bird Park Jurong Bird Park is an aviary An aviary is a large enclosure for confining birds, although bats may also be considered for display. Unlike birdcages, aviaries allow birds a larger living space where they can fly; hence, aviaries are als ...


References


External links

*ARKive
images and movies of the blue lorikeet/tahitian lory ''(Vini peruviana)''
{{DEFAULTSORT:Lories And Lorikeets * Taxa named by Prideaux John Selby