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A floor is the bottom surface of a room or vehicle. Floors vary from simple dirt in a cave to many-layered surfaces made with modern technology. Floors may be stone, wood, bamboo, metal or any other material that can support the expected load. The levels of a building are often referred to as floors, although a more proper term is
storey A storey (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, ...
. Floors typically consist of a subfloor for support and a floor covering used to give a good walking surface. In modern buildings the subfloor often has electrical wiring, plumbing, and other services built in. As floors must meet many needs, some essential to safety, floors are built to strict
building code A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non-building structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, ...
s in some regions.


Special floor structures

Where a special floor structure like a
floating floor A floating floor is a floor that does not need to be nailed or glued to the subfloor. The term floating floor refers to the installation method, but is often used synonymously with laminate flooring. It is applied now to other coverings such as f ...
is laid upon another floor then both may be referred to as subfloors. Special floor structures are used for a number of purposes: *
Balcony A balcony (from it, balcone, scaffold; cf. Old High German Old High German (OHG, german: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. ) is the earliest stage of the German language The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in ...

Balcony
, a platform projecting from a wall *
Floating floor A floating floor is a floor that does not need to be nailed or glued to the subfloor. The term floating floor refers to the installation method, but is often used synonymously with laminate flooring. It is applied now to other coverings such as f ...
, normally for noise or vibration reduction *
Glass floor Glass is a non-crystalline A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas and plasma). The molecules in a solid are closely packed together and c ...
, as in glass bottomed elevators *
Nightingale floor ' are floors that make a chirping sound when walked upon. These floors were used in the hallways of some temples and palaces, the most famous example being Nij┼Ź Castle, in Kyoto, Japan. Dry boards naturally creak under pressure, but these flo ...
makes a noise when an intruder walks on it *
Raised floor A raised floor (also raised flooring, access floor(ing), or raised-access computer floor) provides an elevated structural floor above a solid substrate (often a concrete slab) to create a hidden void for the passage of mechanical and electrical s ...
, utilities underneath can be accessed easily *
Sprung floor A sprung floor is a floor that absorbs shocks, giving it a softer feel. Such floors are considered the best kind for dance and indoor sports and physical education, and can enhance performance and greatly reduce injuries. Modern sprung floors are su ...
, improves the performance and safety of athletes and dancers


Floor covering

Floor covering is a term to generically describe any material applied over a floor structure to provide a walking surface. Flooring is the general term for a permanent or temporary covering of a floor, or for the work of installing such a floor covering. Both terms are used interchangeably but floor covering refers more to loose-laid materials. Materials almost always classified as floor covering include
carpet A carpet is a textile floor covering typically consisting of an upper layer of Pile (textile), pile attached to a backing. The pile was traditionally made from wool, but since the 20th century, synthetic fibers such as polypropylene, nylon or p ...

carpet
, area rugs, and resilient flooring such as
linoleum Linoleum, commonly shortened to lino, is a floor covering made from materials such as solidified linseed oil (linoxyn), pine resin, ground cork dust, sawdust Sawdust (or wood shavings) is a by-product or waste product of woodworking oper ...

linoleum
or
vinyl Vinyl may refer to: * Vinyl group, a class of organic molecules in chemistry * Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a particular vinyl polymer ** PVC clothing, cloth coated in PVC, also commonly used for tablecloths, upholstery, and shoes * Vinyl compositio ...
flooring. Materials commonly called
flooring Flooring is the general term for a permanent covering of a floor, or for the work of installing such a floor covering. Floor covering is a term to generically describe any finish material applied over a floor structure to provide a walking surface. ...

flooring
include
wood flooring 250px, An example of solid wood flooring with a top coating of polyurethane Wood flooring is any product manufactured from timber Lumber, also known as timber, is a type of wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found ...
, laminated wood,
ceramic tile 285px, Hand-painted Chinese porcelain tiles on the floor of a Jewish synagogue in Cochin, Kerala, India Porcelain tiles or ceramic tiles are porcelain Porcelain () is a ceramic A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resista ...
,
stone A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rocks form the Earth's outer solid layer, th ...

stone
,
terrazzo Terrazzo is a composite material, poured in place or precast, which is used for floor and wall treatments. It consists of chips of marble, quartz, granite, glass, or other suitable material, poured with a cementitious binder (for chemical bindin ...

terrazzo
, and various seamless chemical floor coatings. The choice of material for floor covering is affected by factors such as cost, endurance, noise insulation, comfort and cleaning effort, and sometimes concerns about
allergens An allergen is a type of antigen In immunology, an antigen (Ag) is a molecule or molecular structure, such as may be present on the outside of a pathogen, that can be bound by an antigen-specific antibody or B-cell antigen receptor. The pr ...
. Some types of flooring must not be installed below grade (lower than ground level), and laminate or hardwood should be avoided where there may be moisture or condensation. The subfloor may be finished in a way that makes it usable without any extra work, see: *
Earthen floor An earthen floor, also called an adobe floor, is a floor made of dirt, raw earth, or other unworked ground materials. It is usually constructed, in modern times, with a mixture of sand, finely chopped straw and clay, mixed to a thickened consisten ...
adobe or
clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support ...

clay
floors *
Solid ground floor Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) re ...
cement screed or granolithic There are a number of special features that may be used to ornament a floor or perform a useful service. Examples include
floor medallions A floor medallion is generally a centerpiece of flooring Flooring is the general term for a permanent covering of a floor, or for the work of installing such a floor covering. Floor covering is a term to generically describe any finish material app ...
which provide a decorative centerpiece of a floor design, or gratings used to drain water or to rub dirt off shoes.


Subfloor construction

Floors may be built on Beam (structure), beams or joists or use structures like prefabricated hollow core slabs. The subfloor builds on those and attaches by various means particular to the support structure but the support and subfloor together always provides the strength of a floor one can sense underfoot. Nowadays, subfloors are generally made from at least two layers of moisture resistant ("AC" grade, one side finished and sanded flat) plywood or composite sheeting, jointly also termed ''Underlayments'' on floor joists of 2x8, 2x10, or 2x12's (Lumber#Dimensional lumber, dimensional lumber) spaced generally on centers, in the United States and Canada. Some flooring components used solely on concrete slabs consist of a dimpled rubberized or plastic layer much like bubble wrap that provide little tiny pillars for the sheet material above. These are manufactured in squares and the edges fit together like a mortise and tenon joint. Like a floor on joists not on concrete, a second sheeting underlayment layer is added with staggered joints to disperse forces that would open a joint under the stress of live loads like a person walking. Three layers are common only in high end highest quality construction. The two layers in high quality construction will both be thick sheets (as will the third when present), but the two layers may achieve a combined thickness of only half-that in cheaper construction panel overlaid by plywood subflooring. At the highest end, or in select rooms of the building there might well be three sheeting layers, and such stiff subflooring is necessary to prevent the cracking of large floor tiles of or more on a side, and the structure under such a floor will frequently also have extra "bracing" and "blocking" joist-to-joist intended to spread the weight to have as little sagging on any joist as possible when there is a live load on the floor above. In Europe and North America only a few rare floors will be seen to have no separate floor covering on top, and those are normally because of a temporary condition pending sales or occupancy; in semi-custom new construction and some rental markets, such floors are provided for the new home buyer (renter) to select their own preferred floor coverings usually a wall to wall carpet, or one piece vinyl floor covering. Wood clad (hardwood) and tile covered finished floors generally will require a stiffer higher quality subfloor, especially for the later class. Since the wall base and flooring interact forming a joint, such later added semi-custom floors will generally not be hardwood for that joint construction would be in the wrong order unless the wall base trim was also delayed pending the choosing. The subfloor may also provide underfloor heating and if floor radiant heating is not used, will certainly suffer puncture openings to be put through for Duct (HVAC), forced air ducts for both heating and air conditioning, or pipe holes for forced hot water or steam heating transport piping conveying the heat from furnace to the local room's heat exchangers (radiators). Some sub-floors are inset below the top surface level of surrounding flooring's joists and such subfloors and a normal height joist are joined to make a plywood box both molding and containing at least of concrete (A mud floor" in builders' parlance). Alternatively, only a slightly inset floor topped by a fibrous mesh and concrete building composite floor cladding is used for smaller high quality tile floors these "concrete" subfloors have a good thermal match with ceramic tiles and so are popular with builders constructing kitchen, laundry and especially both common and high end bathrooms and any other room where large expanses of well supported ceramic tile will be used as a finished floor. Floors using small ( and smaller) ceramic tiles generally use only an additional layer of plywood (if that) and substitute adhesive and substrate materials making do with both a flexible joints and semi-flexible mounting compounds and so are designed to withstand the greater flexing which large tiles cannot tolerate without breaking.


Ground floor construction

A ground-level floor can be an earthen floor made of soil, or be solid ground floors made of concrete slab. Ground level slab floors are uncommon in northern latitudes where freezing provides significant structural problems, except in heated interior spaces such as basements or for outdoor unheated structures such as a gazebo or shed where unitary temperatures are not creating pockets of troublesome meltwaters. Ground-level slab floors are prepared for pouring by grading (construction), grading the site, which usually also involves removing topsoil and other organic materials well away from the slab site. Once the site has reached a suitable firm inorganic base material that is graded further so that it is flat and level, and then topped by spreading a layer-cake of force dispersing sand and gravel. Deeper channels may be dug, especially the slab ends and across the slab width at regular intervals in which a continuous run of rebar is bent and wired to sit at two heights within forming a sub-slab "concrete girder". Above the targeted bottom height (coplanar with the compacted sand and gravel topping) a separate grid of rebar or welded wire mesh is usually added to reinforced concrete, reinforce the concrete, and will be tied to the under slab "girder" rebar at intervals. The under slab cast girders are used especially if it the slab be used structurally, i.e., to support part of the building.


Upper floor construction

Floors in Framing (construction), wood-frame homes are usually constructed with joists centered no more than apart, according to most
building code A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non-building structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, ...
s. Heavy floors, such as those made of
stone A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rocks form the Earth's outer solid layer, th ...

stone
, require more closely spaced joists. If the Span (architecture), span between load-bearing walls is too long for joists to safely support, then a heavy crossbeam (thick or laminated wood, or a metal I-beam or H-beam) may be used. A "subfloor" of plywood or waferboard is then laid over the joists.


Utilities

In modern buildings, there are numerous services provided via ducts or wires underneath the floor or above the ceiling. The floor of one level typically also holds the ceiling of the level below (if any). Services provided by subfloors include: * Air conditioning * Telecommunication, Communication fibers * Electrical wiring * Compartmentalization (fire protection), Fire protection * Thermal insulation * Plumbing * sanitary sewer, Sewerage * Soundproofing * Underfloor heating In floors supported by joists, Public utility, utilities are run through the floor by drilling small holes through the joists to serve as conduits. Where the floor is over the basement or Basement#Crawl space, crawlspace, utilities may instead be run under the joists, making the installation less expensive. Also, ducts for air conditioning (central heating and cooling) are large and cannot cross through joists or beams; thus, ducts are typically at or near the HVAC#Plenum space, plenum, or come directly from underneath (or from an attic). Pipes for plumbing, sewerage, underfloor heating, and other utilities may be laid directly in slab floors, typically via cellular floor raceways. However, later maintenance of these systems can be expensive, requiring the opening of concrete or other fixed structures. Electrically heated floors are available, and both kinds of systems can also be used in wood floors as well.


Problems with floors

Wood floors, particularly older ones, will tend to 'squeak' in certain places. This is caused by the wood rubbing against other wood, usually at a Joint (building), joint of the subfloor. Firmly securing the pieces to each other with screws or nail (fastener), nails may reduce this problem. Floor vibration is a problem with floors. Wood floors tend to pass sound, particularly heavy footsteps and low Low-frequency effect, bass frequencies.
Floating floor A floating floor is a floor that does not need to be nailed or glued to the subfloor. The term floating floor refers to the installation method, but is often used synonymously with laminate flooring. It is applied now to other coverings such as f ...
s can reduce this problem. Concrete floors are usually so massive they do not have this problem, but they are also much more expensive to construct and must meet more stringent building requirements due to their weight. Floors with a chemical sealer, like stained concrete or epoxy finishes, usually have a slick finish presenting a potential slip and fall hazard, however there are anti skid additives and coatings which can help mitigate this and provide increased traction. Reliable, science-backed floor slip resistance testing can help floor owners and designers determine if their floor is too slippery, or allow them to choose an appropriate flooring for the intended purpose before installation. The flooring may need protection sometimes. A gym floor cover can be used to reduce the need to satisfy incompatible requirements.


Floor cleaning

Floor cleaning is a major employment, occupation throughout the world and has been since ancient times. Cleaning is essential for hygiene, to prevent injuries due to slips, and to remove dirt. Floors are also treated to protect or beautify the surface. The correct method to clean one type of floor can often damage another, so it is important to use the correct treatment.


See also

* Floor area * Storey#Numbering, Floor numbering * Floor plan * Sensing floor * Sidewalk * Storey


References


External links

{{Authority control Floors, Building materials Structural system