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Eye liner or eyeliner is a
cosmetic Cosmetic may refer to: *Cosmetics, or make-up, substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, apart from simple cleaning *Cosmetic, an adjective describing beauty, aesthetics, or appearance, especially concerning the human body *Cosmetic, a t ...
used to define the
eyes Eyes are organs of the visual system. They provide living organisms with vision, the ability to receive and process visual detail, as well as enabling several photo response functions that are independent of vision. Eyes detect light and co ...
. It is applied around the contours of the eye(s). It is often used to create various aesthetic effects.


History

Eye liner was first used in
ancient India According to consensus in modern genetics, anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago. Quote: "Y-Chromosome and Mt-DNA data support the colonization of South Asia by ...
,
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeast Africa situated in the Nile Valley. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100Anno Domini, BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the ...
and
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن or ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the northern part of the F ...
as a dark black line around the eyes. As early as 10,000 BC, Egyptians and Mesopotamians wore various cosmetics including eye liner not only for aesthetics but to protect the skin from the desert sun. Research has also speculated that eye liner was worn to protect the wearer from the
evil eye The Evil Eye ( grc, ὀφθαλμὸς βάσκανος; grc-koi, ὀφθαλμὸς πονηρός; el, (κακό) μάτι; he, עַיִן הָרָע, ; Romanian language, Romanian: ''Deochi''; it, malocchio; es, mal de ojo; pt, mau-olha ...
. The characteristic of having heavily lined eyes has been frequently depicted in ancient Egyptian art. They produced eye liner with a variety of materials, including
copper ore Following is a list of minerals that serve as copper ores in the copper mining process:Samans, Carl H. ''Engineering Metals and their Alloys'' MacMillan 1949 References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Copper ores Copper ores Mining-related lists ...
and
antimony Antimony is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Sb (from la, wiktionary:stibium#Latin, stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony ...
. Ancient Egyptian kohl contained
galena Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide Lead is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Pb (from the Latin ) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metals, heavy metal that is density, de ...
, which was imported from nearby regions in the
Land of Punt The Land of Punt (Egyptian language, Egyptian: ''wikt:pwnt#Egyptian, pwnt''; alternate Egyptian language#Egyptological pronunciation, Egyptological readings ''Pwene''(''t'') /pu:nt/) was an ancient kingdom known from Ancient Egyptian trade re ...
,
Coptos Qift ( arz, قفط ; cop, Ⲕⲉϥⲧ, link=no ''Keft'' or ''Kebto''; Egyptian Gebtu; grc, Κόπτος, link=no ''Coptos'' / ''Koptos''; Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civil ...
and
Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion of the larger geographical region of Asia, as defined by some academics, UN bodies and other institutions. It is almost entirely a part of the Middle East, and includes Anat ...
.''Studies in Ancient Technology'', Volume III, (Brill Archive), p.18. In the 1960s, liquid eye liner was used to create thick black and white lines around the eyes in the make-up fashion associated with designers like
Mary Quant Dame Barbara Mary Quant, Mrs Plunket Greene, (born 11 February 1930)The Mary Quant exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum in 2019-20 stated her year of birth as 1930, and that she became a student at Goldsmiths, University of London, Gol ...
. The '60s and '70s also saw new fashion trends which made use of eyeliner, eyeshadow and
mascara Mascara is a Cosmetics, cosmetic commonly used to enhance the upper and lower eyelashes. It is used to darken, thicken, lengthen, and/or define the eyelashes. Normally in one of three forms—liquid, powder, or cream—the modern mascara produc ...
in new ways. As goth and punk fashion developed, they employed eyeliner for a dark and dramatic effect.


Modern usage

In the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, heavy eye liner use has been associated with Goth fashion and
Punk fashion Punk fashion is the clothing, hairstyles, cosmetics, jewellery, and body modifications of the punk counterculture. Punk fashion varies widely, ranging from Vivienne Westwood designs to styles modeled on bands like The Exploited to the dressed-dow ...
. Eye liner of varying degrees of thickness has also become associated with the emo subculture and various alternative lifestyles. Guy liner is also a special style the emo subculture tend to use after being popularized from
Pete Wentz Peter Lewis Kingston Wentz III (born June 5, 1979) is an American musician best known as the bassist and lyricist for the rock band Fall Out Boy since 2001. Before Fall Out Boy, Wentz was a fixture of the Chicago hardcore scene and was the lea ...
, bassist of the pop-punk band
Fall Out Boy Fall Out Boy is an American Rock music, rock band formed in Wilmette, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, in 2001. The band consists of lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist Patrick Stump, bassist Pete Wentz, lead guitarist Joe Trohman, and drummer A ...
. Eye liner is commonly used in a daily make-up routine to define the eye or create the look of a wider or smaller eye. Eye liner can be used as a tool to create various looks as well as highlighting different features of the eyes. Eye liner can be placed in various parts of the eye to create different looks with a winged eye liner or tight lined at the waterline. Eye liner can be drawn above upper lashes or below lower lashes or both, even on the water lines of the eyes. Its primary purpose is to make the lashes look lush, but it also draws attention to the eye and can enhance or even change the eye's shape. Eye liner is available in a wide range of hues, from the common black, brown and grey to more adventurous shades such as bright primary colors, pastels, frosty silvers and golds, white and even glitter-flecked colors. Eye liner can also be used for showing depression in photographs, such as the .


Winged eye liner

Winged eye liner defines the shape of the top eyelid and extends to a point or ‘wing’ about halfway toward the end of the eyebrow.


Cat Eye

A cat eye looks similar to a winged liner. But, it has a thicker wing that involves the bottom and the top lash line.


Tight lining

Tight lining is the use of eye liner tight against the
waterline The waterline is the line where the Hull (watercraft), hull of a ship meets the surface of the water. Specifically, it is also the name of a special marking, also known as an international load line, Plimsoll line and water line (positioned Ami ...
under the lashes of the upper lid, and above the lashes of the lower lid. Due to the proximity to the membranes, and the surface of the eye itself, waterproof eye liner is preferred. Tight lining is a technique which makes the eyelashes appear to start farther back on the eyelid, thus making them look longer. Gel eye liner and a small angled brush may be used to create this look.


Application

Advice on application varies.
Harper's Bazaar ''Harper's Bazaar'' is an American monthly women's fashion magazine. It was first published in New York City on November 2, 1867, as the weekly ''Harper's Bazar''. ''Harper's Bazaar'' is published by Hearst Communications, Hearst and consider ...
recommends applying line in short strokes.


Types

Depending on its texture, eye liner can be softly smudged or clearly defined. There are six main types of eye liner available on the market: each produces a different effect. *''Liquid eye liner'' is an opaque liquid that usually comes in a small bottle and is typically applied with a small sharp-tipped brush. It creates a clean, precise line. This type of eye liner is best used to create sharp, winged eyeliner. Because liquid eye liner gives a much heavier appearance, it is often only applied to the upper lash-line. *''Powder-based eye pencil'' is eye liner in a wood pencil. It is generally available in dark, matted shades. *''Wax-based eye pencils'' are softer pencils and contain waxes that ease application. They come in a wide variety of intense colours as well as paler shades such as white or beige. Wax-based eye liners can also come in a cone or a compact with brush applicator. These are the cheapest and most ubiquitous eyeliner form *'' Kohl'' eye liner is a soft powder available in dark matte shades. It is most often used in black to outline the eyes. It comes in pencil, pressed powder, or loose powder form. This type of eye liner is easy to smudge. * ''Gel eye liner'', which is a softer gel liner, that can be easily applied with an eye liner brush. It can be precisely applied and is much softer than Kohl. * ''Shimmer Liner'', which is available in different bright colors applied on the upper as well as lower eyelid.


Chemical composition

Traditional wax-based eye liners are made from about 20 components. About 50% by weight are waxes (e.g.,
Japan wax Japan wax (木蝋 ''Mokurō''), also known as sumac wax, sumach wax, vegetable wax, China green tallow, and Japan tallow, is a pale-yellow, waxy, water-insoluble solid with a gummy feel, obtained from the berries of certain sumacs native to Japan an ...
, fats, or related soft materials that easily glide on to the skin. Stearyl heptanoate is found in most cosmetic eyeliner. Typical pigments include black
iron oxide Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen. Several iron oxides are recognized. All are black magnetic solids. Often they are nonstoichiometric, non-stoichiometric. Oxyhydroxides are a related class of compounds, perhaps the ...
s, as well as smaller amounts of
titanium dioxide Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania , is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula . When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6 (PW6), or Colour Index International, CI 77891. It is a w ...
and
Prussian blue Prussian blue (also known as Berlin blue, Brandenburg blue or, in painting, Parisian or Paris blue) is a dark blue pigment produced by oxidation of ferrous ferrocyanide salts. It has the chemical formula Fe e(Cyanide, CN) Turnbull's blue is ...
.J. Cunningham "Color cosmetics" in Chemistry and Technology of the Cosmetics and Toiletries Industry Editors D. F. Williams, Mr W. H. Schmitt. Springer. (Print)


See also

*
Eye shadow Eye shadow (or eyeshadow) is a Cosmetics, cosmetic applied primarily to the eyelids to attract attention to the wearer's eyes, making them stand out or look more attractive. Eye shadow can also be applied under the eyes, on the cheeks, or to br ...


References

{{Use dmy dates, date=January 2019 Cosmetics Eyes in culture