lime (fruit)
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A lime (from
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consistin ...

French
''lime'', from
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...
''līma'', from
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
''līmū'', "lemon") is a
citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a ...
fruit, which is typically round,
green Green is the color Color ( American English), or colour ( Commonwealth English), is the characteristic of visual perception described through color ''categories'', with names such as red, orange (colour), orange, yellow, green, b ...
in color, in
diameter In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space t ...
, and contains
acid An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a proton (hydrogen ion H+) (a Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Brønsted–Lowry acid), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid). The fir ...
ic
juice vesiclesThe juice vesicles, also known as citrus kernels, (in aggregate, pulp) of a citrus fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are th ...
. There are several species of citrus trees whose fruits are called limes, including the
Key lime The Key lime (''Citrus'' × ''aurantiifolia'') is a citrus hybrid ('' C. hystrix'' x '' C. medica'') native to tropical Southeast Asia. It has a spherical fruit, in diameter. The Key lime is usually picked while it is still green, but it become ...

Key lime
(''Citrus aurantiifolia''),
Persian lime Persian lime (''Citrus × latifolia''), also known by other common names such as seedless lime, Bearss lime and Tahiti lime, is a citrus fruit species of hybrid (biology), hybrid origin, known only in Cultivation of the land, cultivation. The Per ...
, Makrut lime, and
desert lime ''Citrus glauca'', commonly known as the desert lime, is a thorny shrub or small tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In ...
. Limes are a rich source of
vitamin C Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule (or a set of molecules closely related chemically, i.e. vitamers) that is an Nutrient#Essential nutrients, essential micronutrient which ...

vitamin C
, are sour, and are often used to accent the flavours of foods and beverages. They are grown year-round. Plants with fruit called "limes" have diverse genetic origins; limes do not form a
monophyletic 300px, A cladogram of the primates, showing a ''monophyletic'' taxon: ''the simians'' (in yellow); a ''paraphyletic'' taxon: ''the prosimians'' (in cyan, including the red patch); and a ''polyphyletic'' group: ''the night-active primates, i.e., ...

monophyletic
group.


Plants known as "lime"

The difficulty in identifying exactly which species of fruit are called lime in different parts of the English-speaking world (and the same problem applies to synonyms in other European languages) is increased by the botanical complexity of the
citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a ...
genus itself, to which the majority of limes belong. Species of this genus hybridise readily, and it is only recently that genetic studies have started to shed light on the structure of the genus. The majority of cultivated species are in reality hybrids, produced from the
citron The citron (''Citrus medica'') is a large fragrant citrus fruit with a thick rind. It is one of the three original citrus fruits from which all other citrus types developed through natural hybrid speciation Hybrid speciation is a form of sp ...

citron
(''Citrus medica''), the
mandarin orange The mandarin orange (''Citrus reticulata''), also known as the mandarin or mandarine, is a small citrus tree fruit. Treated as a distinct species of Orange (fruit), orange, it is usually eaten plain or in fruit salads. Tangerines are a group of or ...
(''Citrus reticulata''), the
pomelo The pomelo (), pummelo (), or in scientific terms ''Citrus maxima'' or ''Citrus grandis'', is the largest citrus fruit from the family Rutaceae and the principal ancestor An ancestor, also known as a forefather, fore-elder or a forebear, ...

pomelo
(''Citrus maxima'') and in particular with many lime varieties, the micrantha (''Citrus hystrix'' var. micrantha). *
Australian lime Australian limes are species of the plant genus '' Citrus'' that are native to Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Aus ...
s (former ''Microcitrus'' and ''Eremocitrus'') ** Australian desert lime (''Citrus glauca'') ** Australian finger lime (''Citrus australasica'') **
Australian lime Australian limes are species of the plant genus '' Citrus'' that are native to Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Aus ...
(''Citrus australis'') **
Blood lime Blood limes (or 'Australian Blood Lime') are a Hybrid (biology), hybrid citrus, citrus fruit developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, CSIRO project to investigate salt-resistant crops. While the lime (fruit) ...
(red finger lime × (sweet orange × mandarin)) * Makrut lime (''Citrus hystrix''); a papeda relative, is one of the three most widely produced limes globally. *
Key lime The Key lime (''Citrus'' × ''aurantiifolia'') is a citrus hybrid ('' C. hystrix'' x '' C. medica'') native to tropical Southeast Asia. It has a spherical fruit, in diameter. The Key lime is usually picked while it is still green, but it become ...

Key lime
(''Citrus'' × ''aurantiifolia''=''
Citrus micrantha ''Citrus'' is a genus of flowering plant, flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae. Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops such as Orange (fruit), oranges, Lemon, lemons, grapefruits, pomelos, and lime ...
'' × ''
Citrus medica The citron (''Citrus medica'') is a large fragrant citrus fruit with a thick rind. It is one of the three original citrus fruits from which all other citrus types developed through natural hybrid speciation Hybrid speciation is a form of sp ...
'') is also one of the three most widely produced limes globally. *
Philippine lime Calamansi (''Citrus'' × ''microcarpa''), also known as calamondin, Philippine lime, or Philippine lemon, is an economically important citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practi ...
(''Citrus'' × ''microcarpa''), a kumquat × mandarin hybrid *
Persian lime Persian lime (''Citrus × latifolia''), also known by other common names such as seedless lime, Bearss lime and Tahiti lime, is a citrus fruit species of hybrid (biology), hybrid origin, known only in Cultivation of the land, cultivation. The Per ...
(''Citrus'' × ''latifolia'') a key lime × lemon hybrid, is the single most widely produced lime globally, with Mexico being the largest producer. * Rangpur (fruit), Rangpur lime (Mandarin lime, lemandarin, ''Citrus limonia''), a mandarin orange × citron hybrid * Spanish lime (''Melicoccus bijugatus''); not a citrus * Sweet lime etc. (''Citrus limetta'', etc.); several distinct citrus hybrids * Wild lime (''Adelia ricinella''); not a citrus * Wild lime (''Zanthoxylum fagara''); not a citrus * Limequat (lime × kumquat) Note that the tree species known in Britain as lime trees (''Tilia'' sp.), called ''linden'' in other dialects of English, are broadleaf temperate plants unrelated to the citrus fruits.


History

Most species and hybrids of
citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a ...
plants called "limes" have varying origins within tropical Southeast Asia and South Asia. They were spread throughout the world via migration and trade. The kaffir lime, makrut lime, in particular, was one of the earliest citrus fruits introduced to other parts of the world by humans. They were spread into Micronesia and Polynesia via the Austronesian expansion (c. 3000–1500 BCE). They were also later spread into Middle East, and the Mediterranean region via the spice trade and the incense trade routes from as early as ~1200 BCE. To prevent scurvy during the 19th century, Royal Navy, British sailors were issued a daily allowance of citrus, such as lemon, and later switched to lime. The use of citrus was initially a closely guarded military secret, as scurvy was a common scourge of various national navies, and the ability to remain at sea for lengthy periods without contracting the disorder was a huge benefit for the military. British sailors thus acquired the nickname "Limey" because of their use of limes.


Production

In 2018, world production of limes (combined with Lemon (fruit), lemons for reporting) was 19.4 million tonnes. The top producers – India, Mexico, China, Argentina, Brazil, and Turkey – collectively accounted for 65% of global production (table).


Uses

Limes have higher contents of sugars and acids than lemons do. Lime juice may be squeezed from fresh limes, or purchased in bottles in both unsweetened and sweetened varieties. Lime juice is used to make limeade, and as an ingredient (typically as sour mix) in many cocktails. pickled lime, Lime pickles are an integral part of Cuisine of India, Indian cuisine, especially in South India. In Kerala, the Onam Sadhya usually includes either lemon pickle or lime pickle. Other Indian preparations of limes include sweetened lime pickle, salted pickle, and lime chutney. In cooking, lime is valued both for the acidity of its juice and the floral aroma of its zest (ingredient), zest. It is a common ingredient in authentic Cuisine of Mexico, Mexican, Cuisine of Vietnam, Vietnamese and Cuisine of Thailand, Thai dishes. Lime soup is a traditional dish from the Mexican state of Yucatan. It is also used for its pickling properties in ceviche. Some guacamole recipes call for lime juice. The use of dried limes (called black lime or ''limoo'') as a flavouring is typical of Persian cuisine, Cuisine of Iraq, Iraqi cuisine, as well as in Eastern Arabian cuisine ''baharat'' (a spice mixture that is also called ''kabsa'' or ''kebsa''). Key lime gives the character flavoring to the American dessert known as Key lime pie. In Australia, desert lime is used for making marmalade. Lime is an ingredient in several highball cocktails, often based on gin, such as gin and tonic, the gimlet (cocktail), gimlet and the Rickey. Freshly squeezed lime juice is also considered a key ingredient in margaritas, although sometimes lemon juice is substituted. It is also found in many rum cocktails such as the Daiquiri, and other tropical drinks. Lime extracts and lime essential oils are frequently used in perfumes, cleaning products, and aromatherapy.


Nutrition and phytochemicals

Raw limes are 88% water, 10% carbohydrates and less than 1% each of fat and protein (table). Only
vitamin C Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule (or a set of molecules closely related chemically, i.e. vitamers) that is an Nutrient#Essential nutrients, essential micronutrient which ...

vitamin C
content at 35% of the Daily Value (DV) per 100 g serving is significant for nutrition, with other nutrients present in low DV amounts (table). Lime juice contains slightly less citric acid than lemon juice (about 47 g/l), nearly twice the citric acid of grapefruit juice, and about five times the amount of citric acid found in Orange (fruit), orange juice. Lime pulp and peel (fruit), peel contain diverse phytochemicals, including polyphenols and terpenes, many of which are under basic research for their potential properties in humans.


Toxicity

Contact with lime peel or lime juice followed by exposure to ultraviolet light may lead to phytophotodermatitis, which is sometimes called margarita photodermatitis or lime disease (not to be confused with Lyme disease). Bartenders handling limes and other citrus fruits while preparing cocktails may develop phytophotodermatitis. A class of organic chemical compounds called furanocoumarins are reported to cause phytophotodermatitis in humans. Limes contain numerous furanocoumarin compounds, including limettin (also called citropten), bergapten, isopimpinellin, xanthotoxin (also called methoxsalen), and psoralen. Bergapten appears to be the primary furanocoumarin compound responsible for lime-induced phytophotodermatitis. Lime peel (fruit), peel contains higher concentrations of furanocoumarins than lime pulp (by one or two orders of magnitude), and so lime peels are considerably more phototoxicity, phototoxic than lime pulp.
Persian lime Persian lime (''Citrus × latifolia''), also known by other common names such as seedless lime, Bearss lime and Tahiti lime, is a citrus fruit species of hybrid (biology), hybrid origin, known only in Cultivation of the land, cultivation. The Per ...
s appear to be more phototoxic than
Key lime The Key lime (''Citrus'' × ''aurantiifolia'') is a citrus hybrid ('' C. hystrix'' x '' C. medica'') native to tropical Southeast Asia. It has a spherical fruit, in diameter. The Key lime is usually picked while it is still green, but it become ...

Key lime
s.


See also

* Lime production in Mexico * List of citrus fruits * List of culinary fruits varieties


References


External links

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Lime (Fruit) Limes (fruit), * Citrus Citrus hybrids Cocktail garnishes Crops Sour fruits