KNOWLEDGE is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts , information , descriptions , or skills , which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving , discovering , or learning .
* 1 Theories of knowledge * 2 Communicating knowledge * 3 Situated knowledge * 4 Partial knowledge * 5 Scientific knowledge
* 6 Religious meaning of knowledge
* 6.1 As a measure of religiosity in sociology of religion
* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links
THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE
The eventual demarcation of philosophy from science was made possible
by the notion that philosophy's core was "theory of knowledge," a
theory distinct from the sciences because it was their _foundation_...
Without this idea of a "theory of knowledge," it is hard to imagine
what "philosophy" could have been in the age of modern science.
The definition of knowledge is a matter of ongoing debate among
philosophers in the field of epistemology . The classical definition,
described but not ultimately endorsed by
In contrast to this approach, Ludwig Wittgenstein observed, following Moore\'s paradox , that one can say "He believes it, but it isn't so," but not "He knows it, but it isn't so." He goes on to argue that these do not correspond to distinct mental states, but rather to distinct ways of talking about conviction. What is different here is not the mental state of the speaker, but the activity in which they are engaged. For example, on this account, to _know_ that the kettle is boiling is not to be in a particular state of mind, but to perform a particular task with the statement that the kettle is boiling. Wittgenstein sought to bypass the difficulty of definition by looking to the way "knowledge" is used in natural languages. He saw knowledge as a case of a family resemblance . Following this idea, "knowledge" has been reconstructed as a cluster concept that points out relevant features but that is not adequately captured by any definition.
_ Los portadores de la antorcha (The Torch-Bearers)_ – Sculpture by Anna Hyatt Huntington symbolizing the transmission of knowledge from one generation to the next (Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid, Spain )
Symbolic representations can be used to indicate meaning and can be thought of as a dynamic process. Hence the transfer of the symbolic representation can be viewed as one ascription process whereby knowledge can be transferred. Other forms of communication include observation and imitation, verbal exchange, and audio and video recordings. Philosophers of language and semioticians construct and analyze theories of knowledge transfer or communication.
While many would agree that one of the most universal and significant
tools for the transfer of knowledge is writing and reading (of many
kinds), argument over the usefulness of the written word exists
nonetheless, with some scholars skeptical of its impact on societies.
In his collection of essays _
Neil Postman demonstrates
the argument against the use of writing through an excerpt from
Plato's work _Phaedrus _ (Postman, Neil (1992) _Technopoly_, Vintage,
New York, pp 73). In this excerpt, the scholar
Classical early modern theories of knowledge, especially those advancing the influential empiricism of the philosopher John Locke, were based implicitly or explicitly on a model of the mind which likened ideas to words. This analogy between language and thought laid the foundation for a graphic conception of knowledge in which the mind was treated as a table, a container of content, that had to be stocked with facts reduced to letters, numbers or symbols. This created a situation in which the spatial alignment of words on the page carried great cognitive weight, so much so that educators paid very close attention to the visual structure of information on the page and in notebooks.
Media theorists like Andrew Robinson emphasise that the visual depiction of knowledge in the modern world was often seen as being 'truer' than oral knowledge. This plays into a longstanding analytic notion in the Western intellectual tradition in which verbal communication is generally thought to lend itself to the spread of falsehoods as much as written communication. It is harder to preserve records of what was said or who originally said it – usually neither the source nor the content can be verified. Gossip and rumors are examples prevalent in both media. As to the value of writing, the extent of human knowledge is now so great, and the people interested in a piece of knowledge so separated in time and space, that writing is considered central to capturing and sharing it.
Major libraries today can have millions of books of knowledge (in addition to works of fiction). It is only recently that audio and video technology for recording knowledge have become available and the use of these still requires replay equipment and electricity. Verbal teaching and handing down of knowledge is limited to those who would have contact with the transmitter or someone who could interpret written work. Writing is still the most available and most universal of all forms of recording and transmitting knowledge. It stands unchallenged as mankind's primary technology of knowledge transfer down through the ages and to all cultures and languages of the world.
Situated knowledge is knowledge specific to a particular situation. It is a term coined by Donna Haraway as an extension of the feminist approaches of "successor science" suggested by Sandra Harding , one which "offers a more adequate, richer, better account of a world, in order to live in it well and in critical, reflexive relation to our own as well as others' practices of domination and the unequal parts of privilege and oppression that makes up all positions." This situation partially transforms science into a narrative , which Arturo Escobar explains as, "neither fictions nor supposed facts." This narrative of situation is historical textures woven of fact and fiction, and as Escobar explains further, "even the most neutral scientific domains are narratives in this sense," insisting that rather than a purpose dismissing science as a trivial matter of contingency, "it is to treat (this narrative) in the most serious way, without succumbing to its mystification as 'the truth' or to the ironic skepticism common to many critiques."
Haraway's argument stems from the limitations of the human perception , as well as the overemphasis of the sense of vision in science . According to Haraway, vision in science has been, "used to signify a leap out of the marked body and into a conquering gaze from nowhere." This is the "gaze that mythically inscribes all the marked bodies, that makes the unmarked category claim the power to see and not be seen, to represent while escaping representation." This causes a limitation of views in the position of science itself as a potential player in the creation of knowledge, resulting in a position of "modest witness". This is what Haraway terms a "god trick", or the aforementioned representation while escaping representation. In order to avoid this, "Haraway perpetuates a tradition of thought which emphasizes the importance of the subject in terms of both ethical and political accountability".
Some methods of generating knowledge, such as trial and error , or learning from experience , tend to create highly situational knowledge. One of the main attributes of the scientific method is that the theories it generates are much less situational than knowledge gained by other methods. Situational knowledge is often embedded in language, culture, or traditions. This integration of situational knowledge is an allusion to the community, and its attempts at collecting subjective perspectives into an embodiment "of views from somewhere."
Even though Haraway's arguments are largely based on feminist studies , this idea of different worlds, as well as the skeptic stance of situated knowledge is present in the main arguments of post-structuralism . Fundamentally, both argue the contingency of knowledge on the presence of history ; power , and geography , as well as the rejection of universal rules or laws or elementary structures; and the idea of power as an inherited trait of objectification .
One discipline of epistemology focuses on partial knowledge. In most cases, it is not possible to understand an information domain exhaustively; our knowledge is always _incomplete_ or partial. Most real problems have to be solved by taking advantage of a partial understanding of the problem context and problem data, unlike the typical math problems one might solve at school, where all data is given and one is given a complete understanding of formulas necessary to solve them.
This idea is also present in the concept of bounded rationality which assumes that in real life situations people often have a limited amount of information and make decisions accordingly.
Intuition is the ability to acquire partial knowledge without inference or the use of reason . An individual may "know" about a situation and be unable to explain the process that led to their knowledge.
The development of the scientific method has made a significant
contribution to how knowledge of the physical world and its phenomena
is acquired. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be
based on gathering observable and measurable evidence subject to
specific principles of reasoning and experimentation. The scientific
method consists of the collection of data through observation and
experimentation , and the formulation and testing of hypotheses .
Science, and the nature of scientific knowledge have also become the
Until recent times, at least in the Western tradition, it was simply taken for granted that knowledge was something possessed only by humans – and probably _adult_ humans at that. Sometimes the notion might stretch to (ii) _Society-as-such_, as in (e.g.) "the knowledge possessed by the Coptic culture" (as opposed to its individual members), but that was not assured either. Nor was it usual to consider _unconscious_ knowledge in any systematic way until this approach was popularized by Freud .
Other biological domains where "knowledge" might be said to reside, include: (iii) the _immune system_, and (iv) in the _DNA of the genetic code_. See the list of four "epistemological domains": Popper , (1975); and Traill (2008: Table S, p. 31) – also references by both to Niels Jerne .
Such considerations seem to call for a separate definition of "knowledge" to cover the biological systems. For biologists, knowledge must be usefully _available_ to the system, though that system need not be conscious. Thus the criteria seem to be:
* The system should apparently be dynamic and self-organizing (unlike a mere book _on its own_). * The knowledge must constitute some sort of representation of "the outside world", or ways of dealing with it (directly or indirectly). * Some way must exist for the system to access this information quickly enough for it to be useful.
Scientific knowledge may not involve a claim to certainty , maintaining skepticism means that a scientist will never be absolutely certain when they are correct and when they are not. It is thus an irony of proper scientific method that one must doubt even when correct, in the hopes that this practice will lead to greater convergence on the truth in general.
RELIGIOUS MEANING OF KNOWLEDGE
The Old Testament 's tree of the knowledge of good and evil contained the knowledge that separated Man from God: "And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil..." (Genesis 3:22)
In Gnosticism , divine knowledge or gnosis is hoped to be attained.
विद्या दान (Vidya Daan) i.e. knowledge sharing is a
major part of Daan , a tenet of all Dharmic Religions . Hindu
Scriptures present two kinds of knowledge, _Paroksh Gyan_ and
_Prataksh Gyan_. _Paroksh Gyan_ (also spelled _
Paroksha -Jnana_) is
secondhand knowledge: knowledge obtained from books, hearsay, etc.
_Prataksh Gyan_ (also spelled _Prataksha-Jnana_) is the knowledge
borne of direct experience, i.e., knowledge that one discovers for
Jnana yoga ("path of knowledge") is one of three main types
of yoga expounded by
AS A MEASURE OF RELIGIOSITY IN SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION
According to the sociologist Mervin F. Verbit , knowledge may be understood as one of the key components of religiosity. Religious knowledge itself may be broken down into four dimensions:
* content * frequency * intensity * centrality
The content of one's religious knowledge may vary from person to person, as will the degree to which it may occupy the person's mind (frequency), the intensity of the knowledge, and the centrality of the information (in that religious tradition, or to that individual).
Outline of knowledge – guide to the subject of knowledge
presented as a tree structured list of its subtopics.
Epistemic modal logic
* ^ "knowledge: definition of knowledge in Oxford dictionary
(American English) (US)". _oxforddictionaries.com_. Archived from the
original on 2010-07-14.
* ^ Paul Boghossian (2007), _Fear of Knowledge: Against relativism
and constructivism_, Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press , Chapter 7, pp.
* ^ Dekel, Gil. "Methodology". Retrieved 3 July 2006.
* ^ Stanley Cavell, "Knowing and Acknowledging", _Must We Mean What
We Say?_ (Cambridge University Press, 2002), 238–66.
* ^ In Plato's _Theaetetus _,
* ^ There is quite a good case for this exclusive specialization
used by philosophers, in that it allows for in-depth study of
logic-procedures and other abstractions which are not found elsewhere.
However this may lead to problems whenever the topic spills over into
those excluded domains – e.g. when Kant (following Newton) dismissed
* Piaget, J. , and B.Inhelder (1927/1969). _The child's conception
of time_. Routledge & Kegan Paul: London.
* Piaget, J., and B. Inhelder (1948/1956). _The child's conception
of space_. Routledge in Rom Harré (ed.), _Problems of Scientific
Revolution: Scientific Progress and Obstacles to Progress in the
Sciences_. Clarendon Press: Oxford.
* ^ http://www.ondwelle.com/OSM02.pdf
* ^ This "outside world" could include other subsystems within the
same organism – e.g. different "mental levels" corresponding to
different Piagetian stages. See
Theory of cognitive development .
* ^ "philosophy bites". _philosophybites.com_.
* ^ "Part Three, No. 1831". _Catechism of the Catholic Church_.
Archived from the original on 2007-05-04. Retrieved 2007-04-20.
* ^ "विद्या दान ही सबसे बडा
दान : विहिप - Vishva