ethnocide
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Ethnocide is the extermination of national cultures as a
genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an , , , or group. coined the term in 1944, combining the word (, "race, people") with the ("act of killing").. In 1948, the defined genocide as "acts committed wi ...
component. Reviewing the legal and the academic history of the usage of the terms genocide and ethnocide, Bartolomé Clavero differentiates them by stating that "Genocide kills people while ethnocide kills social cultures through the killing of individual souls". In addition, since "cultural genocide can only be the cultural dimension ''of'' genocide", the idea that "ethnocide or 'cultural genocide' is distinct from physically violent genocide is misleading". Because concepts such as
cultural genocide Cultural genocide or cultural cleansing is a concept which was distinguished by lawyer Raphael Lemkin in 1944 as a component of genocide. Though the precise definition of ''cultural genocide'' remains contested, the Armenian Genocide Museum def ...
and ethnocide have been used in different contexts, the anthropology of genocide examines their inclusion and exclusion in law and policies.


Origin of the word

Raphael Lemkin Raphael Lemkin ( pl, Rafał Lemkin; 24 June 1900 – 28 August 1959) was a Polish lawyer of Jewish descent who is best known for coining the word '' genocide'' and initiating the Genocide Convention. Lemkin coined the word ''genocide Gen ...
, the linguist and lawyer who coined ''genocide'' in 1943 as the union of "the Greek word ''genos'' (race, tribe) and the Latin ''cide'' (killing)", also suggested ''ethnocide'' as an alternative form representing the same concept, using the Greek ''ethnos'' (nation) in place of ''genos''. However, the term genocide has received much wider adoption than ethnocide.


Usage

As early as 1933, the lawyer
Raphael Lemkin Raphael Lemkin ( pl, Rafał Lemkin; 24 June 1900 – 28 August 1959) was a Polish lawyer of Jewish descent who is best known for coining the word '' genocide'' and initiating the Genocide Convention. Lemkin coined the word ''genocide Gen ...
proposed that genocide had a cultural component, a component which he called "cultural genocide." The term has since acquired rhetorical value as a phrase that is used to protest against the destruction of cultural heritage.


Proposed usage

The drafters of the 1948
Genocide Convention The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was unanimously adopted by the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of t ...
considered the use of the term, but dropped it from their consideration. The legal definition of
genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an , , , or group. coined the term in 1944, combining the word (, "race, people") with the ("act of killing").. In 1948, the defined genocide as "acts committed wi ...
is left unspecific about the exact nature in which genocide is done only that it is destruction with intent to destroy a racial, religious, ethnic or national group as such. Article 7 of a 1994 draft of the
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP or DOTROIP) is a legally non-binding resolution passed by the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peac ...
uses the word "ethnocide" as well as the phrase "cultural genocide" but it does not define what they mean. The complete article reads as follows: :Indigenous peoples have the collective and individual right not to be subjected to ethnocide and
cultural genocide Cultural genocide or cultural cleansing is a concept which was distinguished by lawyer Raphael Lemkin in 1944 as a component of genocide. Though the precise definition of ''cultural genocide'' remains contested, the Armenian Genocide Museum def ...
, including prevention of and redress for: ::(a) Any action which has the aim or effect of depriving them of their integrity as distinct peoples, or of their cultural values or ethnic identities; ::(b) Any action which has the aim or effect of dispossessing them of their lands, territories or resources; ::(c) Any form of
population transfer Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or reli ...
which has the aim or effect of violating or undermining any of their rights; ::(d) Any form of assimilation or integration by other cultures or ways of life imposed on them by legislative, administrative or other measures; ::(e) Any form of propaganda directed against them. The
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was adopted by the
United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), serving as the main deliberative, policymaking, and representative organ of the UN. Its ...
during its 62nd session at
UN Headquarters zh, 联合国总部大楼french: Siège des Nations uniesrussian: Штаб-квартира Организации Объединённых Наций es, Sede de las Naciones Unidas , image = UN HQ 2724390955 bfc562c6a9 (cropped).jpg , image_ ...

UN Headquarters
in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the major city in the United States. Located at the s ...

New York City
on 13 September 2007, but only mentions "genocide", not "cultural genocide", although the article is otherwise unchanged.


Notions of ethnocide


UNESCO

In
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
's "Declaration of San Jose": The Declaration of San Jose commits the United States and the nations of Central America to engage in a more in-depth discussion about a broad range of issues. These issues include: strengthening
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polit ...

democracy
and regional security, building trade and investment, combating
crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...

crime
, drugs and
corruption Corruption is a form of dishonesty Dishonesty is to act without honesty. It is used to describe a lack of probity, cheating, lying, or deliberately withholding information, or being deliberately deceptive or a lack in integrity, knavishness, ...

corruption
, promoting dialogue on
immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination of which they are not natives or where they do not possess in order to settle as or citizens. , , and other short-term stays in a destination country do not fall under ...

immigration
, and achieving more equitable and sustainable development. In the Declaration of San José, UNESCO also addresses and works to define ethnocide. UNESCO defines the term as follows:


Robert Jaulin

The French ethnologist
Robert Jaulin Robert Jaulin (7 March 1928, Le Cannet, Alpes-Maritimes – 21 November 1996, Grosrouvre) was a French ethnologist. After several journeys to Chad, between 1954 and 1959, among the Sara people, he published in 1967 ''La Mort Sara'' (The Sara Death) ...
(1928-1996) proposed a redefinition of the concept of ethnocide in 1970, to refer not the ''means'' but the ''ends'' that define ethnocide. Accordingly, the ethnocide would be the systematic destruction of the thought and the way of life of people different from those who carry out this enterprise of destruction. Whereas the genocide assassinates the people in their body, the ethnocide kills them in their spirit.


Pierre Clastres

In Chapter 4 of ''The Archeology of Violence'' by Pierre Clastres Ethnocide, unlike genocide, is not based on the destruction of the physical person, but rather on the destruction of a person's culture. Ethnocide exterminates ways of thinking, living, and being from various cultures. It aims to destroy cultural differences, especially focused on the idea of "wrong" differences, that are present in a minority group by transforming the group's population into the culture norm of a certain place. This measuring of differences according to one’s own culture is called ethnocentrism. The ethnocentric mind is based on the assumption that there is a hierarchy of superior and inferior cultures. Therefore, ethnocide hopes to raise inferior cultures to the status of superior cultures by any means necessary.


Barry Sautman

Barry Victor Sautman is a professor with the Division of Social Science at the
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (abbreviated as HKUST) is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher ...
.
The "intent that underlies ethnocide is not the same intent as the intent of cultural genocide, for the same reason that it is not tied to physical or biological destruction of a group. The intent is therefore typically aimed at forced assimilation and not on population decimation. Thus the intent that underlies ethnocide is an intentional act resulting in cultural death" Barry Sautman, ‘Cultural genocide and Asian state peripheries. Cultural genocide in international context’ New York: Palgrave Macmillan , 2006


See also

*
Cultural genocide Cultural genocide or cultural cleansing is a concept which was distinguished by lawyer Raphael Lemkin in 1944 as a component of genocide. Though the precise definition of ''cultural genocide'' remains contested, the Armenian Genocide Museum def ...
*
Ethnic cleansing Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic, racial, and religious groups from a given area, with the intent of making a region ethnically homogeneous Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the Science, science ...
*
Forced assimilation Forced assimilation is an involuntary process of cultural assimilation of religious or ethnic minority groups during which they are forced to adopt language, Identity (social science), identity, Social norm, norms, mores, Convention (norm), customs, ...
*
Language death In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...
* Linguistic discrimination (includes Linguicide) * Policide


References


External links


Stein, Stuart D, ''Ethnocide''Ethnocide by Barbara Lukunka in the encyclopedia of mass violence
{{Authority control Genocide Ethnic conflict