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Public policy is an institutionalized proposal to solve relevant and real-world problems, guided by a conception and implemented by programs as a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, Executive (government), ex ...

government
, in response to
social issue A social issue is a problem that influences many citizens within a society. It is a group of common problem in present-day society and one that many people strive to solve. It is often the consequence of factors extending beyond an individual's ...
s. Beyond this broad definition, public policy has been conceptualized in a variety of ways. A popular way of understanding and engaging in public policy is through a series of stages known as "the policy cycle". The characterization of particular stages can vary, but a basic sequence is: agenda setting – formulation – legitimation – implementation – evaluation. Officials considered as policymakers bear responsibility to reflect the interests of a host of different stakeholders. Policy design entails conscious and deliberate effort to define policy aims and map them instrumentally. Academics and other experts in policy studies have developed a range of tools and approaches to help in this task.


Varying conceptions of public policy

Public policy can be conceptualized in varying ways, according to the purposes of the speaker or author, and the characteristics of the situation they are concerned with. One dividing line in conceptions of public policy is between those that see it primarily in terms of ideas (principles and plans of action) and those that see it as a collection of empirical phenomena (the things that are done, and their outcomes). The first of these conceptualizations is suitable when the matter of concern is relatively simple and unambiguous, and the means of enactment are expected to be highly disciplined. But where the matter is complex and/or contested – where intentions are confused and/or disguised – it may not be possible to define the policy ideas clearly and unambiguously. In this case it may be useful to identify a policy in terms of what actually happens.
David Easton David Easton (June 24, 1917 – July 19, 2014) was a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) ...

David Easton
in the USA of the 1950s provided an illustration of the need he found to broaden his conceptualization of public policy beyond stated ideas: "If the formal policy of an educational system forbids discrimination against Negroes but local school boards or administrators so zone school attendance that Negroes are segregated in a few schools, both the impartial law and discriminatory practices must be considered part of the policy." Easton characterized public policy as "a web of decisions and actions that allocates values". Other definitions of public policy in terms of a broad range of empirical phenomena include that of Paul Cairney: "the sum total of government action from signals of intent to the final outcomes". An example of conceiving public policy as ideas is a definition by
Richard Titmuss Richard Morris Titmuss (1907–1973) was a pioneering British social research ''Social Research: An International Quarterly'' is a quarterly academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which Scholarly me ...

Richard Titmuss
: "the principles that govern action directed towards given ends". Titmuss' perspective was particularly one of social contract ethics. More recently
Antonio Lassance
has defined public policy as "an institutionalized proposal to solve a central problem, guided by a conception" (Lassance, 2020: 7). Lassance's perspective and concerns are grounded in a
theory of change Theory of Change (ToC) is a methodology for planning, Participation (decision making), participation, and evaluation that is used in companies, philanthropy, not-for-profit and government sectors to promote social change. Theory of Change defines l ...
or program theory which he believes can be empirically tested. One of the most known and controversial concepts of public policy is that of
Thomas R. Dye Thomas R. Dye (born December 16, 1935) is an Emeritus Professor of Political science, Political Science at Florida State University and was formerly a McKenzie Professor of Government of the United States, Government. Dye has described politics as b ...
, according to whom "public policy is whatever governments choose to do or not to do" (Dye, 1972: 2). Although widely used, Dye's concept is also criticized as being an empty concept. Dye himself admitted that his concept "discourages elaborate academic discussions of the definition of public policy - we say simply that public policy is whatever governments choose to do or not to do". In an institutionalist view, the foundation of public policy is composed of national constitutional laws and regulations. Further foundational aspects include both
judicial The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authori ...
interpretations and regulations which are generally authorized by legislation. Public policy is considered strong when it solves problems efficiently and effectively, serves and supports governmental institutions and policies, and encourages active citizenship. In his book ''Advanced Introduction to Public Policy'', B. Guy Peters defines public policy as "the set of activities that governments engage in for the purpose of changing their economy and society", effectively saying that public policy is legislation brought in with the aim of benefiting or impacting the electorate in some way. In another definition, author B. Dente in his book ''Understanding Policy Decisions'' explains public policy as "a set of actions that affect the solution of a policy problem, i.e. a dissatisfaction regarding a certain need, demand or opportunity for public intervention. Its quality is measured by the capacity to create public value." Other scholars define public policy as a system of "courses of action, regulatory measures, laws, and funding priorities concerning a given topic promulgated by a governmental entity or its representatives". Public policy is commonly embodied in "constitutions, legislative acts, and judicial decisions". Transformative constitutions of Global South considers judicial actions for Public policy as paramount, since the political forces that facilitate legislative decisions may run counter to the will of the people. Public policy focuses on the decisions that create the outputs of a political system, such as transport policies, the management of a public health service, the administration of a system schooling and the organization of a defense force. In the United States, this concept refers not only to the result of policies, but more broadly to the decision-making and analysis of governmental decisions. As an academic discipline, public policy is studied by professors and students at
public policy schools Public Policy schools are typically university programs which teach students policy analysis, policy studies, public policy, political economy, urban planning, public administration, public affairs, and public management. Public policy schools typi ...
of major
universities A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typi ...
throughout the country. The U.S. professional association of public policy practitioners, researchers, scholars, and students is the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. Much of public policy is concerned with evaluating decision-making in governments and public bureaucracies.


Public policy making and the implementation of public policy

Public policy making can be characterized as a dynamic, complex, and interactive system through which public problems are identified and resolved through the creation of new
policy Policy is a deliberate system of guidelines to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by a governance body within an organiz ...

policy
or reform of existing policy. Public problems can originate in endless ways and require different policy responses (such as regulations, subsidies, import quotas, and laws) on the local, national, or international level. The public problems that influence public policy making can be of economic, social, or political nature. The Government holds a legal monopoly to initiate or threaten physical force to achieve its ends when necessary. For instance, in times of chaos when quick decision making is needed.


Public policy making

Public policy making is a time-consuming '
policy cycle Policy is a deliberate system of guideline A guideline is a statement by which to determine a course of action. A guideline aims to streamline particular processes according to a set routine or sound practice. Guidelines may be issued by an ...
'. The policy cycle as set out in ''Understanding Public Policy: Theories and Issues''.


Agenda setting

Agenda setting Agenda-setting describes the "ability (of the news media) to influence the importance placed on the topics of the Political agenda, public agenda". Agenda-setting is the manipulation of Public opinion, public awareness and concern of salient issues ...
identifies problems that require government attention, deciding which issue deserve the most attention and defining the nature of the problem.


= Social construction of problems

= Most public problems are made through the reflection of social and ideological values. As societies and communities evolve over time, the nature in which norms, customs and morals are proven acceptable, unacceptable, desirable or undesirable changes as well. Thus, the search of crucial problems to solve becomes difficult to distinguish within 'top-down' governmental bodies.


= Policy stream

= The policy stream is a concept developed by John Kingdon as a model proposed to show compelling problems need to be conjoined with two other factors (1. appropriate political climate and 2. favourable and feasible solution attached to problem) that flow together to move onto policy agenda. This reinforces the ''policy window'', another concept demonstrating the critical moment within a time and situation that a new policy could be motivated.


= Problem stream

= Because the definition of public problems are not obvious, they are most often denied and not acted upon. The Problem Stream represents a policy process to compromise for how worthy problems are to create policies and solutions. This is represented in 5 discrete factors: # Indicators: Scientific measurements, qualitative, statistical data using empirical evidence is used to bring relevance to particular phenomena. # Interpretation: Policymakers make judgements whether an issue constitutes a problem worthy of action. # Ideology: Elements of dominant values, customs, beliefs are crucial to devising problems needed for attention. # Instances: Media coverage supports by drawing attention to issues, thus prompting policymakers to respond and address changes. Therefore, John Kingdon's model suggests the policy window appears through the emergence and connection of problems, politics and policies, emphasizing the rare opportunity to stimulate and initiate new policies.


= Issue attention cycle

= The 'issue attention cycle' is a concept developed by Anthony Downs (1972) where problems progress through 5 distinct stages. This reinforces how the policy agenda does not necessarily lead to policy change, as public interest dissipates, most problems end up resolving themselves or get ignored by policymakers. Its key stages include: # Pre-problem stage: The problem is not recognized by the public, media or policy makers. # Alarmed discovery and euphoric enthusiasm: something is identified as a problem, supported awareness by media to pursue seriousness of problem # Realization of costs which will be incurred by the solutions: Investigating through cost-benefit analysis, bringing awareness of financial, environmental, structural curbs to consider solutions and what makes for their consequences. # Decline in public interest in issue: Citizens acquire acceptance of the problem and it becomes 'normalized'. Newer issues attract the attention of the public. Limited attention span encourages policymakers to delay developing policy to see which public troubles demand necessary and worthwhile solving. # Issue slips off, or back down, the policy agenda: The issue effectively disappears, although it has the possibility to re-emerge in other pressing circumstances.


Policy formulation

This is the setting of the objectives for the policy, along with identifying the cost and effect of solutions that could be proposed from policy instruments.


Legitimation

Legitimation is when approval/ support for the policy instruments is gathered, involving one of or a combination of executive approval, legislative approval, and seeking consent through consultation or referenda.


Implementation

Policy implementation is establishing or employing an organisation to take responsibility for the policy, making sure the organisation has the resources/legal authority to do so, in addition to making sure the policy is carried out as planned. An example of this would be the department of education being set up.


Implementation gap

As stated by Paul Cairney, the implementation gap are the stages a policy must go through before an authoritative decision is made and carried out. As an example, the agenda setting stage is followed by the policy formulation, this will continue until the policy is implemented.


Top-down and bottom-up implementation

"Top-down" and "bottom-up" describe the process of policy implementation. Top-down implementation means the carrying out of a policy at the top i.e. central government or legislature. The bottom-up approach suggests that the implementation should start with the target group, as they are seen as the actual implementers of policy.


Evaluation

Evaluation is the process of assessing the extent to which the policy has been successful, or if this was the right policy to begin with/ was it implemented correctly and if so, did it go as expected.


Policy maintenance

Maintenance is when the policy makers decide to either terminate or continue the policy. The policy is usually either continued as is, modified, or discontinued.


Composition

This cycle will unless discontinued go back to the agenda-setting phase and the cycle will commence again. However, the policy cycle is illustrated in a chronological and cyclical structure which could be misleading as in actuality, policymaking would include overlapping stages between the multiple interactions of policy proposals, adjustments, decision-making amongst multiple government institutions and respective authoritative actors. Likewise, although its heuristic model is straightforward and easy to understand, it is crucial to note that the cycle is not totally applicable in all situations of policymaking.


Responsibility of policymakers

Each system is influenced by different public problems and issues, and has different stakeholders; as such, each requires different public policy. In public policy making, numerous individuals, corporations, non-profit organizations and interest groups compete and collaborate to influence policymakers to act in a particular way.Kilpatrick The large set of actors in the public policy process, such as politicians, civil servants, lobbyists, domain experts, and industry or sector representatives, use a variety of tactics and tools to advance their aims, including advocating their positions publicly, attempting to educate supporters and opponents, and mobilizing allies on a particular issue. Many actors can be important in the public policy process, but government officials ultimately choose public policy in response to the public issue or problem at hand. In doing so, government officials are expected to meet public sector ethics and take the needs of all project stakeholders into account. It is however worth noting that what public policy is put forward can be influenced by the political stance of the party in power. Following the 2008/2009 financial crisis, David Cameron's Conservative party looked to implement a policy of austerity in 2010 after winning the general election that year, to shore up the economy and diminish the UK's national debt. Whilst the Conservatives saw reducing the national debt as an absolute priority, the Labour Party, since the effects of Conservative austerity became apparent, have slated the policy for its 'needless' pressure on the working classes and those reliant on welfare, their 2019 election manifesto stating "Tory cuts
ave ''Alta Velocidad Española'' (''AVE'') is a service of high-speed rail High-speed rail (HSR) is a type of rail transport that runs significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock a ...

ave
pushed our public services to breaking point" and that "the Conservatives have starved our education system of funding". This is a good example of how varying political beliefs can impact what is perceived as paramount for the electorate. Since societies have changed in the past decades, the public policy making system changed too. In the 2010s, public policy making is increasingly goal-oriented, aiming for measurable results and goals, and decision-centric, focusing on decisions that must be taken immediately. Furthermore, mass communications and technological changes such as the widespread availability of the Internet have caused the public policy system to become more complex and interconnected. The changes pose new challenges to the current public policy systems and pressures leaders to evolve to remain effective and efficient. Public policies come from all governmental entities and at all levels: legislatures, courts, bureaucratic agencies, and executive offices at national, local and state levels. On the federal level, public policies are laws enacted by Congress, executive orders issued by the president, decisions handed down by the US Supreme Court, and regulations issued by bureaucratic agencies. On the local, public policies include city ordinances, fire codes, and traffic regulations. They also take the form of written rules and regulations of city governmental departments: the police, fire departments, street repair, or building inspection. On the state level, public policies involve laws enacted by the state legislatures, decisions made by state courts, rules developed by state bureaucratic agencies, and decisions made by governors.


Policy design

Policy design entails conscious and deliberate effort to define policy aims and map them instrumentally. Policy design proposes critical analysis of policy instruments and their implementation. Uncertainties policy designers face include (in brief): * Technical difficulties: mechanism, design, constituency, environment of public policies * Cost issues: resources, materials, products, etc. * Political problems: selection process of solutions and decision making. Policies require tedious and rigorous research on advise for its feasibility, legitimacy and choice. * Compliance: Understanding the target market and discovering data for those dependent, disadvantaged or deviant on policy change. * Effectiveness: There is a possibility of spillovers, complementariness and inconsistencies. Nevertheless, policy design is elemental for the succession of public policy, with it comes intricate and multi-level approaches but it is necessary for good, careful policy design to be considered before implementing the policy.


Data-driven policy

Data-driven policy is a policy designed by a government based on existing data, evidence, rational analysis and use of information technology to crystallize problems and highlight effective solutions. Data-driven policy making aims to make use of data and collaborate with citizens to co-create policy. Policy makers can now make use of new data sources and technological developments like
Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, ...
to gain new insights and make policy decisions which contribute to societal development.


User-centered policy design

User-centered policies are policies that are designed and implemented with the end-users, or those who are impacted by the policy, as co-designers. Policymakers using this design process utilize users' knowledge of their lived experiences. This can allow for policymakers focus on including both comprehensiveness and comprehension within policies to aid in clarity for end-users, such as workers or organizations.


Small System dynamics model

The Small System dynamics model is a method of condensing and simplifying the understanding of complex issues related to overall productivity.


Evidence-based policy

Evidence-based policy Evidence-based policy (EBP) is an idea in public policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a ...
is associated with
Adrian Smith Adrian Frederick "H" Smith (born 27 February 1957) is an English guitarist, best known as a member of British Heavy metal music, heavy metal band Iron Maiden, for whom he writes songs and performs live backing vocals on some tracks. Smith grew u ...
because in his 1996 presidential address to the
Royal Statistical Society The Royal Statistical Society (RSS) is an established statistical society. It has three main roles: a British learned society for statistics, a professional association, professional body for statisticians and a charity which promotes statistic ...
, Smith questioned the current process of policy making and urged for a more "evidence-based approach" commenting that it has "valuable lessons to offer". Some policy scholars now avoid using the term ''evidence-based'' policy, using others such as ''evidence informed''. This language shift allows continued thinking about the underlying desire to ''improve'' evidence use in terms of its rigor or quality, while avoiding some of the key limitations or reductionist ideas at times seen with the evidence-based language. Still, the language of evidence-based policy is widely used and, as such, can be interpreted to reflect a desire for evidence to be used well or appropriately in one way or another – such as by ensuring systematic consideration of rigorous and high quality policy relevant evidence, or by avoiding biased and erroneous applications of evidence for political ends.


In the U.S.

Unlike the UK, the U.S. has a largely devolved government, with power at local, state and federal level. Due to these various levels of governance, it can often be difficult to coordinate passing bills and legislation, and there is often disagreement. Despite this, the system allows citizens to be relatively involved in inputting legislation. Furthermore, each level of government is set up in a similar way with similar rules, and all pump money into creating what is hoped to be effective legislation. Policy creation in America is often seen as unique to other countries.


Academic discipline

As an academic discipline, public policy brings in elements of many
social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer to the field of sociol ...

social science
fields and concepts, including
economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. ...

economics
,
sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly ...
,
political economy Political economy is the study of production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (g ...
,
social policy Social policy is policy A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by a gov ...
,
program evaluationProgram evaluation is a systematic method for collecting, analyzing, and using information to answer questions about projects, policies and programs, particularly about their effectiveness and efficiency. In both the public and private sectors, sta ...
,
policy analysis Policy analysis is a technique used in public administration to enable civil servant The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or ...
, and public management, all as applied to problems of governmental administration, management, and operations. At the same time, the study of public policy is distinct from political science or economics, in its focus on the application of theory to practice. While the majority of
public policy degrees In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the ...
are
master's A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of Profession, professiona ...
and
doctoral The cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine">Claude_Bernard.html" ;"title="thesis presented by Claude Bernard">thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine degree (1843) A doctorat ...

doctoral
degrees, there are several universities that offer undergraduate education in public policy. Notable institutions include: *
Balsillie School of International Affairs The Balsillie School of International Affairs (BSIA) is a centre for advanced research and teaching on global governance and international public policy, located in Waterloo, Ontario Waterloo is a city in the Canadian province of Ontario. It is ...
*
Blavatnik School of Government The Blavatnik School of Government is a school of public policy founded in 2010 at the University of Oxford , mottoeng = The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (2019) , budget = £2.1 ...

Blavatnik School of Government
*
Leiden University Leiden University (abbreviated as ''LEI''; nl, Universiteit Leiden) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such group ...
*
Hertie School The Hertie School is a private independent graduate school for public policy, international affairs and data science located in Berlin's Friedrichstraße. It is a public policy school and is accredited to confer master's and doctoral degrees. Hal ...

Hertie School
, Berlin *
Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, or the Graduate Institute (french: Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement, previously known as ''Institut des hautes études internationales''), abbreviate ...
, Geneva *
John F. Kennedy School of Government The Harvard Kennedy School (also known as the John F. Kennedy School of Government and HKS) is the public policy school of Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, ...
, Harvard *
London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of s ...
*
Sciences Po The Paris Institute of Political Studies (french: Institut d'études politiques de Paris), commonly referred to as Sciences Po Paris or just Sciences Po (), is a ''Grandes écoles, grande école'' and ''grands établissements, grand établisseme ...
, Paris *
National Defence University, Pakistan The National Defence University or NDU, ( ur, )is a publicly funded military institution located in Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islāmābād) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is federally administered as part of the Islamab ...
Traditionally, the academic field of public policy focused on
domestic policy Domestic policy are administrative decisions that are directly related to all issues and activity within a state's borders. It differs from foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global ...
. However, the wave of
economic globalization Economic globalization is one of the three main dimensions of globalization commonly found in academic literature, with the two others being political globalization and cultural globalization, as well as the general term of globalization. Economi ...
that occurred in the late 20th and early 21st centuries created a need for a subset of public policy that focused on
global governance ''Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations'' is an academic quarterly journal. It was published by Lynne Rienner Publishers in the past, and is now published by Brill Publishers. It is published in associatio ...
, especially as it relates to issues that transcend national borders such as
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known event ...
,
terrorism Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neu ...
,
nuclear proliferation Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons A nuclear weapon (also known as an atom bomb, atomic bomb, nuclear bomb or nuclear warhead, and colloquially as an A-bomb or nuke) is an explosive device that derives its destructive ...

nuclear proliferation
, and
economic development In the economic study of the public sector, economic and social development is the process by which the economic well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''quality of life'', refers to what is intrinsically ...
. Consequently, many traditional public policy schools had to adjust their curricula to better suit this new policy landscape, as well as develop entirely new curricula altogether.


Controversy surrounding public policy

The
Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associated with the country Austria, for example: ** Austria-Hungary ** Austr ...
and
Chicago school of economics The Chicago school of economics is a Neoclassical economics, neoclassical Schools of economic thought, school of economic thought associated with the work of the faculty at the University of Chicago, some of whom have constructed and popularize ...
criticise public policymakers for not "understanding basic economics". In particular, a member of the Chicago school of economics,
Thomas Sowell Thomas Sowell (; born June 30, 1930) is an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from economi ...
writes "Under popularly elected government, the political incentives are to do what is popular, even if the consequences are worse than the consequences of doing nothing, or doing something that is less popular". Therefore, since "Economics studies the consequences of decisions that are made about the use of land, labour, capital and other resources that go into producing the volume of output which determines a country's standard of living"; this means that artificially tampering with the allocation of scarce resources such as implementing certain public policies such as price controls will cause inefficiency in the economy and decline in the standard of living within society. One of the biggest controversies of public policy is that policy making is often influenced by lobbyists such as big corporations in order to sway policies in their favour. In the United States for example, the
National Rifle Association The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is a gun rights advocacy group based in the United States. Founded in 1871 to advance rifle marksmanship, the modern NRA has become a prominent gun rights lobbying organization while continuing ...
(NRA) is infamous for being a lobbyist organisation that lobbies lawmakers that oppose stricter gun laws.


See also

*
Advocacy Advocacy is an activity Activity may refer to: * Action (philosophy), in general * Human activity: human behavior, in sociology behavior may refer to all basic human actions, economics may study human economic activities and along with cybern ...

Advocacy
* Advocacy evaluation *
Eightfold path (policy analysis) The eightfold path is a method of policy analysis Policy analysis is a technique used in public administration to enable civil servants, activists, and others to examine and evaluate the available options to implement the goals of laws and elect ...
*
Harold Lasswell Harold Dwight Lasswell (February 13, 1902December 18, 1978) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of A ...
* List of public policy topics by country * List of public administration schools *
Mandate (politics) In politics, a mandate is the authority granted by a constituency to act as its representative. Elections, especially ones with a large margin of victory, are often said to give the newly elected government or elected official an implicit mandat ...
*
Overton window The Overton window is the range of policies politically acceptable to the mainstream population at a given time. It is also known as the window of discourse. The term is named after American policy analyst Joseph P. Overton, who stated that an ...
*
Policy Policy is a deliberate system of guidelines to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by a governance body within an organiz ...

Policy
*
Public comment In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the sociology, sociological concept of the ''Ö ...
*
Public policy school Public Policy schools are typically university programs which teach students policy analysis Policy analysis is a technique used in public administration to enable civil servants, activists, and others to examine and evaluate the available optio ...
*
Public criminology Public criminology is an approach to criminology Criminology (from Latin , "accusation", and Ancient Greek , ''-logia'', from λόγος ''logos'' meaning: "word, reason") is the study of crime and Deviance (sociology), deviant behaviour. Crimin ...


References


Further reading

* Bueno de Mesquita, Ethan. 2017.
Political Economy for Public Policy
'. Princeton University Press. *Gilbert, Brett Anitra; David B. Audretsch, McDougall, Patricia P. (2004), The Emergence of Entrepreneurship Policy, Small Business Economics 22 * Cohen, Nissim (2012)
Policy entrepreneurs and the design of public policy: Conceptual framework and the case of the National Health Insurance Law in Israel
Journal of Social Research & Policy, 3 (1): 5–26. * David B. Audretsch; Grilo, Isabel; Thurik, A. Roy (2007), Explaining entrepreneurship and the role of policy: a framework, in: David Audretsch, Isabel Grilo and A. Roy Thurik (eds.), Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship Policy, Edward Elgar Publishing * David B. Audretsch and Beckmann, Iris A.M. (2007), From Small Business to Entrepreneurship Policy, in: David Audretsch, Isabel Grilo and A. Roy Thurik (eds.), Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship Policy, Edward Elgar Publishing * Considine, Mark (2005). ''Making Public Policy''. Polity Press. {{DEFAULTSORT:Public Policy
Political science Subfields of political science include international relations, comparative politics, public law, and political theory. Each subfield tends to overlap with other academic disciplines, such as political history, history, political philosophy, philos ...
Public economics Public administration Social policy