group-14 hydride
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Group 14 hydrides are
chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be ...
s composed of
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

hydrogen
atoms and group 14 atoms (the elements of group 14 are
carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Three occur naturally, ...

carbon
,
silicon Silicon is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, and is a Tetravalence, tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member ...

silicon
,
germanium Germanium is a with the Ge and 32. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white in the , chemically similar to its group neighbors and . Pure germanium is a with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturall ...

germanium
,
tin Tin is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers ...

tin
,
lead Lead is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Pb (from the Latin ) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metals, heavy metal that is density, denser than most common materials. Lead is Mohs scale of mineral hardness#Intermediate h ...

lead
and
flerovium Flerovium is a superheavy artificial chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms t ...

flerovium
).


Tetrahydrides

The tetrahydride series has the chemical formula XH4, with X representing any of the carbon family. Methane is commonly the result of the decomposition of organic matter and is a
greenhouse gas A greenhouse gas (GHG or GhG) is a gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformat ...
. The other hydrides are generally unstable, poisonous
metal hydride In chemistry, a hydride is formally the anion An ion () is a particle, atom or molecule with a net electric charge, electrical charge. The charge of the electron is considered negative by convention. The negative charge of an ion is equal a ...
s. They take on a pyramidal structure, and as such are not polar molecules like the other
p-block A block of the periodic table The periodic table, also known as the periodic table of elements, is a tabular display of the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the c ...
hydrides. Unlike other light hydrides such as
ammonia Ammonia is a compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fort ...

ammonia
,
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for all known forms of , even though it provide ...

water
and
hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula . This colorless gas or liquid is the principal industrial source of fluorine, often as an aqueous solution called hydrofluoric acid. It is an important feedstock in the preparation ...

hydrogen fluoride
, methane does not exhibit any anomalous effects attributed to
hydrogen bonding A hydrogen bond (or H-bond) is a primarily Electrostatics, electrostatic force of attraction between a hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of ...
, and so its properties conform well to the prevailing trend of heavier group 14 hydrides.


Hexahydrides

This series has the chemical formula X2H6. Ethane is commonly found alongside methane in
natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane and commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide ...

natural gas
. The other hydrides are even less stable than the tetrahydrides.


Higher group 14 hydrides

All straight-chain saturated group 14 hydrides follow the formula X''n''H2''n''+2, the same formula for the
alkane In , an alkane, or paraffin (a historical that also has ), is an . In other words, an alkane consists of and atoms arranged in a structure in which all the s are . Alkanes have the general chemical formula C''n''H2''n''+2. The alkanes rang ...
s. Many other group 14 hydrides are known. Carbon forms a huge variety of
hydrocarbon In , a hydrocarbon is an consisting entirely of and . Hydrocarbons are examples of s. Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and hydrophobic with only weak odours. Because of their diverse molecular structures, it is difficult to generalize furth ...
s (with
propane Propane () is a three-carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalence, tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalen ...

propane
and
butane Butane () or ''n''-butane is an alkane , the simplest alkane In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical trivial name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic Acyclic may refer to: * In chemistry, a compound which is an ope ...

butane
following methane and ethane among the alkanes, but also including
alkene , the simplest alkene. In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, com ...

alkene
s,
alkyne In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the structure, properties and reactions of organic compounds, which contain carbon in covalent bonding.Clayden, J.; Greeves, N. and Warren, S. (2012) ''Organic Chemist ...

alkyne
s, cyclic and branched compounds, as well as aromatic hydrocarbons such as
benzene Benzene is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), organ Chemistry * Organic matter, matter that has come from a once-living organi ...

benzene
,
toluene Toluene (), also known as toluol (), is an aromatic hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, Water (molecule), water-insoluble liquid with the smell associated with paint thinners. It is a mono-substituted benzene derivative, consisting of a methyl group ( ...

toluene
and
limonene Limonene is a colorless liquid aliphatic In organic chemistry, hydrocarbon In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemic ...

limonene
), whose study forms the core of
organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of that studies the structure, properties and reactions of s, which contain in .Clayden, J.; Greeves, N. and Warren, S. (2012) ''Organic Chemistry''. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–15. . Study of structure determ ...
.Greenwood and Earnshaw, p. 301. Alongside hydrogen, carbon can form compounds with the chemically similar
halogen The halogens () are a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can b ...

halogen
s, forming
haloalkane The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from ...
s. The simplest of this series, the
halomethaneHalomethane compounds are derivatives of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms (Fluorine, F, Chlorine, Cl, Bromine, Br, or Iodine, I). Halomethanes are both naturally occurring, especially in marine environm ...
s, contain compounds such as
dichloromethane Dichloromethane (DCM or methylene chloride) is an organochloride An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic c ...

dichloromethane
and
iodoform Iodoform (also known as triiodomethane and, inaccurately, as carbon triiodide) is the organoiodine compound with the formula In science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scien ...

iodoform
. Other such important chemicals include
vinyl chloride Vinyl chloride is an organochloride An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any che ...
, which is used in the production of
PVC Polyvinyl chloride (colloquial Colloquialism or colloquial language is the style (sociolinguistics), linguistic style used for casual communication. It is the most common functional style of speech, the idiom normally employed in conversatio ...

PVC
. The other group 14 elements have a lower tendency to catenate.
Silanes Chemical structure of disilane, which is structurally similar to ethane. Binary silicon-hydrogen compounds are saturated chemical compounds with the empirical formula SixHy. All contain tetrahedral In geometry Geometry (from the g ...
Si''n''H2''n''+2 are known for ''n'' = 1–8 (thermal stability decreasing as ''n'' increases), as are cyclosilanes Si5H10 and Si6H12. They are very reactive,
pyrophoric A substance is pyrophoric (from grc-gre, πυροφόρος, , 'fire-bearing') if it ignites spontaneously in air at or below (for gases) or within 5 minutes after coming into contact with air (for liquids and solids). Examples are iron sulfid ...
colourless gases or volatile liquids. Their volatility is intermediate between the
alkane In , an alkane, or paraffin (a historical that also has ), is an . In other words, an alkane consists of and atoms arranged in a structure in which all the s are . Alkanes have the general chemical formula C''n''H2''n''+2. The alkanes rang ...
s and the germanes.Greenwood and Earnshaw, p. 337. Unsaturated silanes, the
silenes
silenes
and silynes, have been characterized spectroscopically. The first members of each respectively are disilene and disilyne, the silicon analogues of ethylene and acetylene. The first five germanes Ge''n''H2''n''+2 are known and are fairly similar to the silanes.Greenwood and Earnshaw, p. 374. Stannane, a strong reducing agent slowly decomposes at room temperature to tin and hydrogen gas, and is decomposed by concentrated aqueous acids or alkalis; distannane, Sn2H6 is still more unstable, and longer stannanes are unknown. Plumbane is very poorly characterised and is only known in trace amounts: even at low temperatures, synthesis methods that yield the other MH4 compounds fail to give PbH4. No other plumbanes are known.Greenwood and Earnshaw, p. 375. Compounds containing hydrogen and multiple group 14 elements are known, one of the most famous of these being tetraethyllead.


See also

Group 14 hydrides radical: *Methylene (compound), Methylene *Methylidyne *Titanium(IV) hydride, a structural analog of the group 14 tetrahydrides


References


Bibliography

* {{Hydrides by group Hydrides Hydrogen compounds