heir presumptive
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An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an
heir apparent An heir apparent, often shortened to heir, is a person who is first in an order of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person; a person who is first in the order of succession but can be displaced by the b ...
or a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question.


Overview

Depending on the rules of the monarchy, the heir presumptive might be the daughter of a monarch if males take preference over females and the monarch has no sons, or the senior member of a collateral line if the monarch is childless or the monarch's direct descendants cannot inherit (either because they are daughters and females are completely barred from inheriting, because the monarch's children are illegitimate, or because of some other legal disqualification, such as being descended from the monarch through a morganatic line or the descendant's refusal or inability to adopt a religion the monarch is required to profess). The subsequent birth of a legitimate child to the monarch may displace the former heir presumptive by creating an heir apparent or a more eligible heir presumptive. It is not assumed that the monarch and his or her consort are incapable of having further children; on the day before Queen
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; 21 April 1926 – 8 September 2022) was Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms from 6 February 1952 until Death and state funeral of Elizabeth II, her death in 2022. She was queen ...
ascended the throne, her father
George VI George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth The Commonwealth of Nations, simply referred to as the Commonwealth, is a poli ...
was gravely ill and her mother was 51 years old, but Elizabeth was still considered the heir presumptive rather than the heir apparent. An heir presumptive's position may not even be secure after they ascend their throne, as a posthumous child of the previous monarch could have a superseding claim.
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until Death and state funeral of Queen Victoria, her death in 1901. Her reign of 63 years and 21 ...
's accession proclamation noted her accession was only permanent so long as William IV's widow,
Adelaide Adelaide ( ) is the list of Australian capital cities, capital city of South Australia, the state's largest city and the list of cities in Australia by population, fifth-most populous city in Australia. "Adelaide" may refer to either Greater A ...
, was not pregnant, even though Adelaide was 44 years old and had last been pregnant 17 years earlier. Such a situation occurred in
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ''Plus ultra'' (Latin)(English: "Further Beyond") , national_anthem = (English: "Royal March") , i ...
in 1885, when King Alfonso XII died and left behind a widow who was three months pregnant. His five-year-old daughter and heir presumptive, María de las Mercedes, was not declared queen because she would be displaced if a son was born, and instead there was a six month interregnum until the birth of her brother Alfonso XIII, who assumed the throne as king immediately upon birth. Had the pregnancy been lost or resulted in another daughter, Mercedes would have become queen regnant and been retroactively recognized as such during the interregnum. Heir presumptive, like heir apparent, is not a title or position ''per se''. Rather, it is a general term for a person who holds a certain place in the
order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals necessitated to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state or an honour such as a title of nobility.ipso facto'', a specific title and rank (e.g., Denmark, Netherlands, United Kingdom), this also sometimes being the case for noble titleholders (e.g., Spain, United Kingdom), but the heir presumptive does not bear that title. In other monarchies (e.g., Monaco, Spain) the first in line to the throne bears a specific title (i.e., "Hereditary Prince/Princess of Monaco", "Prince/Princess of Asturias") by right, regardless of whether she or he is heir apparent or heir presumptive.


Simultaneous heirs presumptive

In the English and Welsh common law of
inheritance Inheritance is the practice of receiving private property, titles, debts, entitlements, privileges, rights, and obligations upon the death Death is the Irreversible process, irreversible cessation of all biological process, biolog ...
, there is no seniority between sisters; where there is no son to inherit, any number of daughters share equally. Therefore, certain hereditary titles can have multiple simultaneous heirs presumptive. Since the title cannot be held by two people simultaneously, two daughters (without a brother) who inherit in this way would do so as co-parceners and before they inherit, both would be heirs presumptive. In these circumstances, the title would in fact be held in abeyance until one person represents the claim of both, or the claim is renounced by one or the other for herself and her heirs, or the abeyance is ended by the Crown. There are special procedures for handling doubtful or disputed cases.


Heirs presumptive as of

* Crown Prince Fumihito is the heir presumptive (皇嗣, ''Kōshi'') to his elder brother, Emperor Naruhito of
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally , ''Nihonkoku'') is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north ...
. Historically, the succession to the Chrysanthemum Throne has normally passed to descendants in male line from the imperial lineage. If Naruhito were to have a legitimate son, he would become heir apparent and Prince Fumihito would move back one place in the line of succession. * Prince Dipangkorn Rasmijoti is the heir presumptive to his father, King Vajiralongkorn of
Thailand Thailand ( ), historically known as Siam () and officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia, located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , with a population of almost 70 mi ...
. In accordance with the 1924 Palace Law of Succession, the reigning king has absolute power to name any royal male as heir apparent, and upon being announced publicly, the "position of such heir is secure and indisputable". * Leonor, Princess of Asturias, is the heir presumptive to her father, King Felipe VI of
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ''Plus ultra'' (Latin)(English: "Further Beyond") , national_anthem = (English: "Royal March") , i ...
. If her father has a legitimate son, he would be heir apparent and Leonor would lose her titles and move back one place in the line of succession.


Past heirs presumptive who did not inherit thrones

The list is limited to heirs presumptive who did not succeed due to death, abolition of monarchies, or change in succession law. * Marcus Claudius Marcellus was heir presumptive to his uncle and father-in-law
Augustus Caesar Augustus (born Gaius Octavius; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), also known as Octavian, was the first Roman emperor; he reigned from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He is known for being the founder of the Roman Pri ...
until his death in 23 BC. * Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was heir presumptive to his father-in-law
Augustus Caesar Augustus (born Gaius Octavius; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), also known as Octavian, was the first Roman emperor; he reigned from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He is known for being the founder of the Roman Pri ...
until his death in 12 BC. * Marcus Aemilius Lepidus was heir presumptive to his brother-in-law Caligula until his death in 38. * Britannicus was heir presumptive to his stepbrother
Nero Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( ; born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus; 15 December AD 37 – 9 June AD 68), was the fifth Roman emperor and final emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, reigning from AD 54 unti ...
until his death in 55. * Marwan ibn Abd al-Malik was heir presumptive to his brother
Al-Walid I Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan ( ar, الوليد بن عبد الملك بن مروان, al-Walīd ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān; ), commonly known as al-Walid I ( ar, الوليد الأول), was the sixth Umayyad Caliphate, Umayyad ca ...
until his death circa 715. * Prince Sawara was heir presumptive to his brother Emperor Kanmu until his death in 785. * Robert Curthose was heir presumptive to his brother William II of England until he was disinherited for rebellion in 1088. * Edmund of Scotland was heir presumptive to his uncle Donald III of Scotland until his uncle's overthrow in 1097. *
Empress Matilda Empress Matilda ( 7 February 110210 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude, was one of the claimants to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy. The daughter of King Henry I of England, she moved to Germany as ...
was heir presumptive to her father
Henry I of England Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death in 1135. He was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and was educated in Latin and the liberal arts. On William's death in ...
but upon Henry's death in 1135, Matilda's cousin Stephen, King of England took the throne instead. *
Arthur I, Duke of Brittany Arthur I ( br, Arzhur 1añ; french: link=no, Arthur 1er de Bretagne) (29 March 1187 – presumably 1203) was 4th Earl of Richmond and Duke of Brittany between 1196 and 1203. He was the posthumous son of Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, and Constan ...
, was heir presumptive to his uncle
Richard I of England Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death in 1199. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Aquitaine and Duchy of Gascony, Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, and Count of Poitiers, Co ...
but upon Richard's death in 1199, Arthur's uncle
John, King of England John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216) was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. He lost the Duchy of Normandy and most of his other French lands to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of the Angevin Empi ...
took the throne instead. * Peter I, Count of Urgell, was heir presumptive to his nephew Afonso III of Portugal until his death in 1258. * Margaret of Scotland, Queen of Norway, was heir presumptive to her father Alexander III of Scotland until her death in 1283. * Uzana of Bassein was heir presumptive to his father Narathihapate until he was assassinated in 1287. *
Edward Bruce Edward Bruce, Earl of Carrick (Anglo-Norman language, Norman French: ; mga, Edubard a Briuis; Scottish Gaelic, Modern Scottish Gaelic: gd, Eideard or ; – 14 October 1318), was a younger brother of Robert the Bruce, King of Scots. He suppo ...
was heir presumptive to his brother
Robert I of Scotland Robert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce (Scottish Gaelic: ''Raibeart an Bruis''), was King of Scots from 1306 to his death in 1329. One of the most renowned warriors of his generation, Robert eventuall ...
until he claimed the throne of Ireland. * Marjorie Bruce was heir presumptive to her father
Robert I of Scotland Robert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce (Scottish Gaelic: ''Raibeart an Bruis''), was King of Scots from 1306 to his death in 1329. One of the most renowned warriors of his generation, Robert eventuall ...
until her death in 1316. * Charles, Count of Valois, was heir presumptive to his nephew Charles IV of France twice until his death in 1325. * Binnya E Laung was heir presumptive to his father Binnya E Law until his death. * Maria of Calabria was heir presumptive to her sister Joanna I of Naples until her death in 1366. * Beatrice of Portugal was heir presumptive to her father Ferdinand I of Portugal but upon Ferdinand's death in 1383, Beatrice's half-uncle John I of Portugal took the throne instead. * John of Gaunt was heir presumptive to his nephew
Richard II of England Richard II (6 January 1367 – ), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was List of deposed politicians, deposed in 1399. He was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan, Countess o ...
until the succession law was changed in 1386. * Bawlawkyantaw was heir presumptive to his father Razadarit until his execution in 1390. * Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, was heir presumptive to Richard II after the change in succession until his death in 1398. * Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, was heir presumptive to Richard II until Richard's forced abdication in 1399. * Theiddat was heir presumptive to his brother Minkhaung I until his nephew Minye Kyawswa was made heir instead. * Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, was heir presumptive to his nephew James I of Scotland until his death in 1420. * Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, was heir presumptive to his brother
Henry V of England Henry V (16 September 1386 – 31 August 1422), also called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1413 until his death in 1422. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hu ...
from his brother's succession in 1413 to his death in 1421. * Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, was heir presumptive to his cousin James I of Scotland until he was attained and executed in 1425. * John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, was heir presumptive to his nephew
Henry VI of England Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and English claims to the French throne#Kings of France (1422), disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The ...
until his death in 1435. * Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl, was heir presumptive to his grandnephew James II of Scotland until he was executed in 1437 for his part in killing the previous king James I. * Margaret Stewart, Dauphine of France, was heir presumptive to her brother James II of Scotland until her death in 1445. * Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, was heir presumptive to his nephew Henry VI until his death in 1447. * Joanna la Beltraneja was heir presumptive to her father Henry IV of Castile until he named his brother Alfonso as heir instead. * Alfonso, Prince of Asturias, was heir presumptive to his half-brother Henry IV of Castile until his death in 1468. * George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, was heir presumptive to his brother Edward IV of England until he fled after rebelling against him in 1470. * Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick, was heir presumptive to his uncle
Richard III of England Richard III (2 October 145222 August 1485) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 26 June 1483 until his death in 1485. He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty. His defeat and death at the Battl ...
until he was removed from the succession in 1485. * John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln, was heir presumptive to his uncle Richard III until the king was killed in
battle A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force ...
in 1485. * Isabella of Aragon, Queen of Portugal, was heir presumptive to her parents
Isabella I of Castile Isabella I ( es, Isabel I; 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504), also called Isabella the Catholic (Spanish: ''la Católica''), was Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death in 1504, as well as List of Aragonese royal consorts, Queen consort ...
and
Ferdinand II of Aragon Ferdinand II ( an, Ferrando; ca, Ferran; eu, Errando; it, Ferdinando; la, Ferdinandus; es, Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), also called Ferdinand the Catholic (Spanish: ''el Católico''), was King of Aragon and List of Sardin ...
until her death in 1498. * Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal, in addition to being heir apparent to his father
Manuel I of Portugal Manuel I (; 31 May 146913 December 1521), known as the Fortunate ( pt, O Venturoso), was list of Portuguese monarchs, King of Portugal from 1495 to 1521. A member of the House of Aviz, Manuel was Duke of Beja and Duke of Viseu, Viseu prior to su ...
, was heir presumptive to grandparents Isabella and Ferdinand until his death in 1500. * James Stewart, Duke of Ross, was heir presumptive to his brother James IV of Scotland until his death in 1504. * Alexander Stewart, Duke of Ross, was heir presumptive to his brother James V of Scotland until his death in 1515. * John Stewart, Duke of Albany, was heir presumptive to his cousin James V of Scotland until his death in 1536. * Carlos, Prince of Asturias, in addition to being heir apparent to his father Philip II of Spain, was also heir presumptive to his cousin Sebastian of Portugal until his death in 1568. * James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran, was heir presumptive to James VI of Scotland until his death in 1575. * Ranuccio I Farnese, Duke of Parma, was heir presumptive to his granduncle Henry, King of Portugal until the succession crisis that emerged after Henry's death in 1580. *
Francis, Duke of Anjou ''Monsieur'' Francis, Duke of Anjou and Alençon (french: Hercule François; 18 March 1555 – 10 June 1584) was the youngest son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici. Early years He was scarred by smallpox at age eight, an ...
, was heir presumptive to his brother
Henry III of France Henry III (french: Henri III, né Alexandre Édouard; pl, Henryk Walezy; lt, Henrikas Valua; 19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589) was King of France France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country pr ...
until his death in 1584. * Charles de Bourbon was heir presumptive to his nephew
Henry IV of France Henry IV (french: Henri IV; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithets Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch ...
until his death in 1590. * Dmitry of Uglich was heir presumptive to his half-brother
Feodor I of Russia Fyodor I Ivanovich (russian: Фёдор I Иванович) or Feodor I Ioannovich (russian: Феодор I Иоаннович; 31 May 1557 – 17 January (NS) 1598), also known as Feodor the Bellringer (russian: Феодор Звонарь), ...
until his death in 1591. * Dmitry Shuisky was heir presumptive to his brother Vasili IV of Russia until his brother was overthrown in 1610. * Sigismund III Vasa was heir presumptive of Russia to his son Vladislav until his son's overthrow in 1613. * Monsieur d'Orléans, was heir presumptive to his brother
Louis XIII of France Louis XIII (; sometimes called the Just; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was King of France from 1610 until his death in 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown. ...
until his death in 1611. * Charles Philip, Duke of Södermanland, was heir presumptive to his brother
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden Gustavus Adolphus (9 December ld Style and New Style dates, N.S 19 December15946 November ld Style and New Style dates, N.S 16 November1632), also known in English as Gustav II Adolf or Gustav II Adolph, was King of Sweden from 1611 to ...
until his death in 1622. * Catherine of Sweden, Countess Palatine of Kleeburg, was heir presumptive to her niece Christina, Queen of Sweden, until her death in 1638. * Margaret Theresa of Spain was heir presumptive to her brother Charles II of Spain until her death in 1673. * Maria Antonia of Austria was heir presumptive to her uncle Charles II until her death in 1692. * Joseph Ferdinand, Electoral Prince of Bavaria, in addition to being heir apparent to his father Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, was heir presumptive to his granduncle Charles II until his death in 1699. * Sophia, Electress of Hanover, was declared heir presumptive to the British thrones by the Act of Settlement 1701, but died before acceding to the throne of her distant cousin, Queen Anne. * Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, was heir presumptive to
Louis XV of France Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (french: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Until he reached ...
until his death in 1723. * Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg was heir presumptive to his half-brother Adolphus Frederick III, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, until his death a few months before his brother in 1752. * Prince Augustus William of Prussia was heir presumptive to his brother Frederick II of Prussia until his death in 1758. * Duke Louis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was heir presumptive to his brother Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, until his death in 1778. * Prince Joseph of Saxe-Hildburghausen was heir presumptive to his great-grandnephew Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen until his death in 1787. * Inthraphithak was heir presumptive to his father Taksin until Taksin was overthrown and both were executed in 1802. * Prince Louis of Anhalt-Köthen was heir presumptive to his brother Augustus Christian Frederick, Duke of Anhalt-Köthen until his death in 1802. * Maha Sura Singhanat was heir presumptive to his brother Phutthayotfa Chulalok until his death in 1803. * Anurak Devesh was heir presumptive to his uncle Phutthayotfa Chulalok until his death in 1806. * Maha Senanurak was heir presumptive to his brother Phutthaloetla Naphalai until his death in 1817. * Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich of Russia was heir presumptive to his brother
Alexander I of Russia Alexander I (; – ) was Emperor of Russia from 1801, the first King of Congress Poland from 1815, and the Grand Duke of Finland from 1809 to his death. He was the eldest son of Emperor Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. The son of Gra ...
until he renounced his rights in 1823. *
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus; 16 August 1763 – 5 January 1827) was the second son of George III, King of the United Kingdom and King of Hanover, Hanover, and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. A so ...
, brother of King George IV of the United Kingdom and Hanover, was heir presumptive from his brother's ascension in 1820 to his death in 1827. * Maximilian, Hereditary Prince of Saxony, was heir presumptive to his brother Anthony of Saxony until he renounced his rights in favour of his son Frederick Augustus in 1830. * Infante Carlos of Spain, Count of Molina, brother of King Ferdinand VII of Spain. Ferdinand VII changed the succession law in favour to his daughter, who became Queen Isabella II after the King's death in September 1833. This led to the Carlist Wars in Spain. * Sakdiphonlasep was heir presumptive to his nephew Nangklao until his death in 1832. * Louis, Prince of Anhalt-Pless was heir presumptive to his brother Henry, Duke of Anhalt-Köthen until his death in 1841. *
Archduke Franz Karl of Austria Archduke Franz Karl Joseph of Austria (17 December 1802 – 8 March 1878) was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. He was the father of two emperors: Franz Joseph I of Austria and Maximilian I of Mexico. Through his third son Archduke ...
, brother of Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria, was heir presumptive throughout his brother's reign until the
revolution In political science, a revolution (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known ...
that saw his brother forced to abdicate also saw Franz renounce his rights in favour of his son Franz Joseph in 1848. * Ahmad Rifaat Pasha was heir presumptive to his half-uncle Sa'id of Egypt until his death in 1858. * Prince Henry, Count of Bardi, was heir presumptive to his brother Robert I, Duke of Parma, until the monarchy was abolished in 1859. * Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria was heir presumptive to his brother Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany, until the monarchy was abolished in 1860. * Prince Louis, Count of Trani, was heir presumptive to his half-brother Francis II of the Two Sicilies until the monarchy was abolished in 1861. * Albert, Prince Consort, was heir presumptive to his brother
Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Ernest II (german: Ernst August Karl Johann Leopold Alexander Eduard, link=no; 21 June 181822 August 1893) was Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 29 January 1844 to his death in 1893. He was born in Coburg to Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld ...
, until his death in 1861. * Infante João, Duke of Beja, was heir presumptive to his brother Luís I of Portugal until his death in 1861. * Ferdinand, Hereditary Prince of Denmark, was heir presumptive to his nephew King Frederick VII of Denmark until his death five months before his nephew in 1863. * Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, in addition to being heir apparent to his mother
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until Death and state funeral of Queen Victoria, her death in 1901. Her reign of 63 years and 21 ...
, was also heir presumptive to his uncle
Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Ernest II (german: Ernst August Karl Johann Leopold Alexander Eduard, link=no; 21 June 181822 August 1893) was Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 29 January 1844 to his death in 1893. He was born in Coburg to Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld ...
, until renouncing his rights in favour of his younger brothers in 1863. * Pinklao was heir presumptive to his brother Mongkut until his death in 1866. * Prince William of Hesse-Kassel was heir presumptive to his cousin Frederick William, Elector of Hesse, until the monarchy was abolished in 1866. * Prince William of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld was heir presumptive to his brother Alexis, Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld, until the monarchy was abolished in 1866. * Prince Frederick of Württemberg was heir presumptive to his cousin and brother-in-law Charles I of Württemberg until his death in 1870. * Prince Charles of Hesse and by Rhine was heir presumptive to his brother Louis III, Grand Duke of Hesse, until his death a few months before his brother in 1877. * Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern, was heir presumptive to his brother Carol I of Romania until he renounced his rights in favour of his sons. * William, Prince of Hohenzollern, was heir presumptive to his uncle Carol I of Romania until he renounced his rights in favour of his younger brother Ferdinand. * Wichaichan was heir presumptive to his cousin Chulalongkorn until his death in 1885. * Mercedes, Princess of Asturias, daughter of Alfonso XII of Spain, was the heir presumptive at her birth. After her father died, her posthumously born brother Alfonso became king as Alfonso XIII of Spain and she remained the heir presumptive until her death in 1905. * Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, was the heir presumptive to her father Pedro II of Brazil on the throne of the Empire of Brazil. However, a '' coup d'etat'' in 1889 proclaimed a Republic in the country, deposing the monarchy. * Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria was the heir presumptive of his brother
Franz Joseph I of Austria Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (german: Franz Joseph Karl, hu, Ferenc József Károly, 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and the Grand title of the Emperor of Austria, other states of the Habsburg m ...
from the suicide of his nephew
Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria (Rudolf Franz Karl Josef; 21 August 1858 – 30 January 1889) was the only son and third child of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria and Empress Elisabeth of Austria, Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria (Sissi). He was heir ...
, until his death in 1896. * Duke William of Württemberg was heir presumptive to his kinsman William II of Württemberg until his death in 1896. * Princess Sophie of the Netherlands was heir presumptive to her niece Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands until her death in 1897. * Grand Duke George Alexandrovich of Russia was heir presumptive to his brother
Nicholas II of Russia Nicholas II or Nikolai II Alexandrovich Romanov; spelled in Reforms of Russian orthography, pre-revolutionary script. ( 186817 July 1918), known in the Russian Orthodox Church as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer,. was the last Emperor of ...
until his death in 1899. * Duke Nicholas of Württemberg was heir presumptive to his kinsman William II of Württemberg until his death in 1903. * Ernest, Count of Lippe-Biesterfeld was heir presumptive to his kinsman Alexander, Prince of Lippe until his death in 1904. * Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders, was the heir presumptive of his older brother King Leopold II of Belgium after the death of his nephew Prince Leopold, Duke of Brabant, until his own death in 1905. *
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 185016 January 1942), was the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He served as Gov ...
, was heir presumptive to his brother
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Alfred (Alfred Ernest Albert; 6 August 184430 July 1900) was the sovereign duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 1893 to 1900. He was the second son and fourth child of Queen Victoria and Albert, Prince Consort, Prince Albert. He was known as the D ...
, until he renounced his rights and that of his descendants in favour of his nephew Charles Edward. * Prince Moritz of Saxe-Altenburg was heir presumptive to his brother Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, until his death in 1907. * Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal, was the heir presumptive of his nephew Manuel II of Portugal until the monarchy was abolished in 1910. * Pujie was heir presumptive to his brother Puyi until the
Xinhai Revolution The 1911 Revolution, also known as the Xinhai Revolution or Hsinhai Revolution, ended China's last Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty, the Manchu people, Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and led to the establishment of the Republic of Chi ...
in 1911, and
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a Country, country in East Asia, at the junction of the East China Sea, East and South China Seas in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the n ...
founded in 1912. He became heir presumptive again after the puppet regime
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of (Great) Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China, Manchuria from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic in 1932 afte ...
after the Mukden Incident, while Puyi became the emperor of Manchukuo as well until the
surrender of Japan The surrender of the Empire of Japan in World War II was Jewel Voice Broadcast, announced by Emperor of Japan, Emperor Hirohito on 15 August and formally Japanese Instrument of Surrender, signed on 2 September 1945, End of World War II in A ...
in 1945. * Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria, was heir presumptive to his nephew Otto, King of Bavaria until his death in 1912. * Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was the heir presumptive of his uncle Emperor
Franz Joseph I of Austria Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (german: Franz Joseph Karl, hu, Ferenc József Károly, 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and the Grand title of the Emperor of Austria, other states of the Habsburg m ...
until his
assassination Assassination is the murder of a prominent or VIP, important person, such as a head of state, head of government, politician, world leader, member of a royal family or CEO. The murder of a celebrity, activist, or artist, though they may not hav ...
June 28, 1914, in
Sarajevo Sarajevo ( ; cyrl, Сарајево, ; ''see Names of European cities in different languages (Q–T)#S, names in other languages'') is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its a ...
. * Duke Philipp of Württemberg was heir presumptive to his kinsman William II of Württemberg until his death in 1917. * Prince Maximilian of Baden was heir presumptive to his cousin Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden, until the monarchy was abolished in 1918. * Charles Michael, Duke of Mecklenburg, was heir presumptive to his cousin Adolphus Frederick VI, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, until the throne became vacant and was later abolished in 1918. * Ernst, Prince of Saxe-Meiningen, was heir presumptive to his half-brother Bernhard III, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, until the monarchy was abolished in 1918. * Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg, was heir presumptive to his kinsman William II of Württemberg until the monarchy was abolished in 1918. * Wolrad, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe, was heir presumptive to his brother Adolf II, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe, until the monarchy was abolished in 1918. * Sizzo, Prince of Schwarzburg, was heir presumptive to his cousin Günther Victor, Prince of Schwarzburg, until the monarchy was abolished in 1918. * Heinrich XXVII, Prince Reuss Younger Line, in addition to ruling his own principality, was heir presumptive to his kinsman Heinrich XXIV, Prince Reuss of Greiz, until both monarchies were abolished in 1918. * Chakrabongse Bhuvanath was heir presumptive to his brother Vajiravudh until his death in 1920. * Asdang Dejavudh was heir presumptive to his brother Vajiravudh until his death in 1924. * Varananda Dhavaj was heir presumptive to his uncle Vajiravudh until being replaced as heir by his other uncle Prajadhipok in 1924. * Mahidol Adulyadej was heir presumptive to his half-brother Prajadhipok until his death in 1929. * Kiril, Prince of Preslav was heir presumptive to his nephew Simeon II of Bulgaria, until his execution by Communists in 1945. * Prince Nicholas of Romania was heir presumptive to his nephew Michael I of Romania until the monarchy was abolished in 1947. * Princess Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois, was heir presumptive to her father Louis II, Prince of Monaco, until renouncing her rights in favour of her son Rainier. * Prince Knud of Denmark was the heir presumptive of his brother King Frederick IX of Denmark, but an amendment to the Danish Constitution in 1953 replaced the previously semi-Salic succession with male-preference primogeniture and proclaimed King Frederick's eldest daughter Princess Margrethe, later Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, heir presumptive. * Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh was heir presumptive to her father
George VI George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth The Commonwealth of Nations, simply referred to as the Commonwealth, is a poli ...
in India until it became a republic in 1950, as well as Newfoundland until it joined Canada in 1949 (she reigned as Queen of Canada from 6 February 1952 until her death on 8 September 2022). * Mohammed Ali Tewfik was heir presumptive to Fuad II of Egypt until the monarchy was abolished in 1953. * 'Abd al-Ilah was heir presumptive to his nephew Faisal II of Iraq until they were both executed in 1958. * Tunku Abdul Malik was heir presumptive to his brother Abdul Halim of Kedah until his death in 2015.


See also

*
Monarchy A monarchy is a government#Forms, form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication. The legitimacy (political)#monarchy, political legitimacy and authority of the monarch may vary from restric ...


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Heir Presumptive Monarchy Inheritance Heirs to the throne