high-speed rail in Germany
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Construction of the first high-speed rail in Germany began shortly after that of the
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consistin ...

French
LGV
LGV
s (''lignes à grande vitesse'', high-speed lines). However, legal battles caused significant delays, so that the German
Intercity-Express The Intercity Express (commonly known as ICE ()) is a system of high-speed rail, high-speed trains high-speed rail in Germany, predominantly running in Germany. It also serves some destinations in Austria, Denmark (ceased in 2017 but planned to ...
(ICE) trains were deployed ten years after the
TGV The TGV (french: TurboTrain à Grande Vitesse and then Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train") is France's intercity high-speed rail High-speed rail (HSR) is a type of rail transport that runs significantly faster than traditional rail ...

TGV
network was established.


InterCityExpress

The first regularly scheduled ICE trains ran on 2 June 1991 from Hamburg-Altona via Hamburg Hbf – Hannover Hbf – Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe – Fulda – Frankfurt Hbf – Mannheim Hbf and Stuttgart Hbf toward München Hbf on the new ICE line 6. The ICE network is more tightly integrated with pre-existing lines and trains as a result of the different settlement structure in Germany, which has almost twice the population density of France. ICE trains reached destinations in
Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, located on the Eastern Alps. It is composed of nine States of Austria, federated states, one of which is Vienna, Austria's ca ...

Austria
and
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Switzerland
soon after they entered service, taking advantage of the same voltage used in these countries. Starting in 2000, multisystem third-generation ICE trains entered the
Netherlands The Netherlands ( nl, Nederland ), informally referred to as Holland, is a country primarily located in Western Europe and partly in the Dutch Caribbean, Caribbean. It is the largest of four Kingdom of the Netherlands#Constituent countries, cons ...

Netherlands
and
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Belgium
. The third generation of the ICE has a service speed of 330 km/h (205 mph) and has reached speeds up to 363 km/h (226 mph). Admission of ICE trains onto French LGVs was applied for in 2001, and trial runs completed in 2005. Since June 2007, ICEs service Paris from Frankfurt and Saarbrücken via the
LGV Est The Ligne à Grande Vitesse Est européenne (East European High Speed Line), typically shortened to LGV Est, is a French high-speed rail line that connects Vaires-sur-Marne (near Paris) and Vendenheim (near Strasbourg). The line halved the travel ...

LGV Est
. Unlike the
Shinkansen The , colloquially known in English as the bullet train, is a network of high-speed rail High-speed rail (HSR) is a type of rail transport that runs significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of speciali ...

Shinkansen
in Japan, Germany has experienced a fatal accident on a high-speed service. In the
Eschede train disaster The Eschede derailment occurred on 3 June 1998, near the village of Eschede Eschede () is a municipality in the district of Celle, in Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state ...
of 1998, a first generation ICE experienced catastrophic wheel failure while travelling at 200 km/h near
Eschede Eschede () is a municipality in the district of Celle, in Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state (''Land'') situated in Northern Germany, northwestern Germany. It is the seco ...
, following complaints of excessive vibration. Of 287 passengers aboard, 101 people died and 88 were injured in the resulting derailment, which was made worse by the train colliding with a road bridge and causing it to collapse. The accident was the result of faulty wheel design and, following the crash, all ICE wheels of that design were redesigned and replaced.


International operators

Thalys trains began running in Germany in 1997, from the Belgian HSL 3 to Aachen and Cologne using the Cologne–Aachen high-speed railway. TGV POS trains began running in Germany in 2007, to Karlsruhe and Stuttgart using the Mannheim–Stuttgart high-speed railway, Mannheim–Stuttgart and Karlsruhe–Basel high-speed railway, Karlsruhe–Basel high-speed lines. Swiss Swiss Federal Railways, SBB high-speed services using the New Pendolino from Frankfurt to Milan on the Karlsruhe–Basel line started in 2017.


Transrapid

Germany has developed the Transrapid, a maglev train system. The Transrapid reaches speeds up to 550 km/h (340 mph). The Emsland test facility, with a total length of , operated in until 2011 when it was closed and in 2012 its demolition was approved. In People's Republic of China, China, Shanghai Maglev Train, a Transrapid technology based Magnetic levitation train, maglev built in collaboration with Siemens, Germany, has been operational since March 2004.


List of high-speed lines


Upgraded line

* Cologne–Aachen high-speed railway (upgraded line, 250 km/h)


Partially new line

Part of these routes are new constructions that run along or close to the existing, or previous, route: * Hanover–Berlin high-speed railway (partially new line, 250 km/h on the new section, 160 and 200 km/h on the existing sections) * Nuremberg–Munich high-speed railway (partially new line, 300 km/h on the new part, 160 and 200 km/h on the existing section) * Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway (partially new line, 300 km/h)


Fully new line

Completely new construction projects: * Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line (new line, 300 km/h) * Hanover–Würzburg high-speed railway (new line, 280 km/h) * Mannheim–Stuttgart high-speed railway (new line, 280 km/h) * Erfurt–Leipzig/Halle high-speed railway (new line, 300 km/h)


Lines not yet completed

* Karlsruhe–Basel high-speed railway (new line, 250 km/h, incomplete, sections under construction) * Stuttgart–Wendlingen high-speed railway (new line, 250 km/h, under construction) * Wendlingen–Ulm high-speed railway (new line, 250 km/h, under construction) * Vogelfluglinie (partially new line, partially being upgraded) ** Lübeck–Hamburg railway (German part, to be upgraded to reach 200 km/h) ** Lübeck–Puttgarden railway (German part, to be electrified to reach 200 km/h up from the current 160 km/h, under construction) ** Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link (tunnel part, will replace the Scandlines, Rødby–Puttgarden ferry, 200 km/h, under construction, completion expected in 2028) ** Sydbanen (Danish part, new tracks to be laid by 2021, to be electrified to reach 200 km/h by 2024, under construction) ** Copenhagen–Ringsted Line (Danish part, opened on 31 May 2019, currently operating at 180 km/h, upgrading to 250 km/h in 2023)


Lines planned

* Frankfurt–Mannheim high-speed railway (new line, 300 km/h, in planning) * Hanau-Gelnhausen high-speed railway (new line, 300 km/h, in planning) * Hanover-Bielefeld high-speed railway (new line, 300 km/h, in planning) * Nuremberg-Würzburg high-speed railway (new line, 300 km/h, in planning) * Hanover-Hamburg high-speed railway/Hanover-Bremen high-speed railway (Y-shaped, partially new line, 160 and 300 km/h on new sections, 160 km/h on a existing section, in planning)


Travel times


References

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