Criminal informantsInformants are also extremely common in every-day police work, including homicide and narcotics investigations. Any citizen who provides crime related information to law enforcement by definition is an informant. The CIA has been criticized for leniency towards drug lords and murderers"Government Corruption and the Right of Access to Courts" by UA Kim. ''Michigan Law Review'', 2004 acting as paid informants, informants being allowed to engage in some crimes so that the potential informant can blend into the criminal environment without suspicion, and wasting billions of dollars on dishonest sources of information."The Weakest Link: The Dire Consequences of a Weak Link in the Informant Handling and Covert Operations Chain-of-Command" by M Levine. ''Law Enforcement Executive Forum'', 2009 Informants are often regarded as traitors by their former criminal associates. Whatever the nature of a group, it is likely to feel strong hostility toward any known informers, regard them as threats and inflict punishments ranging from social ostracism through physical abuse and/or death. Informers are therefore generally protected, either by being segregated while in prison or, if they are not incarcerated, relocated under a new identity.
Informant motivationInformants, and especially criminal informants, can be motivated by many reasons. Many informants are not themselves aware of all of their reasons for providing information, but nonetheless do so. Many informants provide information while under stress, duress, emotion and other life factors that can affect the accuracy or veracity of information provided. Law enforcement officers, prosecutors, defense lawyers, judges and others should be aware of possible motivations so that they can properly approach, assess and verify informants' information. Generally, informants' motivations can be broken down into self-interest, self-preservation and conscience. A list of possible motivations includes: Self-Interest: * Financial rewardLyman, D., Micheal. ''Criminal Investigation: The Art and the Science''. 6th ed. Columbia College of Missouri. Pearson, 2010. p264 * Pre-trial release from custody * Withdrawal or dismissal of criminal charges * Reduction of sentence * Choice of location to serve sentence * Elimination of rivals or unwanted criminal associates. * Elimination of competitors engaged in criminal activities. * Diversion of suspicion from their own criminal activities. * Revenge Self-Preservation: * Fear of harm from others. * Threat of arrest or charges. * Threat of incarceration. * Desire for witness protection program. Conscience: * Desire to go straight * Guilty conscience * Genuine desire to assist law enforcement and society.
Labor and social movementsCorporations and the detective agencies that sometimes represent them have historically hired labor spies to monitor or control labor organizations and their activities. Such individuals may be professionals or recruits from the workforce. They may be willing accomplices, or may be tricked into informing on their co-workers' unionization efforts. Paid informants have often been used by authorities within politically and socially oriented movements to weaken, destabilize and ultimately break them.
PoliticsInformers alert authorities regarding government officials that are corrupt. Officials may be taking Bribery, bribes or be participants in a Money trail, money loop also called a Political corruption#Kickbacks, kickback. Informers in some countries receive a percentage of all monies recovered by their government. Lactantius described an example from ancient Rome involved the prosecution of a woman suspected to have advised a woman not to marry Maximinus II: "Neither indeed was there any accuser, until a certain Jew, one charged with other offences, was induced, through hope of pardon, to give false evidence against the innocent. The equitable and vigilant magistrate conducted him out of the city under a guard, lest the populace should have stoned him... The Jew was ordered to the torture till he should speak as he had been instructed... The innocent were condemned to die.... Nor was the promise of pardon made good to the feigned adulterer, for he was fixed to a gibbet, and then he disclosed the whole secret contrivance; and with his last breath he protested to all the beholders that the women died innocent." Criminal informant schemes have been used as cover for politically motivated intelligence offensives.
Jailhouse informantsJailhouse informants, who report hearsay (admissions against penal interest) which they claim to have heard while the accused is in pretrial detention, usually in exchange for sentence reductions or other inducements, have been the focus of particular controversy. Some examples of their use are in connection with Stanley Williams, Cameron Todd Willingham, Gerald Stano, Thomas Silverstein, Marshall "Eddie" Conway, and a suspect in the disappearance of Etan Patz. The Innocence Project has stated that 15% of all wrongful convictions later exonerated because of DNA results were accompanied by false testimony by jailhouse informants. 50% of murder convictions exonerated by DNA were accompanied by false testimony by jailhouse informants.
Terminology and slangSlang terms for informants include: *blabbermouth *cheese eater *canary — derives from the fact that canaries sing, and "singing" is underworld or street slang for providing information or talking to the police. *dog — Australian. May also refer to police who specialize in surveillance, or police generally. *ear – someone who overhears something and tells the authorities. *fink — this may refer to the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, Pinkertons who were used as Plainclothes law enforcement, plain-clothes detectives and strike-breakers. *grass or supergrass (informer), supergrass, — rhyming slang for grasshopper, meaning copper or shopper and having additional associations with the popular song, "Whispering Grass", and the phrase snake in the grass. *narc — a member of a specialist narcotics police force. *nark — this may have come from the Romany term ''nak'' for nose or the French term ''narquois'' meaning cunning, deceitful and/or criminal. *nose *pentito — Italy, Italian term, meaning "one who repents". Usually used in reference to Organized crime in Italy, Mafia informants, but it has also been used to refer to informants for Italian paramilitary or terrorist organizations, such as the Red Brigades. *pursuivant ''(archaic)'', *rat"Role of the Rat in the Prison" by HA Wilmer. ''Fed. Probation'', 1965 — informing is commonly referred to as "ratting". *snitch"Reflections on the role of statutory immunity in the criminal justice system" by WJ Bauer – ''Journal of Criminal Law. & Criminology'', 1976 — informing is commonly referred to as "snitching". *snout *spotter *squealer *:da:Stikker, Stikker — Danish term meaning "stabber". Mainly used in relation to World War Two. *stool pigeon or stoolie"Elevating the Role of the Informer: The Value of Secret Information". MW Krasilovsky. ''ABAJ'', 1954 *tell tale or tell-tale *tattle-tale *tittle-tattle *tout – Northern Irish slang for an informant, often one who informed on the activities of paramilitary groups during The Troubles. *trick *turncoat *weasel The phrase "drop a dime" refers to an informant using a payphone to call the authorities to report information. The term "stool pigeon" originates from the antiquated practice of tying a passenger pigeon to a stool. The bird would flap its wings in a futile attempt to escape. The sound of the wings flapping would attract other pigeons to the stool where a large number of birds could be easily killed or captured.
List of famous individuals*Whitey Bulger, Boston Irish mob boss *Steve Flemmi, Whitey Bulger's partner-in-crime *Nicholas Calabrese, the first made man to testify against the Chicago Outfit *James Carey (Fenian), James Carey, Irish terrorist *Sammy Gravano, former underboss of the Gambino crime family *Henry Hill, Lucchese crime family associate *Frank Lucas (drug dealer), Frank Lucas, New York City drug dealer turned informant *Abe Reles, Murder, Inc. hit man *Freddie Scappaticci, member of the Provisional IRA *Joseph Valachi, soldier in the Genovese crime family *Salvatore Vitale, former underboss of the Bonanno crime family *Richard Wershe Jr. (commonly known as "White Boy Rick"), youngest FBI informant ever (informant at age 14) *Joseph Massino, the first boss of one of the Five Families in New York City to turn state's evidence *Sinaloa Cartel#Arrest and seizures, Flores twins Pedro and Margarito *Daniel Hernandez (rapper), Daniel Hernandez a.k.a. ''Tekashi 6ix9ine'', American rapper, Trial_of_the_Nine_Trey_Gangsters, testified against Nine Trey Bloods
Informants by country
Russia and Soviet UnionA system of informants existed in Russian Empire and later adopted by the Soviet Union. In Russia such person was known as osvedomitel or donoschik and secretly cooperated with law enforcement agencies such as Okhranka or later Soviet militsiya or KGB. Officially those informants were referred to as secret coworker (russian: секретный сотрудник, sekretny sotrudnik) and often were referred by a Russian derived portmanteau seksot. In some KGB documents has also been used a term "source of operational information" (russian: источник оперативной информации, istochnik operativnoi informatsii).
See also* Agent provocateur * Aguilar–Spinelli test, ''Aguilar–Spinelli'' test * Counter-terrorism * Covert interrogation * Denunciation * Espionage * Hollywood blacklist * Pentiti * Plea bargain * Turn state's evidence * United States Marshals Service * Whistleblower * Witness Protection Program