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Judgement (or US spelling judgment) is also known as ''
adjudication Adjudication is the legal process by which an arbitration, arbiter or judge reviews evidence (law), evidence and argumentation, including legal reasoning set forth by opposing parties or litigants, to come to a decision which determines rights and ...
'' which means the
evaluation Evaluation is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundarie ...

evaluation
of
evidence Evidence for a proposition is what supports this proposition. It is usually understood as an indication that the supported proposition is true. What role evidence plays and how it is conceived varies from field to field. In epistemology, evidence ...

evidence
to
make a decision In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several possible alternative options, it could be ...
. Judgement is also the ability to make considered decisions. The term has at least five distinct uses. Aristotle suggested we think of the ''opposite'' of different uses of a term, if one exists, to help determine if the uses are really different. Some opposites will be included here to help demonstrate their uses are really distinct: * Informal –
opinion An opinion is a judgement, viewpoint, or Proposition, statement that is not conclusive, rather than facts, which are true statements. Definition A given opinion may deal with subjectivity, subjective matters in which there is no conclusive findi ...

opinion
s expressed as facts. * Informal and
psychological Psychology is the scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known ...
– used in reference to the quality of
cognitive faculties
cognitive faculties
and adjudicational capabilities of particular individuals, typically called ''
wisdom Wisdom, sapience, or sagacity is the ability to contemplate and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense and insight. Wisdom is associated with attributes such as unbiased judgment, compassion, experiential self-knowledge, se ...

wisdom
'' or ''
discernment Discernment is the ability to obtain sharp perceptions or to judge well (or the activity of so doing). In the case of judgement, discernment can be psychology, psychological, morality, moral or aesthetic in nature. Discernment has also been defin ...
''. The opposites are ''foolishness'' or ''indiscretion''. * Formal - the mental act of affirming or denying one thing of another through
comparison File:Comparison of dietary fat composition.png, A chart showing a comparison of qualities of a variety of cooking oils, aimed at helping the reader decide which choices would be best for their health. Comparison or comparing is the act of evaluat ...

comparison
. Judgements are communicated to others using agreed-upon ''terms'' in the form of words or algebraic symbols as meanings to form ''propositions'' relating the terms, and whose further asserted meanings "of relation" are ''interpreted'' by those trying to understand the judgement. * Legal – used in the context of legal
trial In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion, because evident things are undoubted. There are ...

trial
, to refer to a final finding, statement, or ruling, based on a considered weighing of evidence, called, "''
adjudication Adjudication is the legal process by which an arbitration, arbiter or judge reviews evidence (law), evidence and argumentation, including legal reasoning set forth by opposing parties or litigants, to come to a decision which determines rights and ...
''". Opposites could be ''suspension'' or ''deferment'' of adjudication. See
spelling note
spelling note
for further explanation. * Religious – used in the concept of
salvation Salvation (from Latin: ''salvatio'', from ''salva'', 'safe, saved') is the state of being saved or protected from harm or a dire situation. In religion and theology, ''salvation'' generally refers to the deliverance of the soul from sin and its co ...

salvation
to refer to the '' adjudication of God'' in determining
Heaven Heaven or the heavens, is a common religious cosmological or transcendent supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/supernatural By ...

Heaven
or
Hell In religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, e ...

Hell
for each and all human beings. God's assessment of a person's worth: a determination of "good" conveys great value while "evil" conveys worthlessness. Yet, it is also written, "God is no respecter of persons." Additionally, judgement can mean: *
Personality judgment Personality judgment (or personality judgement in UK) is the process by which people perceive each other's personalities through acquisition of certain information about others, or meeting others in person. The purpose of studying personality judgm ...
, a psychological phenomenon of a person forming opinions of other people.


Formal judgement

So, to put some of the definitions together with each other, we might say that we use the ''power'' or ''faculty'' of judgement to ''render'' judgements in seeking ''understanding'' of ideas and the things they represent by means of ''ratiocination'', ''using'' good or poor discernment or judgement. Each use of the word ''judgement'' has a different sense corresponding to the triad of mental power, act and habit, respectively. This opens the controversy, however, of whether habits can even be classified or studied scientifically as well as whether there is such a thing as human nature. It may be possible to state provisionally, though, that if human nature exists, it exists in the powers or, stated another way, human ''potentialities''.


Judging power or faculty

Aristotle observed our power to judge took two forms: making assertions and thinking about definitions. He defined these powers in distinctive terms. Making an ''assertion'' as a result of judging can ''affirm'', but also can in fact ''deny'' something, and it must be either true or false. In a judgement, one affirms a given relationship between two things, or one denies a relationship between two things exists. The kinds of ''definitions'' that are judgements are those that are the intersection of two or more ideas rather than those indicated only by usual examples, that is, ''constitutive'' definition. It should probably be noted that later Aristotelians, like Mortimer Adler, questioned whether "definitions of abstraction" that come from merging examples in one's mind are really analytically distinct from a judgement. So it might be cautioned that the mind may automatically tend to form a judgement upon having been given such examples.


Distinction of parts

In informal use, the words employed in the first main paragraph above are very often used with a great deal of overlap even when keeping them separated by the triad of power, act and habit. Past thinkers, like in the example just given, have made observations in an effort to separate them further to help define what is meant by "judgement". AristotleAristotle ''Metaphysics'' 6.4 also observed that while we interpret propositions drawn from judgements and call them "true" and "false", the objects that the ''terms'' try to represent are only "true" or "false"—''with respect to the judging act or communicating that judgement''—in the sense of "well-chosen" or "ill-chosen". For example, we might look and say the proposition "the orange is round" is a true statement because we agree with the underlying judged relation between the objects of the terms, making us believe the statement to be faithful to reality, while the object of the term "orange" is no relation to be judged true or false, and the name taken separately ''as a term'' merely represents something brought to our attention, correctly or otherwise, for the sake of the judgement with no further evaluation possible. Or we might see "2 + 2 = 4" and call this statement derived from an arithmetical judgement true, but we would probably agree that the objects of the number ''terms'' 2 and 4 are by themselves neither true nor false. As a further example, consider the language of the math problem, "express composite number ''n'' in ''terms'' of prime factors". Once a composite number is separated into prime numbers as the objects of the assigned terms of the problem, we can see they are, in a sense, ''called'' terms because their objects are the final components that arise at the point where judgements, like in the case of the "judgement of separation" kind of judgements described in this example, must ''terminate'', the place where no further "judgements of reduction" of a certain quality (in this case, non-unity integers dividing integers into non-unity integer quotients) can occur.


See also

* Bias * Choice * Decree * Discrimination * Prejudice * Presumption of guilt * :Judgment in Christianity * General judgment, a Christian theological concept * ''Judgment at Nuremberg'', a 1961 American courtroom drama film


References


Further reading

*Zheng Wanga, ''et al.'' (2014).
"Context effects produced by question orders reveal quantum nature of human judgments"
''Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America'', v. 111, no. 26, pp. 9431–9436. {{Authority control Concepts in aesthetics