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Environmental psychology is a branch of psychology that explores the relationship between humans and the external world. It examines the way in which the natural environment and our built environments shape us as individuals. Environmental Psychology emphasizes how humans change the environment and how the environment changes humans' experiences and behaviors. The field defines the term environment broadly, encompassing
natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all life, living and non-living things occurring nature, naturally, meaning in this case not Artificiality, artificial. The term is most often applied to the Earth or some parts of Earth. Th ...
s, social settings,
built environment The term built environment refers to human-made conditions and is often used in architecture, landscape architecture, urban planning, public health, sociology, and anthropology, among others. These curated spaces provide the setting for human ac ...
s, learning environments, and informational environments. According to an article on APA Psychnet, environmental psychology is when a person thinks of a plan, travels to a certain place, and follows through with the plan throughout their behavior. Environmental psychology was not fully recognized as its own field until the late 1960s when scientists began to question the tie between human behavior and our natural and built environments. Since its conception, the field has been committed to the development of a discipline that is both value oriented and problem oriented, prioritizing research aimed at solving complex
environmental problems Environmental issues are Human impact on the environment, effects of human activity on the biophysical environment, Climate change, most often of which are harmful effects that cause environmental degradation. Environmental protection is the prac ...
in the pursuit of individual well-being within a larger society.Proshansky 1987 When solving problems involving human-environment interactions, whether global or local, one must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will respond well. This model can help design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that enhance reasonable behavior, predict the likely outcomes when these conditions are not met, and diagnose problem situations. The field develops such a model of human nature while retaining a broad and inherently multidisciplinary focus. It explores such dissimilar issues as common property resource management,
wayfinding Wayfinding (or way-finding) encompasses all of the ways in which people (and animals) Orientation (mental), orient themselves in physical space and navigate from place to place. Wayfinding software is a self-service computer program that helps use ...
in complex settings, the effect of
environmental stress Stress, either physiological, biological or psychological, is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition. Stress is the body's method of reacting to a condition such as a threat, :wikt:challenge, challenge or physic ...
on human performance, the characteristics of restorative environments, human
information processing Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observation, observer. As such, it is a process that ''describes'' everything that happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a ch ...
, and the promotion of durable conservation behavior. Lately, alongside the increased focus on climate change in society and the social sciences and the re-emergence of limits-to-growth concerns, there has been an increased focus on environmental sustainability issues within the field. This multidisciplinary paradigm has not only characterized the dynamic for which environmental psychology is expected to develop, but it has also been the catalyst in attracting other schools of knowledge in its pursuit, aside from research psychologists.
Geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist or humanist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society, including how society and nature interacts. The Greek prefix "geo" means "earth" a ...
s,
economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from economics and write about economic policy. Within this ...
s,
landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysis, site inventory, Site plan, site planning, land planning, planting design, grading, storm wat ...
s, policy-makers, sociologists,
anthropologist An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, societies. Social anthropology, cultural anthropology and philosophical anthropology study the no ...
s,
educator A teacher, also called a schoolteacher or formally an educator, is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence, or virtue, via the practice of teaching. ''Informally'' the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone (e.g. whe ...
s, and product developers all have discovered and participated in this field. Although "environmental psychology" is arguably the best-known and most comprehensive description of the field, it is also known as human factors science,
cognitive ergonomics Cognitive ergonomics is a scientific Discipline (academia), discipline that studies, evaluates, and designs Task (project management), tasks, jobs, Product (business), products, Social environment, environments and Systems engineering, systems and ...
,
ecological psychology Ecological psychology is the scientific study of perception-action from a direct realist approach. Ecological psychology is a school of psychology that follows much of the writings of Roger Barker and James J. Gibson. Those in the field of Ecolo ...
,
ecopsychology Ecopsychology is an Interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinarity field that focuses on the synthesis of ecology and psychology and the promotion of sustainability. It is distinguished from conventional psychology as it focuses on ...
, environment–behavior studies, and person–environment studies. Closely related fields include
architectural psychology Environmental psychology is a branch of psychology that explores the relationship between humans and the external world. It examines the way in which the natural environment and our built environments shape us as individuals. Environmental Psychol ...
,
socio-architecture Socio-architecture is a phrase coined by psychologist Humphry Osmond and Canadian architect Kyo Izumi as part of their research for the best architectural form for Osmond's Souris Valley Mental Health Hospital, Weyburn Mental Hospital in 1951. Osmo ...
,
behavioral geography Behavioral geography is an approach to human geography that examines human behavior by separating it into different parts. In addition, behavioral geography is an ideology/approach in human geography that makes use of the methods and assumptions of ...
,
environmental sociology Environmental sociology is the study of interactions between societies and their natural environment. The field emphasizes the social factors that influence environmental resource management and cause environmental issues, the processes by whic ...
, social ecology, and environmental design research.


History

The origins of the field can be traced to the Romantic poets, such as Wordsworth and Coleridge who drew attention to the power of nature and the significance of human interaction with it. Darwin pointed to the role of the environment in shaping evolution. This idea was quickly applied to human interactions with the surroundings. An extreme Victorian acceptance of this were 'environmental determinists' who insisted the physical environment and climate influenced the evolution of racial characteristics. Willy Hellpach is said to be the first to mention "environmental psychology". One of his books, ''Geopsyche'', discusses topics such as how the sun and the moon affect human activity, the impact of extreme environments, and the effects of color and form (Pol, E., 2006, ''Blueprints for a history of environmental psychology (I): From first birth to American transition''. "Medio Ambiente y Comportamiento Humano", 7(2), 95-113). Among the other major scholars at the roots of environmental psychology were Jakob von Uexküll,
Kurt Lewin Kurt Lewin ( ; 9 September 1890 – 12 February 1947) was a German-American psychologist, known as one of the modern pioneers of social psychology, social, industrial and organizational psychology, organizational, and applied psychology in the Un ...
, Egon Brunswik, and later Gerhard Kaminski and Carl Friedrich Graumann. The end of World War II brought about a demand for guidance on the urgent building programme after the destruction of war. To provide government planning requirements many countries set up research centres that studied how people used space. In the U.K. the Building Research Centre studied space use in houses and later noise levels, heating and lighting requirements. The glass maker Pilkingtons set up a daylight research unit, led by Thomas Markus to provide information on the influence of natural lighting in buildings and guidelines on daylight requirements. Peter Manning developed this further at the Pilkington Research Unit at the University of Liverpool in the 1960s. He studied offices, employing one of the first people to obtain a Ph.D in environmental psychology, Brian Wells. Markus went on to set up the Building Performance Research Unit at the University of Strathclyde in 1968 employing the psychologist David Canter who had been supervised by Wells and Manning for his Ph.D with the Pilkington Research Unit. Canter then went on to the University of Surrey to set up Environmental Psychology programme there in 1971 with the Department of Psychology. The head of that Department was Terence Lee who had conducted his PhD on the concept of neighbourhood under the supervision of Sir Frederick Bartlett at the University of Cambridge. In parallel with these developments people in the US had begun to consider the issues in environmental design. One of the first areas was the consideration of psychiatric hospitals. Psychiatrists worked with architects to take account of the experience of patients who were mentally ill. Robert Sommer wrote his book on 'Personal Space' and Edward T Hall commented as an anthropologist on how people related to each other spatially. Amos Rapoport caused considerable interest amongst architects with his book 'House Form and Culture', showing that the form of buildings was not solely functional but had all sorts of cultural influences. This contributed to the emergence in
architecture Architecture is the art and technique of designing and building, as distinguished from the skills associated with construction. It is both the process and the product of sketching, conceiving, planning, designing, and construction, constructin ...
of 'post-modernism' which took the symbolic qualities of architecture very seriously. These early developments in the 1960s and 1970s were often seen as part of 'architectural psychology'. It was when Harold Proshansky and William Ittelson set up the Environmental Psychology program at the City University of New York Graduate Center that the term Environmental Psychology replaces Architectural Psychology as the widely used term for the study of the ways in which people made sense of and interacted with their surroundings. This was institutionalised when Canter established The Journal of Environmental Psychology in 1980 with Kenneth Craik a personality psychologist at the University of California at Berkeley. President Nixon's campaign to deal with depredations of the environment gave impetus to a change of direction in the field from aspects of buildings and making sense of cities to the broader issues of climate change and the impact of people in the global environment.


Environmental psychologist

Environmental psychologists are the ones who study the relationship between human behavior and the environment that surrounds them. These psychologist study any type of environment, even the ones who are "built" such as peoples homes. They study how we as humans behave and interact in the world. As of May of 2020, the annual salary of an environmental psychologist is $82,180. The two sub-disciplines are conservation psychology and ecopsychology. Conservation Psychology is the study of the development of attitudes in the environment. Ecopsychology is close to the same as conservation psychology, but it focuses on the ties of environmental and societal degradation.


Orientations


Problem oriented

Environmental psychology is a direct study of the relationship between an environment and how that environment affects its inhabitants. Specific aspects of this field work by identifying a problem and through the identification of the said problem, discovering a solution. Therefore, it is necessary for environmental psychology to be problem-oriented. One important aspect of a problem-oriented field is that by identifying problems, solutions arise from the research acquired. The solutions can aid in making society function better as a whole and create a wealth of knowledge about the inner workings of societies. Environmental psychologist Harold Proshansky discusses how the field is also "value-oriented" because of the field's commitment to bettering society through problem identification.Proshansky 1987, p.1477 Panyang discusses the importance of not only understanding the problem but also the necessity of a solution. Proshansky also points out some of the problems of a problem-oriented approach for environmental psychology. First, the problems being identified must be studied under certain specifications: they must be ongoing and occurring in real life, not in a laboratory. Second, the notions about the problems must derive directly from the source – meaning they must come directly from the specific environment where the problem is occurring. The solutions and understanding of the problems cannot come from an environment that has been constructed and modeled to look like real life. Environmental psychology needs to reflect the actual society, not a society built in a laboratory setting. The difficult task of the environmental psychologist is to study problems as they are occurring in everyday life.Proshansky 1987, p.1478 It is hard to reject all laboratory research because laboratory experiments are where theories may be tested without damaging the actual environment or can serve as models when testing solutions. Proshansky makes this point as well, discussing the difficulty in the overall problem oriented approach. He states that it is important, however, for the environmental psychologist to utilize all aspects of research and analysis of the findings and to take into account both the general and individualized aspects of the problems.Proshansky 1987, p.1479 Environmental psychology addresses environmental problems such as density and crowding,
noise pollution Noise pollution, also known as environmental noise or sound pollution, is the propagation of noise with ranging impacts on the activity of human or animal life, most of them are harmful to a degree. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is ma ...
, sub-standard living, and
urban decay Urban decay (also known as urban rot, urban death or urban blight) is the sociological process by which a previously functioning city, or part of a city, societal collapse, falls into disrepair and decrepitude. There is no single process that l ...
. Noise increases environmental stress. Although it has been found that control and predictability are the greatest factors in stressful effects of noise; context, pitch, source and habituation are also important variables Environmental psychologists have theorized that density and crowding can also have an adverse effect on mood and may cause stress-related illness or behavior. To understand and solve environmental problems, environmental psychologists believe concepts and principles should come directly from the physical settings and problems being looked at. For example, factors that reduce feelings of crowding within buildings include: * Windows – particularly ones that can be opened and ones that provide a view as well as light * High ceilings * Doors to divide spaces (Baum and Davies) and provide access control * Room shape – square rooms feel less crowded than rectangular ones (Dresor) * Using partitions to create smaller, personalized spaces within an open plan office or larger work space. * Providing increases in cognitive control over aspects of the internal environment, such as ventilation, light, privacy, etc. * Conducting a cognitive appraisal of an environment and feelings of crowding in different settings. For example, one might be comfortable with crowding at a concert but not in school corridors. * Creating a defensible space (Calhoun)


Personal space and territory

Proxemics Proxemics is the study of human use of space and the effects that population density has on behaviour, communication, and social interaction. Proxemics is one among several subcategories in the study of nonverbal communication, including Haptic c ...
is known as the study of human space. It also studies the effects that population has on human behavior, communication, and social interaction. Having an area of personal territory in a public space, e.g., at the office, is a key feature of many architectural designs. Having such a 'defensible space' can reduce the negative effects of crowding in urban environments. The term, coined by John B. Calhoun in 1947, is the result of multiple environmental experiments conducted on rats. Originally beginning as an experiment to measure how many rats could be accommodated in a given space, it expanded into determining how rats, given the proper food, shelter and bedding would behave under a confined environment. Under these circumstances, the males became aggressive, some exclusively homosexual. Others became pansexual and hypersexual, seeking every chance to mount any rat they encountered. As a result, mating behaviors were upset with an increase in infant mortalities. With parents failing to provide proper nests, thoughtlessly ditching their young and even attacking them, infant mortality rose as high as 96% in certain sections. Calhoun published the results as "Population Density and Social Pathology" in a 1962 edition of ''
Scientific American ''Scientific American'', informally abbreviated ''SciAm'' or sometimes ''SA'', is an American popular science magazine. Many famous scientists, including Albert Einstein and Nikola Tesla, have contributed articles to it. In print since 1845, it i ...
''. Creating barriers and customizing the space are ways of creating personal space, e.g., using pictures of one's family in an office setting. This increases cognitive control as one sees oneself as having control over the competitors to the personal space and therefore able to control the level of density and crowding in the space. Personal space can be both good and bad. It is good when it is used as stated above. Creating "personal space" in an office or work setting can make one feel more comfortable about being at work. Personal space can be bad when someone is in your personal space. In the image to the right, one person is mad at the other person because she is invading her personal space by laying on her.


Systems oriented

The systems-oriented approach to experimenting is applied to individuals or people that are a part of communities, groups, and organizations. These communities, groups, and organizations are systems in homeostasis. Homeostasis is known as the "state of steady conditions within a system."
Homeostasis In biology, homeostasis ( British also homoeostasis) (/hɒmɪə(ʊ)ˈsteɪsɪs/) is the state of steady internal, physical, and chemical conditions maintained by living systems. This is the condition of optimal functioning for the organism ...
is what contains body temperature and the balance of fluids. This approach particularly examines group interaction, as opposed to an individual's interaction and it emphasizes on factors of social integration. In the laboratory, experiments focus on cause and effect processes within human nature.Proshansky 1987, p.1481


Interdisciplinary oriented

Environmental psychology relies on interaction with other disciplines in order to approach problems with multiple perspectives. The first discipline is the category of behavioral sciences, which include: sociology, political science, anthropology, and economics. Environmental psychology also interacts with the interspecializations of the field of psychology, which include:
developmental psychology Developmental psychology is the science, scientific study of how and why humans grow, change, and adapt across the course of their lives. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult deve ...
, cognitive science,
industrial and organizational psychology Industrial and organizational psychology (I-O psychology), an applied discipline within psychology, is the science of human behavior in the workplace. Depending on the country or region of the world, I-O psychology is also known as occupational ...
, psychobiology,
psychoanalysis PsychoanalysisFrom Greek: + . is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques"What is psychoanalysis? Of course, one is supposed to answer that it is many things — a theory, a research method, a therapy, a body of knowledge. In what might ...
, and social neuroscience. In addition to the more scientific fields of study, environmental psychology also works with the design field which includes: the studies of architecture, interior design, urban planning, industrial and object design, landscape architecture, and preservation.Proshansky 1987, p.1482


Space-over-time orientation

Space over time orientation highlights the importance of the past. Examining problems with the past in mind creates a better understanding of how past forces, such as social, political, and economic forces, may be of relevance to present and future problems. Time and place are also important to consider. It's important to look at time over extended periods. Physical settings change over time; they change with respect to physical properties and they change because individuals using the space change over time.Proshansky 1987, p.1485 Looking at these spaces over time will help monitor the changes and possibly predict future problems. There are a variety of tests that can be administered to children in order to determine their temperament. Temperament is split up into three types: "easy", "difficult", and "slow-to-warm-up". Alexander Thomas, Stella Chess, Herbert G. Birch, Margaret Hertzig and Sam Korn created an infant temperament test in the 1950s and rated them using nine temperament criteria. By finding out a child's temperament at birth, it enables us to know what to expect as the child progresses into adulthood.


Concepts


Nature restoration

Environmental health shows the effects people have on the environment as well as the effects the environment has on people. From early studies showing that patients with a view of nature from their hospital recovered faster than patients with a window view of a brick wall, how, why, and to which extent nature has mental and physical restorative properties has been a central branch of the field. Although the positive effects of nature have been established, the theoretical underpinning of why it is restorative is still discussed. The most cited theory is the Attention Restoration Theory, which claims nature is a “soft fascination” which restores the ability to direct attention. It is said that being in nature can reduce stress. Studies show that it can reduce anger, improve mood, and even lower one's blood pressure. Secondly, Stress reduction theory claims that because humans have evolved in nature, this type of environment is relaxing, and more adjusted to the senses. Newer theoretical work includes the Conditioned Restoration Theory, which suggests a two-step process. The first step involves associating nature with relaxation, and the second step involves retrieving the same relaxation when presented with an associated stimulus.


Place identity

For many years Harold Proshansky and his colleagues at the Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York, explored the concept of place identity. Place identity has been traditionally defined as a 'sub-structure of the self-identity of the person consisting of broadly conceived cognitions about the physical world in which the individual lives'.Proshansky et al. 1983, p.59 These cognitions define the daily experiences of every human being. Through one's attitudes, feelings, ideas, memories, personal values and preferences toward the range and type of physical settings, they can then understand the environment they live in and their overall experience. As a person interacts with various places and spaces, they are able to evaluate which properties in different environments fulfill his/her various needs. When a place contains components that satisfy a person biologically, socially, psychologically and/or culturally, it creates the environmental past of a person. Through 'good' or 'bad' experiences with a place, a person is then able to reflect and define their personal values, attitudes, feelings and beliefs about the physical world. Place identity has been described as the individual's incorporation of place into the larger concept of self; a "potpourri of memories, conceptions, interpretations, ideas, and related feelings about specific physical settings, as well as types of settings".Proshansky et al. 1983 Other theorists have been instrumental in the creation of the idea of place identity. Three humanistic geographers, Tuan (1980), Relph (1976) and Buttimer (1980), share a couple of basic assumptions. As a person lives and creates memories within a place, attachment is built and it is through one's personal connection to a place, that they gain a sense of belonging and purpose, which then gives significance and meaning to their life. Five central functions of place-identity have been depicted: recognition, meaning, expressive-requirement, mediating change, and anxiety and defense function. Place identity becomes a cognitive "database" against which every physical setting is experienced. The activities of a person often overlap with physical settings, which then create a background for the rest of life's interactions and events. The individual is frequently unaware of the array of feelings, values or memories of a singular place and simply becomes more comfortable or uncomfortable with certain broad kinds of physical settings, or prefers specific spaces to others. In the time since the term "place identity" was introduced, the theory has been the model for identity that has dominated environmental psychology.


Place attachment

According to the book, "Place Attachment", place attachment is a "complex phenomenon that incorporates people-place bonding" Many different perceptions of the bond between people and places have been hypothesized and studied. The most widespread terms include place attachment and
sense of place The term sense of place has been used in many different ways. It is a multidimensional, complex construct used to characterize the relationship between people and spatial settings. It is a characteristic that some geographic Location (geography), ...
. One consistent thread woven throughout most recent research on place attachment deals with the importance of the amount of time spent at a certain place (the length of association with a place). While both researchers and writers have made the case that time and experience in a place are important for deepening the meanings and emotional ties central to the person-place relationship, little in-depth research has studied these factors and their role in forging this connection. Place attachment is defined as one's emotional or affective ties to a place, and is generally thought to be the result of a long-term connection with a certain environment. This is different from a simple aesthetic response such as saying a certain place is special because it is beautiful. For example, one can have an emotional response to a beautiful (or ugly) landscape or place, but this response may sometimes be shallow and fleeting. This distinction is one that Schroeder labeled "meaning versus preference". According to Schroeder the definition of "meaning" is "the thoughts, feelings, memories and interpretations evoked by a landscape"; whereas "preference" is "the degree of liking for one landscape compared to another". For a deeper and lasting emotional attachment to develop (Or in Schroeder's terms, for it to have meaning) an enduring relationship with a place is usually a critical factor. Chigbu carried out a rural study of place-attachment using a qualitative approach to check its impact on a community, Uturu (in Nigeria), and found that it has a direct relationship to the level of community development.


Environmental consciousness

Leanne Rivlin theorized that one way to examine an individual's environmental consciousness is to recognize how the physical place is significant, and look at the people/place relationship. Environmental cognition (involved in human cognition) plays a crucial role in environmental perception. All different areas of the brain engage with environmentally relevant information. Some believe that the orbitofrontal cortex integrates environmentally relevant information from many distributed areas of the brain. Due to its anterior location within the frontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex may make judgments about the environment, and refine the organism's "understanding" through error analysis, and other processes specific to the prefrontal cortex. But to be certain, there is no single brain area dedicated to the organism's interactions with its environment. Rather, all brain areas are dedicated to this task. One area (probably the orbitofrontal cortex) may collate the various pieces of the informational puzzle in order to develop a long term strategy of engagement with the ever-changing "environment". Moreover, the orbitofrontal cortex may show the greatest change in blood oxygenation (BOLD level) when an organism thinks of the broad, and amorphous category referred to as "the environment". Research in this area is showing an increase in climate change related emotional experiences that are seen to be inherently adaptive. Engagement with these emotional experiences leads to a greater sense of connection with others and increased capacity to tolerate and reflect on emotions. Because of the recent concern with the environment, environmental consciousness or awareness has come to be related to the growth and development of understanding and consciousness toward the biophysical environment and its problems.


Behavior settings

The earliest noteworthy discoveries in the field of environmental psychology can be dated back to Roger Barker who created the field of ecological psychology. Founding his research station in Oskaloosa, Kansas in 1947, his field observations expanded into the theory that social settings influence behavior. Empirical data gathered in Oskaloosa from 1947 to 1972 helped him develop the concept of the "behavior setting" to help explain the relationship between the individual and the immediate environment. This was further explored in his work with Paul Gump in the book ''Big School, Small School: High School Size and Student Behavior''. One of the first insightful explanations on why groups tend to be less satisfying for their members as they increase in size, their studies illustrated that large schools had a similar number of behavior settings to that of small schools. This resulted in the students' ability to presume many different roles in small schools (e.g. be in the school band and the school football team) but in larger schools, there was a propensity to deliberate over their social choices. In his book ''Ecological Psychology'' (1968), Barker stresses the importance of the town's behavior and environment as the residents' most ordinary instrument of describing their environment. "The hybrid, eco-behavioral character of behavior settings appear to present Midwest's inhabitants with no difficulty; nouns that combine milieu and standing behavior are common, e.g. oyster supper, basketball game, turkey dinner, golden gavel ceremony, cake walk, back surgery, gift exchange, livestock auction, auto repair." Barker argued that his students should implement T-methods (psychologist as 'transducer': i.e. methods in which they studied the man in his 'natural environment') rather than O-methods (psychologist as "operators" i.e. experimental methods). Basically, Barker preferred fieldwork and direct observation rather than controlled experiments. Some of the minute-by-minute observations of Kansan children from morning to night, jotted down by young and maternal graduate students, may be the most intimate and poignant documents in social science. Barker spent his career expanding on what he called ecological psychology, identifying these behavior settings, and publishing accounts such as ''One Boy's Day'' (1952) and ''Midwest and Its Children'' (1955).


Natural environment research findings

Environmental psychology research has observed various concepts relating to humans' innate connection to natural environments which begins in early childhood. One study shows that fostering children's connectedness to nature will, in turn, create habitual pro-ecological behaviors in time. Exposure to natural environment may lead to a positive psychological well-being and form positive attitudes and behavior towards nature. Connectedness to nature has shown to be a huge contributor to predicting people's general pro-ecological and pro-social behaviors. Connectedness to nature has also been shown to benefit well-being, happiness, and general satisfaction. "Nature-deficit disorder" has recently been coined to explain the lack of connectedness to nature due to a lack of consciousness identification and nature disconnect. Further research is required to make definitive claims about the effects of connectedness to nature.


Applications


Impact on the built environment

Environmental psychologists rejected the laboratory-experimental paradigm because of its simplification and skewed view of the cause-and-effect relationships of human behaviors and experiences. Environmental psychologists examine how one or more parameters produce an effect while other measures are controlled. It is impossible to manipulate real-world settings in a laboratory.Proshansky 1987 Environmental psychology is oriented towards influencing the work of design professionals (architects, engineers, interior designers, urban planners, etc.) and thereby improving the human environment. On a civic scale, efforts toward improving pedestrian landscapes have paid off, to some extent, from the involvement of figures like
Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs (''née'' Butzner; 4 May 1916 – 25 April 2006) was an American-Canadian journalist, author, theorist, and activist who influenced urban studies, sociology, and economics. Her book '' The Death and Life of Great American Cities ...
and
Copenhagen Copenhagen ( or .; da, København ) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark, with a proper population of around 815.000 in the last quarter of 2022; and some 1.370,000 in the urban area; and the wider Copenhagen metropolitan ar ...
's Jan Gehl. One prime figure here is the late writer and researcher William H. Whyte. His still-refreshing and perceptive "City", based on his accumulated observations of skilled Manhattan pedestrians, provides steps and patterns of use in urban plazas. The role and impact of architecture on human behavior is debated within the architectural profession. Views range from: supposing that people will adapt to new architectures and city forms; believing that architects cannot predict the impact of buildings on humans and therefore should base decisions on other factors; to those who undertake detailed precedent studies of local building types and how they are used by that society. Environmental psychology has conquered the whole architectural genre which is concerned with retail stores and any other commercial venues that have the power to manipulate the mood and behavior of customers (e.g. stadiums, casinos, malls, and now airports). From
Philip Kotler Philip Kotler (born May 27, 1931) is an American marketing author, consultant, and professor emeritus; the S. C. Johnson & Son Distinguished Professor of International marketing, International Marketing at the Kellogg School of Management at Nor ...
's landmark paper on Atmospherics and Alan Hirsch's "Effects of Ambient Odors on Slot-Machine Usage in a Las Vegas Casino", through the creation and management of the Gruen transfer, retail relies heavily on psychology, original research, focus groups, and direct observation. One of William Whyte's students, Paco Underhill, makes a living as a "shopping anthropologist". Most of this advanced research remains a trade secret and proprietary. Environmental psychology is consulted thoroughly when discussing future city design. Eco-cities and eco-towns have been studied to determine the societal benefits of creating more sustainable and ecological designs. Eco-cities allow for humans to live in synch with nature and develop sustainable living techniques. The development of eco-cities requires knowledge in the interactions between "environmental, economic, political, and socio-cultural factors based on ecological principles".


Organizations

*
Project for Public Spaces Project for Public Spaces (PPS) is a nonprofit organization based in New York City, New York dedicated to creating and sustaining public places that build community, communities, in an effort often termed placemaking. Planning and design rooted i ...
(PPS) is a nonprofit organization that works to improve public spaces, particularly parks, civic centers, public markets, downtowns, and campuses. The staff of PPS is made up of individuals trained in environmental design, architecture, urban planning, urban geography,
urban design Urban design is an approach to the design of buildings and the spaces between them that focuses on specific design processes and outcomes. In addition to designing and shaping the physical features of towns, city, cities, and regional spaces, ur ...
, environmental psychology, landscape architecture, arts administration and information management. The organization has collaborated with many major institutions to improve the appearance and functionality of public spaces throughout the United States. In 2005, PPS co-founded The New York City Streets Renaissance, a campaign that worked to develop a new campaign model for transportation reform. This initiative implemented the transformation of excess sidewalk space in the Meatpacking District of Manhattan into public space. Also, by 2008, New York City reclaimed of traffic lanes and parking spots away from cars and gave it back to the public as bike lanes and public plazas. * The Center for Human Environments at the
CUNY Graduate Center The Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York (CUNY Graduate Center) is a public university, public research institution and post-graduate university in New York City. Serving as the principal doctorate-granting in ...
is a research organization that examines the relationship between people and their physical settings. CHE has five subgroups that specialize in aiding specific populations: The Children's Environments Research Group, the Health and Society Research Group, the Housing Environments Research Group, the Public Space Research Group, and the Youth Studies Research Group. * The most relevant scientific groups are the International Association of People-Environment Studies (IAPS) and the Environmental Design Research Association (EDRA).
Urban Ecology
, The Urban Ecologist, and the International Eco-City Conference were some of the first collectives to establish the idea of eco-cities and townships.


Challenges

The field saw significant research findings and a fair surge of interest in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but has seen challenges of nomenclature, obtaining objective and repeatable results, scope, and the fact that some research rests on underlying assumptions about human perception, which is not fully understood. Being an interdisciplinary field is difficult because it lacks a solid definition and purpose. It is hard for the field to fit into organizational structures.Proshansky 1987, p.1476 In the words of Guido Francescato, speaking in 2000, environmental psychology encompasses a "somewhat bewildering array of disparate methodologies, conceptual orientations, and interpretations... making it difficult to delineate, with any degree of precision, just what the field is all about and what might it contribute to the construction of society and the unfolding of history." A grand challenge in the field of environmental psychology today is to understand the impact of human behavior on the climate and climate change. Understanding why some people engage in pro-environment behaviors can help predict the necessary requirements to engage others in making sustainable change. Environmental psychology has not received nearly enough supporters to be considered an interdisciplinary field within psychology. Harold M. Proshanksy was one of the founders of environmental psychology and was quoted as saying "As I look at the field of environmental psychology today, I am concerned about its future. It has not, since its emergence in the early 1960s grown to the point where it can match the fields of social, personality, learning or cognitive psychology. To be sure, it has increased in membership, in the number of journals devoted to it, and even in the amount of professional organizational support it enjoys, but not enough so that one could look at any major university and find it to be a field of specialization in a department of psychology, or, more importantly, in an interdisciplinary center or institute".


University courses

*
University of Groningen The University of Groningen (abbreviated as UG; nl, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, abbreviated as RUG) is a Public university#Continental Europe, public research university of more than 30,000 students in the city of Groningen (city), Groningen in ...
offers a graduate program in environmental psychology focusing on the interactions between people and their environment. The program is taught by the world-leading Environmental Psychology group at the University of Groningen. *
University of Victoria The University of Victoria (UVic or Victoria) is a Public Research University, public research university located in the municipalities of Oak Bay, British Columbia, Oak Bay and Saanich, British Columbia, Saanich, British Columbia, Canada. The u ...
offers general and advanced undergraduate courses in environmental psychology, and graduate courses in Psychology and Nature, as well as Environmental Psychology of the Built Environment. The psychology graduate department also offers individualized master's and PhD programs in Environmental Psychology under the supervision of Dr. Robert Gifford. * Antioch University New England Graduate School offers graduate programs involving environmental education through a planning approach. With environmental psychology being such a diverse field with many different approaches, students have a variety of programs to choose from. *
Arizona State University Arizona State University (Arizona State or ASU) is a public university, public research university in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area, Phoenix metropolitan area. Founded in 1885 by the 13th Arizona Territorial Legislature, ASU is one of the List ...
offers a master's in Environmental Resources, which takes more of a planning approach to the field. * The Environmental Psychology Ph.D program at the
CUNY Graduate Center The Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York (CUNY Graduate Center) is a public university, public research institution and post-graduate university in New York City. Serving as the principal doctorate-granting in ...
takes a multidisciplinary approach to examining and changing "the serious problems associated with the urban environment with a view towards affecting public policy" using social science theory and research methods. The GC-CUNY was the first academic institution in the U.S. to grant a Ph.D. in Environmental Psychology. As discussed in detail on the program website, "recent research has addressed the experiences of recently housed homeless people, the privatization of public space, socio-spatial conflicts, children's safety in the public environment, relocation, community based approaches to housing, the design of specialized environments such as museums, zoos, gardens and hospitals, the changing relationships between home, family and work, the environmental experiences of gay men and lesbians, and access to parks and other urban 'green spaces'." See also The Center for Human Environments. *
Cornell University Cornell University is a private statutory land-grant research university based in Ithaca, New York. It is a member of the Ivy League. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, Cornell was founded with the intention to ...
's department of Design and Environmental Analysis offers undergraduate and graduate (Master of Science in Human Environment Relations, Master of Arts in Design, and Ph.D in Human Behavior and Design) studies in environmental psychology, interior design, sustainable design studies,
human factors Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as human factors) is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the engineering and design of products, processes, and systems. Four primary goals of human factors learnin ...
and ergonomics, and facility planning and management. *
Drexel University Drexel University is a private university, private research university with its main campus in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Drexel's undergraduate school was founded in 1891 by Anthony Joseph Drexel, Anthony J. Drexel, a financier and philanthrop ...
offers a Master of Science degree in Design Research. Of two degree paths, the Environmental Design and Health path includes study with community practitioners and researchers in design and related fields, including health, community design, and public policy. Research typically includes data collection and engaged research practices of design thinking and participatory design. This area of investigation has the potential to create innovative health and educational partnerships, economic opportunities and neighborhood initiatives and relates to the strategic mission of the university to be highly engaged in civic sustainability. * Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences offers a Masters in Environmental psychology. The focus is on how people are affected by both physical and virtual environments, as well as how people affect nature. The program offers courses on environmental behaviour, environment and neuroscience, human factors, virtual environments and cognitive design, change management and greening organizations and architecture and aesthetics. * The
Ohio State University The Ohio State University, commonly called Ohio State or OSU, is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Columbus, Ohio. A member of the University System of Ohio, it has been ranked by major Coll ...
City & Regional Planning Program, in the School of Architecture, offers a specialization in environmental psychology (urban design/physical planning and behavior) at both the master's and PhD level. Dissertations have examined such topics as environmental aesthetics, spatial cognition, ethnic enclaves, neighborhood decline, neighborhood satisfaction, restorative and livable places, and behavior change. *
Prescott College Prescott College is a private college in Prescott, Arizona. History In 1965, the Ford Foundation brought together a group of educators from around the United States. Prescott College was the result of this gathering. The college was originall ...
offers a master's program that incorporates a number of the foundations of environmental psychology as well. The sub-fields in which the program provides includes environmental education, environmental studies, ecology, botany, resource policy, and planning. *
University of California, Irvine The University of California, Irvine (UCI or UC Irvine) is a Public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Irvine, California. One of the ten campuses of the University of California system, UCI offers 87 und ...
offers a doctoral specialization in Design & Behavior Research within the Department of Planning, Policy, and Design in the School of Social Ecology, and undergraduate coursework in Environmental Psychology offered jointly by the Departments of Psychology and Social Behavior, Planning, Policy, and Design, and the Program in Public Health. * The
University of Michigan The University of Michigan (U-M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public university, public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Founded in 1817 by an act of the old Michigan Territory as the History of the University of Michigan#The Catholepistemi ...
offers Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees in its ne
School for Sustainability and Environment (SEAS)
The focus is on how people affect and are affected by environments, and includes a pragmatic approach to promoting environmental stewardship behavior, as well as a focus on how "nearby nature" affects people's mental vitality, physical health and well-being. An emerging theme is helping people to remain optimistic while learning to respond well to increasingly difficult biophysical circumstances. * Another strain of environmental psychology developed out of
ergonomics Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as human factors) is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the engineering and design of products, processes, and systems. Four primary goals of human factors learnin ...
in the 1960s. The beginning of this movement can be traced back to David Canter's work and the founding of the "Performance Research Unit" at the
University of Strathclyde The University of Strathclyde ( gd, Oilthigh Shrath Chluaidh) is a public university, public research university located in Glasgow, Scotland. Founded in 1796 as the Andersonian Institute, it is Glasgow's second-oldest university, having recei ...
in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1966, which expanded traditional ergonomics to study broader issues relating to the environment and the extent to which human beings were "situated" within it (cf situated cognition). Canter led the field in the UK for years and was the editor of the ''Journal of Environmental Psychology'' for over 20 years, but has recently turned his attention to criminology. * The
University of Surrey The University of Surrey is a public research university in Guildford, Surrey, England. The university received its Royal Charter, royal charter in 1966, along with a Plate glass university, number of other institutions following recommendations ...
was the first institution that offered an architectural psychology course in the UK starting in 1973. Since then, there have been over 250 graduates from over 25 countries. Th
Environmental Psychology Research Group
(EPRG) within the University of Surrey, of which students on the M.Sc in Environmental Psychology are automatically members, has been undertaking research for more than thirty years. EPRG's mission is to gain a better understanding of the environmental and psychological effects of space, no matter the size, with help from social sciences, psychology, and methodologies. There are four categories under which the research projects fall: sustainable development, environmental risk, architectural assessment and environmental design, and environmental education and interpretation. Other universities in the UK now offer courses on the subject, which is an expanding field. See the APA's list of additional environmental psychology graduate programs here: http://www.apadivisions.org/division-34/about/resources/graduate-programs.aspx


Other contributors

Other notable researchers and writers in this field include: * Linda Steg, Professor of Environmental Psychology. Lead author of the IPCC special report in 2017 and awarded the Stevin Prize in 2020. * David Canter, Emeritus Professor at The University of Liverpool. Developed the Environmental Psychology Program at the University of Surrey in 1971 and established, with Kenneth Craik The Journal of Environmental Psychology in 1980. Best known for his "Psychology of Place" theory and his development of building evaluations as part of the Building Performance Research Unit at The University of Strathclyde. * Irwin Altman, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, University of Utah * Robert Gifford, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University of Victoria. Current Editor of the '' Journal of Environmental Psychology'' and author of ''Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice'' (5th edition, 2014). * James J. Gibson, Best known for coining the word
affordance Affordance is what the environment offers the individual. American psychologist James J. Gibson coined the term in his 1966 book, ''The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems'', and it occurs in many of his earlier essays. However, his best-know ...
, a description of what the environment offers the animal in terms of action * Roger Hart Professor of Environmental Psychology, Director of the Center for Human Environments and the Children's Environments Research Group, The Graduate Center, City University of New York * Rachel and Stephen Kaplan, Professors of psychology at the University of Michigan, the Kaplans are known for their research on the effect of nature on people's relationships and health, including Attention Restoration Theory and are renowned in the field of environmental psychology * Cindi Katz, Professor of Environmental Psychology, The Graduate Center, City University of New York * Setha Low, Professor of Environmental Psychology and Director of the Public Space Research Group, The Graduate Center, City University of New York * Kevin A. Lynch and his research into the formation of mental maps * Francis T. McAndrew, Cornelia H. Dudley Professor of Psychology at Knox College and author of "Environmental Psychology" (1993). *
Bill Mollison Bruce Charles "Bill" Mollison (4 May 1928 – 24 September 2016) was an Australian researcher, author, scientist, teacher and biologist. In 1981, he was awarded the Right Livelihood Award "for developing and promoting the theory and practice o ...
, developed the Environmental Psychology Unit at the
University of Tasmania The University of Tasmania (UTAS) is a public research university, primarily located in Tasmania, Australia. Founded in 1890, it is Australia's fourth oldest university. Christ College (University of Tasmania), Christ College, one of the unive ...
, and also
Permaculture Permaculture is an approach to land management and settlement design that adopts arrangements observed in flourishing natural ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with ...
with
David Holmgren David Holmgren (born 1955) is an Australian environmental designer, ecological educator and writer. He is best known as one of the co-originators of the permaculture concept with Bill Mollison. Early life Holmgren was born in Fremantle, Wester ...
* Amos Rapoport, Distinguished Professor Emeritus Department of Architecture * Leanne Rivlin, Professor of Environmental Psychology, The Graduate Center, City University of New York * Susan Saegert, Director of the Environmental Psychology PhD Program and of the Housing Environments Research Group at the
City University of New York The City University of New York ( CUNY; , ) is the public university system of New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the ...
* Robert Sommer, a pioneer of the field who first studied personal space in the 1950s and is perhaps best known for his 1969 book ''Personal Space: The Behavioral Basis of Design'', but is also the author of numerous other books, including ''Design Awareness'', and hundreds of articles. * Daniel Stokols, Chancellor's Professor, School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine; edited ''Handbook of Environmental Psychology'' with Irwin Altman; author, ''Perspectives on Environment and Behavior''; co-author, ''Health, Behavior, and Environmental Stress'' with Sheldon Cohen, Gary Evans, and David Krantz * Allan Wicker, who expanded behavior setting theories to include other areas of study, including qualitative research, and social psychology. * Gary Winkel, Professor of Environmental Psychology, The Graduate Center, City University of New York * James A. Swan, professor, media producer and writer who authored one of the first popular articles on environmental education, produced symposiums on the Gaia Hypothesis and the significance of place, produced several documentary films on environmental topics and Co-Executive Producer of the ''Wild Justice'' TV series on the National Geographic Channel. * David Uzzell, first Professor of Environmental Psychology in UK, University of Surrey. Research on public understandings of climate crisis, behaviour change and environmental practices, environmental labour studies, environmental risk, heritage interpretation.


See also

*
Aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics, is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aesthetics). It examines aesthetic values, ...
* Architectural psychology in Germany * Biophilia hypothesis *
Biosphere 2 Biosphere 2 is an American Earth system science research facility located in Oracle, Arizona. Its mission is to serve as a center for research, outreach, teaching, and lifelong learning about Earth, its living systems, and its place in the univers ...
* '' Children, Youth and Environments'' (journal) * Climatotherapy * Cognitive geography * Conservation psychology *
Crime prevention through environmental design Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is an agenda for manipulating the built environment to create safer neighborhoods. It originated in America around 1960, when urban renewal strategies were felt to be destroying the social fram ...
* Disciplinary architecture *
Deep ecology Deep ecology is an environmental philosophy that promotes the inherent worth of all living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs, and the restructuring of modern human societies in accordance with such ideas. Deep ecol ...
* Eco-anxiety * Environmental dependence syndrome *
Evolutionary psychology Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in psychology that examines cognition and behavior from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify human psychological adaptations with regards to the ancestral problems they evolv ...
* Feng shui * Healing environments * Healthy building * Interior design psychology * '' Journal of Environmental Psychology'' * Mental environment * Nidotherapy * Situational strength


References


Notes


Bibliography

* Allesch, Christian G. (2003). "Person and Environment: Reflections on the roots of environmental psychology". * Barker, Roger Garlock (1968). "Ecological Psychology: Concepts and Methods for Studying the Environment of Human Behavior". *Barrera-Hernández, Laura Fernanda; Sotelo-Castillo, Mirsha Alicia; Echeverría-Castro, Sonia Beatriz; Tapia-Fonllem, César Octavio (2020). "Connectedness to Nature: Its Impact on Sustainable Behaviors and Happiness in Children". ''Frontiers in Psychology''. 0. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00276.
ISSN An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to unique identifier, uniquely identify a serial (publishing), serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing betwee ...
 1664-1078. *Barrera-Hernández, Laura Fernanda; Sotelo-Castillo, Mirsha Alicia; Echeverría-Castro, Sonia Beatriz; Tapia-Fonllem, César Octavio (2020). "Connectedness to Nature: Its Impact on Sustainable Behaviors and Happiness in Children". ''Frontiers in Psychology''. 0. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00276.
ISSN An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to unique identifier, uniquely identify a serial (publishing), serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing betwee ...
 1664-1078. * Bell P., Greene T., Fisher, J., & Baum, A. (1996). ''Environmental Psychology''. Ft Worth: Harcourt Brace. * Canter D., (1977) "The Psychology of Place" London: Architectural Press. available as an eBook * Chigbu, U.E. (2013). "Fostering rural sense of place: the missing piece in Uturu, Nigeria", '' Development In Practice'' 23 (2): 264-277.
">De Young, R. (2013). "Environmental Psychology Overview". In Ann H. Huffman & Stephanie Klein [Eds.
/nowiki> ''Green Organizations: Driving Change with IO Psychology.'' (Pp. 17-33). NY: Routledge.] *"Eco-innovations in Designing Eco-cities and Eco-towns". ''The Smart City Journal''. Retrieved 2021-07-30. * Gifford, R. (2014). ''Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice'' (5th ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books. * Gifford, R. (Ed.)(2016). ''Research Methods for Environmental Psychology''. New York: Wiley. * Ittelson, W. H., Proshansky, H., Rivlin, L., & Winkel, G. (1974). ''An Introduction to Environmental Psychology''. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Translated into German and Japanese. * Proshansky, H. M. (1987)
"The field of environmental psychology: securing its future".
In ''Handbook of Environmental Psychology,'' eds. D. Stokols and I. Altman. New York: John Wiley & Sons. * Proshansky, Harold, Abbe Fabian, and Robert Kaminoff. (1983). "Place Identity: Physical World Socialization of the Self", ''Journal of Environmental Psychology'' 3 (1): 57-83. * Rivlin, L. G. (1990). "Paths towards environmental consciousness". pp. 169–185 in ''Environment and Behavior Studies: Emergence of Intellectual Traditions,'' eds. I. Altman and K. Christensen. NY: Plenum. *Sörqvist, Patrik (2016). "Grand Challenges in Environmental Psychology". ''Frontiers in Psychology''. 0. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00583.
ISSN An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to unique identifier, uniquely identify a serial (publishing), serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing betwee ...
 1664-1078. * Stokols, D., and I. Altman, eds. (1987). ''Handbook of Environmental Psychology''. New York: John Wiley & Sons. *"What is environmental psychology? , APS". ''www.psychology.org.au''. Retrieved 2021-07-30. *Whitburn, Julie (2020). "Children's environmental psychology, behaviour and education and wellbeing: The role of connection to nature". * Zube, E.H., and G. T. Moore, eds. (1991). ''Advances in Environment, Behavior, and Design, Volume 3.'' New York: Plenum Press.


External links

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Environmental Psychology
at Classification of Instructional Programs {{DEFAULTSORT:Environmental Psychology Environmental social science