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Larches are
deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as we ...
conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single ex ...
s in the genus ''Larix'', of the family
Pinaceae The Pinaceae, pine family, are conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Con ...

Pinaceae
(subfamily
Laricoideae The Laricoideae are a subfamily In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: ', plural ') is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family (biology), family but more inclusive than genus. Standard nomenclature rules end sub ...

Laricoideae
). Growing from tall, they are native to much of the cooler temperate northern hemisphere, on lowlands in the north and high on mountains further south. Larches are among the dominant plants in the
boreal forests
boreal forests
of Siberia and Canada. Although they are conifers, larches are deciduous trees that lose their needles in the autumn.


Etymology

The English name Larch ultimately derives from the Latin "larigna," named after the ancient settlement of Larignum. The story of its naming was preserved by
Vitruvius Vitruvius (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') i ...

Vitruvius
:
It is worth while to know how this wood was discovered. The divine Caesar, being with his army in the neighbourhood of the Alps, and having ordered the towns to furnish supplies, the inhabitants of a fortified stronghold there, called Larignum, trusting in the natural strength of their defences, refused to obey his command. So the general ordered his forces to the assault. In front of the gate of this stronghold there was a tower, made of beams of this wood laid in alternating directions at right angles to each other, like a funeral pyre, and built high, so that they could drive off an attacking party by throwing stakes and stones from the top. When it was observed that they had no other missiles than stakes, and that these could not be hurled very far from the wall on account of the weight, orders were given to approach and to throw bundles of brushwood and lighted torches at this outwork. These the soldiers soon got together. The flames soon kindled the brushwood which lay about that wooden structure and, rising towards heaven, made everybody think that the whole pile had fallen. But when the fire had burned itself out and subsided, and the tower appeared to view entirely uninjured, Caesar in amazement gave orders that they should be surrounded with a palisade, built beyond the range of missiles. So the townspeople were frightened into surrendering, and were then asked where that wood came from which was not harmed by fire. They pointed to trees of the kind under discussion, of which there are very great numbers in that vicinity. And so, as that stronghold was called Larignum, the wood was called larch.


Description and distribution

The tallest species,
Larix occidentalis The western larch (''Larix occidentalis'') is a species of larch Larches are deciduous conifers in the genus ''Larix'', of the family Pinaceae (subfamily Laricoideae). Growing from tall, they are native to much of the cooler temperate northern ...

Larix occidentalis
, can reach . The larch's tree crown is sparse and the branches are brought horizontal to the stem, even if some species have them characteristically pendulous. Larch shoots are dimorphic, with leaves borne singly on long shoots typically long and bearing several
bud In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the An ...

bud
s, and in dense clusters of 20–50 needles on short shoots only long with only a single bud. The
leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artē ...

leaves
(light green) are needle-like, long, slender (under wide). Larches are among the few deciduous conifers, which are usually evergreen. Other deciduous conifers include the golden larch ''
Pseudolarix amabilis ''Pseudolarix amabilis'', commonly called golden larch, is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is of ...

Pseudolarix amabilis
'', the dawn redwood ''
Metasequoia glyptostroboides ''Metasequoia glyptostroboides'', the dawn redwood, is a fast-growing, endangered deciduous In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term ''deciduous'' (; ) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees ...

Metasequoia glyptostroboides
'', the Chinese swamp cypress ''
Glyptostrobus pensilis ''Glyptostrobus pensilis'', known in Chinese as 水松 (Shuǐ sōng), and also Chinese swamp cypress, is the sole living species in the genus ''Glyptostrobus ''Glyptostrobus'', is a small genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxo ...
'' and the bald cypresses in the genus ''
Taxodium ''Taxodium'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses ...
''. The male flowers (small cones) are orange-yellowish and fall after pollination. The female flowers (or
cones A cone is a three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameter A parameter (from the Ancient Greek language, Ancient Greek wikt:πα ...
) of larches are erect, small, long, green or purple, brown in ripening and lignify (called now
strobilus A strobilus (plural: strobili) is a structure present on many land plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, co ...
) 5–8 months after pollination; in about half the species the bract scales are long and visible, and in the others, short and hidden between the seed scales. Those native to northern regions have small cones () with short bracts, with more southerly species tending to have longer cones (), often with exserted bracts, with the longest cones and bracts produced by the southernmost species, in the Himalayas. The seeds are winged. The larches are streamlined trees, the root system are broad and deep and the bark is finely cracked and wrinkled in irregular plaques. The wood is bicolor, with salmon pink heartwood and yellowish white sapwood. The
chromosome number A chromosome is a long DNA molecule with part or all of the genome, genetic material of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins called histones which, aided by Chaperone (protein), chaperone proteins, bind to and D ...

chromosome number
is 2n = 24, similar to that of most of the other trees of the family
Pinaceae The Pinaceae, pine family, are conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Con ...

Pinaceae
. The genus Larix is present in all the temperate-cold zones of the
northern hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remain ...

northern hemisphere
, from
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
to northern
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Northern Asia. Siberia has been Russian conquest of Siberia, part of modern Russia since the latter half of th ...

Siberia
passing through
Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both and , and is bordered by the to the ...

Europe
, mountainous
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
and
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the south. Japan is a part of the , and spans of coveri ...

Japan
. The larches are important forest trees of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
,
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural identity. The Thirty Years' War between Catholic Church, Catholicism and Protestantism was a signifi ...

Central Europe
,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
and
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
. They require a cool and fairly humid climate and for this reason they are found in the mountains of the temperate zones, while in the northernmost boreal zones ones they are also found in the plain. At gen. Larix belong to the trees that go further north than all, reaching in the
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
and
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Northern Asia. Siberia has been Russian conquest of Siberia, part of modern Russia since the latter half of th ...

Siberia
the
tundra In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the ...

tundra
and polar ice. The larches are
pioneer species Pioneer species are hardy species which are the first to Colonisation (biology), colonize barren environments or previously biodiverse steady-state ecosystems that have been disrupted, such as by fire. Some lichens grow on rocks without soil, so m ...
not very demanding towards the
soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms tha ...

soil
and they are very long-lived trees. They live in pure or mixed forests together with other conifers or more rarely broad-leaved trees.


Species and taxonomy

In the past, the cone bract length was often used to divide the larches into two sections (sect. ''Larix'' with short bracts, and sect. ''Multiserialis'' with long bracts), but genetic evidence does not support this division, pointing instead to a genetic divide between
Old World The Old World consists of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any ...
and
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The rem ...
species, with the cone and bract size being merely adaptations to climatic conditions. More recent genetic studies have proposed three groups within the genus, with a primary division into North American and Eurasian species, and a secondary division of the Eurasian into northern short-bracted species and southern long-bracted species; there is some dispute over the position of ''Larix sibirica'', a short-bracted species which is placed in the short-bracted group by some of the studies and the long-bracted group by others. The genus ''Larix'' belongs to the subfamily
Laricoideae The Laricoideae are a subfamily In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: ', plural ') is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family (biology), family but more inclusive than genus. Standard nomenclature rules end sub ...

Laricoideae
, which also includes the genera ''
Pseudotsuga ''Pseudotsuga'' is a genus of evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, ...
'' and ''
Cathaya ''Cathaya'' is a genus in the pine family, Pinaceae, with one known living species, ''Cathaya argyrophylla''. ''Cathaya'' is a member of the subfamily Laricoideae, most closely related to ''Pseudotsuga'' and ''Larch, Larix''. A second species, '' ...
''. There are eleven (or ten, see ''L. czekanowskii'') accepted species of larch subdivided on the basis of the most recent phylogenetic investigations:


North American species

* ''
Larix laricina ''Larix laricina'', commonly known as the tamarack, hackmatack, eastern larch, black larch, red larch, or American larch, is a species of larch Larches are conifers in the genus ''Larix'', of the family Pinaceae (subfamily Laricoideae). Growi ...

Larix laricina
'' (Du Roi) K. Koch – Tamarack or American larch. Parts of
Alaska Alaska (; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, on the northwest extremity of the country's West Coast of the United State ...

Alaska
and throughout
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
and the northern
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
from the eastern
Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similari ...

Rocky Mountains
to the shore. * ''
Larix lyallii ''Larix lyallii'', the subalpine larch, or simply alpine larch, is a deciduous In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term ''deciduous'' (; ) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs t ...
'' Parl. – Subalpine larch. Mountains of northwest United States and southwest Canada, at very high altitude. * ''
Larix occidentalis The western larch (''Larix occidentalis'') is a species of larch Larches are deciduous conifers in the genus ''Larix'', of the family Pinaceae (subfamily Laricoideae). Growing from tall, they are native to much of the cooler temperate northern ...

Larix occidentalis
'' Nutt. – Western larch. Mountains of northwest United States and southwest Canada, at lower altitudes (
Pacific Northwest The Pacific Northwest (PNW) is a geographic region in western North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern s ...
).


Eurasian species


Northern Eurasian species with short bracts

* ''
Larix decidua ''Larix decidua'', the European larch, is a species of larch Larches are deciduous conifers in the genus ''Larix'', of the family Pinaceae (subfamily Laricoideae). Growing from tall, they are native to much of the cooler temperate northern he ...

Larix decidua
'' (syn. ''L. europaea'' D.C.) – European larch; mountains of central
Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both and , and is bordered by the to the ...

Europe
* ''
Larix sibirica ''Larix sibirica'', the Siberian larch or Russian larch, is a frost-hardy tree native to western Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is ...
'' – Siberian larch. Plains of western
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Northern Asia. Siberia has been Russian conquest of Siberia, part of modern Russia since the latter half of th ...

Siberia
* ''
Larix gmelinii ''Larix gmelinii'', the Dahurian larch or Gmelin larch, is a species of larch Larches are conifers in the genus ''Larix'', of the family Pinaceae (subfamily Laricoideae). Growing from tall, they are native to much of the cooler temperate nort ...
'' (syn. ''L. dahurica'') – Dahurian larch; Plains of central and eastern Siberia * ''
Larix kaempferi ''Larix kaempferi'', the Japanese larch or karamatsu () in Japanese language, Japanese, is a species of larch native to Japan, in the mountains of Chūbu region, Chūbu and Kantō region, Kantō regions in central Honshū.Farjon, A. (1990). ''Pina ...
'' (syn. ''L. leptolepis'') – Japanese larch; Mountains of central
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the south. Japan is a part of the , and spans of coveri ...

Japan
* ''Larix'' × ''czekanowskii'' – Uncertain; its origin could be hybrid


Southern Euroasiatic species with long bracts

* '' Larix potaninii'' Batalin – Chinese larch. Mountains of southwestern
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
(
Sichuan Sichuan (; , ; Postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between ...

Sichuan
, northern
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Kun ...

Yunnan
). * '' Larix mastersiana'' Rehder & E.H.Wilson – Masters' larch. Mountains of western China. * '''' (syn. ''L. griffithiana'') – Himalayan larch. Mountains of the eastern
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Ind ...

Himalayas
.


Hybrids

Most if not all of the species can be hybridised in cultivation. Currently-accepted hybrids are: * ''Larix'' × ''lubarskii'' * ''Larix'' × ''maritima'' * ''Larix'' × ''polonica'' A well-known
hybrid Hybrid may refer to: Economics and finance * Hybrid market, a system allowing stock trades to be completed either electronically or manually * Hybrid security, a type of economic instrument Technology Electrical power generation * Hybrid generato ...
, the Dunkeld larch ''Larix'' × ''marschlinsii'', arose more or less simultaneously in Switzerland and Scotland when ''L. decidua'' and ''L. kaempferi'' hybridised when planted together, is still treated as unresolved. ''Larix'' × ''stenophylla'' is another probable hybrid still unresolved. Larch is used as a food plant by the
larva A larva (plural larvae ) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect developmental biology, development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of the ...
e of a number of
Lepidoptera Lepidoptera ( ; ) is an order (biology), order of insects that includes butterfly, butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans). About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera are described, in 126 Family (biology), families and 46 Taxonomic ...

Lepidoptera
species — see list of Lepidoptera that feed on larches.


Ecology

Larches are associated with a number of mycorrhizal fungal species, including some species which primarily or only associate with larch. One of the most prominent of these species is the larch bolete Suillus grevillei, ''Suillus grevillei''.


Diseases

Larches are prone to the fungus, fungal canker disease ''Lachnellula ssp.'' (larch canker); this is particularly a problem on sites prone to late spring frosts, which cause minor injuries to the tree allowing entry to the fungal spores. In
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
, this disease was first detected in 1980 and is particularly harmful to an indigenous species larch, the tamarack, killing both young and mature trees. Larches are also vulnerable to ''Phytophthora ramorum''. In late 2009 the disease was first found in Japanese larch trees in the England, English counties of Devon, Cornwall and Somerset, and has since spread to the south-west of Scotland. In August 2010 the disease was found in Japanese larch trees in counties County Waterford, Waterford and County Tipperary, Tipperary in Ireland and in 2013 in the Afan Forest Park in south Wales. ''Laricifomes officinalis'' is another mushroom found in
Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both and , and is bordered by the to the ...

Europe
,
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
and northern Asia that causes internal wood rot. It is almost exclusive guest of the ''gen. Larix''. Other diseases are given by mushrooms, fungal rusts, bacteria and insects.


Uses

Larch wood is valued for its tough, waterproof and durable qualities. Top quality knot-free timber is in great demand for building yachts and other small boats, for exterior cladding of buildings, and interior paneling. The timber is somewhat resistant to rot when in contact with the ground, and historically was used as posts and in fencing. However, European Standard EN 350-2 lists larch as slightly to moderately durable; this would make it unsuitable for ground contact use without preservative in temperate climates, and would give it a limited life as external cladding without coatings. The hybrid Dunkeld larch is widely grown as a timber crop in North Europe, Northern Europe, valued for its fast growth and disease resistance. Larch on oak was the traditional construction method for Scottish fishing boats in the 19th century. Larch has also been used in herbal medicine; see Bach flower remedies and Arabinogalactan for details. In
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural identity. The Thirty Years' War between Catholic Church, Catholicism and Protestantism was a signifi ...

Central Europe
larch is viewed as one of the best wood materials for the building of residences. Larches are often used in bonsai culture, where their knobby bark, small needles, fresh spring foliage, and – especially – autumn colour are appreciated. European larch, Japanese larch, and Tamarack larch are the species most commonly trained as bonsai. The edible larch boletes grow in symbiotic association with larch trees. Often, in Eurasian shamanism, the "world tree" is depicted as specifically a larch tree.Stutley, Margaret. Shamanism : An Introduction. London: Routledge, 2003. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 3 Nov. 2015. Planted on borders with birch, both tree species were used in pagan cremations.


Gallery

File:10 31 2008 Stand of Tamarack.jpg, ''
Larix laricina ''Larix laricina'', commonly known as the tamarack, hackmatack, eastern larch, black larch, red larch, or American larch, is a species of larch Larches are conifers in the genus ''Larix'', of the family Pinaceae (subfamily Laricoideae). Growi ...

Larix laricina
'' in autumn (Vermont) File:Larix occidentalis Navaho Ridge.jpg, ''
Larix occidentalis The western larch (''Larix occidentalis'') is a species of larch Larches are deciduous conifers in the genus ''Larix'', of the family Pinaceae (subfamily Laricoideae). Growing from tall, they are native to much of the cooler temperate northern ...

Larix occidentalis
'' (Navaho Ridge, Washington state, USA) File:Flowers of Japanese larch emerging.jpg, Male (above) and female (below right) cones of Japanese larch emerging in spring File:SubalpineLarch 7769.jpg, Subalpine larch male fall foliage and cone (
strobilus A strobilus (plural: strobili) is a structure present on many land plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, co ...
)


References


Notes


Bibliography

* * Gros-Louis, M.-C., Bousquet, J., Pâques, L. E., & Isabel, N. (2005). Species-diagnostic markers in Larix spp. based on RAPDs and nuclear, cpDNA, and mtDNA gene sequences, and their phylogenetic implications. ''Tree Genetics & Genomes'' 1 (2): 50–63
Abstract.
* * Semerikov, V. L., & Lascoux, M. (1999). Genetic relationship among Eurasian and American ''Larix'' species based on allozymes. ''Heredity'' 83: 62–70. * *


Further reading

* * Quote from p. 729. * Phillips, D. H., & Burdekin, D. A. (1992). ''Diseases of Forest and Ornamental Trees''. Macmillan .


External links

*
''Larix'' images at the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University Plant Image Database
* Friedman, William (Ned)
"Larch cones in spring."
''Posts from the Collection,'' Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, 2 April 2016. Accessed 26 May 2020. *Rose, Nancy
"Not All Conifers are Evergreen."
Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University website, 6 January 2016. Accessed 26 May 2020.
"Snow Scenes, winter, larches 1977."
''Library Featured Images'', Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University website, 21 November 2019. Accessed 26 May 2020. * * * {{authority control Larix, Larix Deciduous conifers Taxa named by Philip Miller