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A drought is an event of prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric (below-average
precipitation
precipitation
), surface water or
ground water Groundwater is the water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hyd ...
. A drought can last for months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15 days. It can have a substantial impact on the
ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system. These Biotic component, biotic and abiotic components are linked together through ...
and
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentism, sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domestication, domesticated species created food ...
of the affected region and harm to the local
economy An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), distribution and trade, as well as Consumption (economics), consum ...
. Annual dry seasons in the
tropics The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at S; these latitudes correspond to the ...
significantly increase the chances of a drought developing and subsequent bush fires. Periods of heat can significantly worsen drought conditions by hastening evaporation of water vapour. Drought is a recurring feature of the climate in most parts of the world. However, these regular droughts have become more extreme and more unpredictable due to
climate change Climate change includes both global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns. Though there have been previous periods of climatic change, since the mid-20th century ...
. In fact studies based on dendrochronology, or tree rings dating, confirm that drought affected by global warming goes back to 1900. Many plant species, such as those in the family Cactaceae (or cacti), have drought tolerance adaptations like reduced leaf area and waxy cuticles to enhance their ability to tolerate drought. Some others survive dry periods as buried seeds. Semi-permanent drought produces arid biomes such as deserts and grasslands. Prolonged droughts have caused mass migrations and humanitarian crisis. Most arid ecosystems have inherently low productivity. The most prolonged drought ever in the world in recorded history occurred in the Atacama Desert in
Chile Chile (, ; ), officially the Republic of Chile (), is a country in western South America. It occupies a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of and has a population ...
(400 Years). Drought affect food production and human society, so they are considered a disaster, of natural, supernatural or human cause (which itself could be supernatural causes, malediction, sin, ...). It is among the earliest documented climatic events, present in the Epic of Gilgamesh and tied to the Bible, Biblical story of Joseph (Hebrew Bible), Joseph's arrival in and the later The Exodus, Exodus from Ancient Egypt. Hunter-gatherer migrations in 9,500 BC Chile have been linked to the phenomenon, as has the exodus of early humans Recent African origin of modern humans, out of Africa and into the rest of the world around 135,000 years ago. Ritual#Rites of affliction, Rituals exist to prevent or avert drought, Rainmaking (ritual), rainmaking could go from dances to scapegoating to human sacrifices. Nowadays, those ancient practices are for the most part relegated to folklore and replaced by more rational water management.


Types

People tend to define droughts in three main ways: # Meteorology, Meteorological drought occurs when there is a prolonged time with less than average precipitation. Meteorological drought usually precedes the other kinds of drought. # Agriculture, Agricultural droughts affect crop production or the ecology of the Range (biology), range. This condition can also arise independently from any change in precipitation levels when either increased irrigation or soil conditions and erosion triggered by poorly planned agricultural endeavors cause a shortfall in water available to the crops. However, in a traditional drought, it is caused by an extended period of below average precipitation. # Hydrology, Hydrological drought is brought about when the water reserves available in sources such as aquifers, lakes and reservoirs fall below a Descriptive statistics, locally significant threshold. Hydrological drought tends to show up more slowly because it involves stored water that is used but not replenished. Like an agricultural drought, this can be triggered by more than just a loss of rainfall. For instance, around 2007 Kazakhstan was awarded a large amount of money by the World Bank to restore water that had been diverted to other nations from the Aral Sea under Soviet Union, Soviet rule. Similar circumstances also place their largest lake, Lake Balkhash, Balkhash, at risk of completely drying out. As a drought persists, the conditions surrounding it gradually worsen and its impact on the local population gradually increases.


Causes


Precipitation deficiency

Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective, Stratus cloud, stratiform, and orographic lift, orographic rainfall. Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation over a longer duration. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Droughts occur mainly in areas where normal levels of rainfall are, in themselves, low. If these factors do not support precipitation volumes sufficiently to reach the surface over a sufficient time, the result is a drought. Drought can be triggered by a high level of reflected sunlight and above average prevalence of high pressure systems, winds carrying continental, rather than oceanic air masses, and ridges of high pressure areas aloft can prevent or restrict the developing of thunderstorm activity or rainfall over one certain region. Once a region is within drought, feedback mechanisms such as local arid air, hot conditions which can promote warm core ridging, and minimal evapotranspiration can worsen drought conditions.


Dry season

Within the tropics, distinct, wet season, wet and dry seasons emerge due to the movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone or Monsoon trough. The dry season greatly increases drought occurrence, and is characterized by its low humidity, with watering holes and rivers drying up. Because of the lack of these watering holes, many grazing animals are forced to migrate due to the lack of water in search of more fertile lands. Examples of such animals are zebras, elephants, and wildebeest. Because of the lack of water in the plants, bushfires are common. Since water vapor becomes more energetic with increasing temperature, more water vapor is required to increase relative humidity values to 100% at higher temperatures (or to get the temperature to fall to the dew point). Periods of warmth quicken the pace of fruit and vegetable production, increase evaporation and transpiration from plants, and worsen drought conditions.


El Niño

Drier and hotter weather occurs in parts of the Amazon River Basin, Colombia, and Central America during El Niño events. Winters during the El Niño are warmer and drier than average conditions in the Northwest, northern Midwest, and northern Mideast United States, so those regions experience reduced snowfalls. Conditions are also drier than normal from December to February in south-central Africa, mainly in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Botswana. Direct effects of El Niño resulting in drier conditions occur in parts of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, increasing bush fires, worsening haze, and decreasing air quality dramatically. Drier-than-normal conditions are also in general observed in Queensland, inland Victoria (Australia), Victoria, inland New South Wales, and eastern Tasmania from June to August. As warm water spreads from the west Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the east Pacific, it causes extensive drought in the western Pacific. Singapore experienced the driest February in 2014 since records began in 1869, with only 6.3 mm of rain falling in the month and temperatures hitting as high as 35 °C on 26 February. The years 1968 and 2005 had the next driest Februaries, when 8.4 mm of rain fell.


Erosion and human activities

Human activity can directly trigger exacerbating factors such as over farming, excessive irrigation, deforestation, and erosion adversely impact the ability of the land to capture and hold water. In arid climates, the main source of erosion is wind. Erosion can be the result of material movement by the wind. The wind can cause small particles to be lifted and therefore moved to another region (deflation). Suspended particles within the wind may impact on solid objects causing erosion by abrasion (ecological succession). Wind erosion generally occurs in areas with little or no vegetation, often in areas where there is insufficient rainfall to support vegetation. Loess is a homogeneous, typically nonstratified, porous, friable, slightly coherent, often calcareous, fine-grained, silty, pale yellow or buff, windblown (Aeolian processes, Aeolian) sediment. It generally occurs as a widespread blanket deposit that covers areas of hundreds of square kilometers and tens of meters thick. Loess often stands in either steep or vertical faces. Loess tends to develop into highly rich soils. Under appropriate climatic conditions, areas with loess are among the most agriculturally productive in the world. Loess deposits are geologically unstable by nature, and will erode very readily. Therefore, windbreaks (such as big trees and bushes) are often planted by farmers to reduce the wind erosion of loess. Wind erosion is much more severe in arid areas and during times of drought. For example, in the Great Plains, it is estimated that soil loss due to wind erosion can be as much as 6100 times greater in drought years than in wet years.


Climate change

Global
climate change Climate change includes both global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns. Though there have been previous periods of climatic change, since the mid-20th century ...
is expected to trigger droughts with a Climate change and agriculture, substantial impact on agriculture throughout the world, and especially in developing nations. Along with drought in some areas, flooding and erosion could increase in others. Some proposed Mitigation of global warming, solutions to global warming that focus on more active techniques, solar radiation management through the use of a space sunshade for one, may also carry with them increased chances of drought.''Sunshade' for global warming could cause drought''
2 August 2007 New Scientist, Catherine Brahic
According to the Special Report on Climate Change and Land of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate change increase drought and desertification. Hundreds of million people are affected. The affected area includes large territories in Africa, Asia, Australia, and South America.


Consequences

One can divide the effects of droughts and water shortages into three groups: environmental, economic and social. * In the case of environmental effects: lower surface and subterranean water-levels, lower flow-levels (with a decrease below the minimum leading to direct danger for amphibian life), increased pollution of surface water, the drying out of wetlands, more and larger fires, higher deflation intensity, Biodiversity loss, loss of biodiversity, worse health of trees and the appearance of pests and dendroid diseases. * Economic losses include lower agricultural, forests, game and fishing output, higher food-production costs, lower energy-production levels in hydro plants, losses caused by depleted water tourism and transport revenue, problems with water supply for the energy sector and for technological processes in metallurgy, mining, the chemical, paper, wood, foodstuff industries etc., disruption of water supplies for municipal economies. * Social costs include the negative effect on the health of people directly exposed to this phenomenon (excessive heat waves), possible limitation of water supplies, increased pollution levels, high food-costs, stress caused by failed harvests, etc. This explains why droughts and fresh water shortages operate as a factor which increases the gap between developed and developing countries. Effects vary according to vulnerability. For example, subsistence farmers are more likely to migrate during drought because they do not have alternative food-sources. Areas with populations that depend on water sources as a major food-source are more vulnerable to famine. Drought can also reduce water quality, because lower water-flows reduce dilution of pollutants and increase contamination of remaining water-sources. Common consequences of drought include: * Diminished crop yield, crop growth or yield productions and carrying capacity for livestock * Dust bowls, themselves a sign of erosion, which further erode the landscape * Dust storms, when drought hits an area suffering from desertification and erosion * Famine * Habitat damage, affecting both Terrestrial ecoregion, terrestrial and Aquatic ecosystem, aquatic wildlife * Hunger – drought provides too little water to support food crops. * Malnutrition, dehydration and related diseases * Mass migration, resulting in internally displaced person, internal displacement and international refugees * Reduced electricity generation, electricity production due to reduced water-flow through hydroelectric energy, hydroelectric dams * Shortages of water for Private industry, industrial users * Snake migration, which results in snake-bites * Social unrest * War over natural resources, including water and food * Wildfires, such as Australian bushfires, become more common during times of drought and may cause human deaths. * Exposure and oxidation of acid sulfate soils due to falling surface- and ground-water levels.Mosley LM, Zammit B, Jolley A, and Barnett L (2014). Acidification of lake water due to drought. Journal of Hydrology. 511: 484–493.Mosley LM, Palmer D, Leyden E, Fitzpatrick R, and Shand P (2014). Acidification of floodplains due to river level decline during drought. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 161: 10–23.Mosley LM, Palmer D, Leyden E, Fitzpatrick R, and Shand P (2014). Changes in acidity and metal geochemistry in soils, groundwater, drain and river water in the Lower Murray River after a severe drought. Science of the Total Environment 485–486: 281–291. * Cyanotoxin accumulation within food chains and water supply (some of which are among the most potent toxins known to science) can cause cancer with low exposure over the long term. High levels of microcystin appeared in San Francisco Bay Area salt-water shellfish and fresh-water supplies throughout the state of California in 2016.


Protection, mitigation and relief

Agriculturally, people can effectively mitigate much of the impact of drought through irrigation and crop rotation. Failure to develop adequate drought mitigation strategies carries a grave human cost in the modern era, exacerbated by population growth, ever-increasing population densities. Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt on April 27, 1935, signed documents creating the Soil conservation, Soil Conservation Service (SCS)—now the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Models of the law were sent to each state where they were enacted. These were the first enduring practical programs to curtail future susceptibility to drought, creating agencies that first began to stress soil conservation measures to protect farm lands today. It was not until the 1950s that there was an importance placed on water conservation was put into the existing laws (NRCS 2014). Strategies for drought protection, mitigation or relief include: * Dams – many dams and their associated reservoirs supply additional water in times of drought. * Cloud seeding – a form of intentional weather modification to induce rainfall. This remains a hotly debated topic, as the National Research Council (United States), United States National Research Council released a report in 2004 stating that to date, there is still no convincing scientific proof of the efficacy of intentional weather modification. * Desalination – use of sea water for irrigation or consumption. * Drought monitoring – Continuous observation of rainfall levels and comparisons with current usage levels can help prevent man-made drought. For instance, analysis of water usage in Yemen has revealed that their water table (underground water level) is put at grave risk by over-use to fertilize their Khat crop. Careful monitoring of moisture levels can also help predict increased risk for wildfires, using such metrics as the Keetch-Byram Drought Index or Palmer Drought Index. * Land use – Carefully planned crop rotation can help to minimize erosion and allow farmers to plant less water-dependent crops in drier years. * Outdoor water-use restriction – Regulating the use of sprinklers, hoses or buckets on outdoor plants, filling pools, and other water-intensive home maintenance tasks. Xeriscaping yards can significantly reduce unnecessary water use by residents of towns and cities. * Rainwater harvesting – Collection and storage of rainwater from roofs or other suitable catchments. * Recycled water – Former wastewater (sewage) that has been treated and purified for reuse. * Transvasement – Building canals or redirecting rivers as massive attempts at irrigation in drought-prone areas.


History

Well-known historical droughts include: *1540 European drought, 1540 Central Europe, said to be the “worst drought of the millennium” with eleven months without rain and temperatures of 5–7 °C above the average of the 20th century * 1900 India killing between 250,000 and 3.25 million. * 1921–22 Soviet Union in which over 5 million perished from starvation due to drought. * 1928–30 Northwest China resulting in over 3 million deaths by famine. * 1936 and 1941 Sichuan Province China resulting in 5 million and 2.5 million deaths respectively. * The 1997–2009 2000s Australian drought, Millennium Drought in Australia led to a water supply crisis across much of the country. As a result, many desalination plants were built for the first time (List of desalination plants in Australia, see list). * In 2006, Sichuan Province China experienced its worst drought in modern times with nearly 8 million people and over 7 million cattle facing water shortages. * 12-year drought that was devastating southwest Western Australia, southeast South Australia, Victoria and northern Tasmania was "very severe and without historical precedent". * 2015–2018 Cape Town water crisis. This likelihood was tripled by climate change. The Darfur conflict in Sudan, also affecting Chad, was fueled by decades of drought; combination of drought, desertification and Human overpopulation, overpopulation are among the causes of the Darfur conflict, because the Arab Baggara nomads searching for water have to take their livestock further south, to land mainly occupied by non-Arab farming people. Approximately 2.4 billion people live in the drainage basin of the Himalayan rivers. India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar could experience floods followed by droughts in coming decades. Drought in India affecting the Ganges is of particular concern, as it provides drinking water and agricultural irrigation for more than 500 million people. The west coast of North America, which gets much of its water from glaciers in mountain ranges such as the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada (U.S.), Sierra Nevada, also would be affected. In 2005, parts of the Amazon basin experienced the worst drought in 100 years. A 23 July 2006 article reported Woods Hole Research Center results showing that the forest in its present form could survive only three years of drought. Scientists at the Brazilian National Institute of Amazonian Research argue in the article that this drought response, coupled with the effects of deforestation on regional climate, are pushing the rainforest towards a "tipping point (climatology), tipping point" where it would irreversibly start to die. It concludes that the rainforest is on the brink of being turned into savanna or desert, with catastrophic consequences for the world's climate. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, WWF, the combination of
climate change Climate change includes both global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns. Though there have been previous periods of climatic change, since the mid-20th century ...
and deforestation increases the drying effect of dead trees that fuels forest fires. By far the largest part of Australia is Deserts of Australia, desert or semi-arid lands commonly known as the outback. A 2005 study by Australian and American researchers investigated the desertification of the interior, and suggested that one explanation was related to human settlers who arrived about 50,000 years ago. Regular burning by these settlers could have prevented monsoons from reaching interior Australia. In June 2008 it became known that an expert panel had warned of long term, maybe irreversible, severe ecological damage for the whole Murray-Darling basin if it did not receive sufficient water by October 2008. Australia could experience more severe droughts and they could become more frequent in the future, a government-commissioned report said on July 6, 2008. Australian environmentalist Tim Flannery, predicted that unless it made drastic changes, Perth, Western Australia, Perth in Western Australia could become the world's first ghost town, ghost metropolis, an abandoned city with no more water to sustain its population. The long Australian 2000s Australian drought, Millennial drought broke in 2010. Recurring droughts leading to desertification in East Africa have created grave ecological catastrophes, prompting food shortages in 1983–85 famine in Ethiopia, 1984–85, 2006 Horn of Africa food crisis, 2006 and 2011 East Africa drought, 2011.Sara Pantuliano and Sara Pavanello (2004
Taking drought into account Addressing chronic vulnerability among pastoralists in the Horn of Africa
Overseas Development Institute
During the 2011 drought, an estimated 50,000 to 150,000 people were reported to have died, though these figures and the extent of the crisis are disputed. In February 2012, the UN announced that the crisis was over due to a scaling up of relief efforts and a bumper harvest. Aid agencies subsequently shifted their emphasis to recovery efforts, including digging irrigation canals and distributing plant seeds. In 2012, a severe 2012 Sahel drought, drought struck the western Sahel. The Methodist Relief & Development Fund (MRDF) reported that more than 10 million people in the region were at risk of famine due to a month-long heat wave that was hovering over Niger, Mali, Mauritania and Burkina Faso. A fund of about £20,000 was distributed to the drought-hit countries.


See also


References


Further reading

* Christopher de Bellaigue, "The River" (the Ganges; review of Sunil Amrith, ''Unruly Waters: How Rains, Rivers, Coasts, and Seas Have Shaped Asia's History''; Sudipta Sen, ''Ganges: The Many Pasts of an Indian River''; and Victor Mallet, ''River of Life, River of Death: The Ganges and India's Future''), ''The New York Review of Books'', vol. LXVI, no. 15 (10 October 2019), pp. 34–36. "[I]n 1951 the average Indian [inhabitant of India] had access annually to 5,200 cubic meters of water. The figure today is 1,400... and will probably fall below 1,000 cubic meters – the UN's definition of 'water scarcity' – at some point in the next few decades. Compounding the problem of lower summer rainfall... India's water table is in freefall [due] to an increase in the number of tube wells... Other contributors to India's seasonal dearth of water are canal leaks [and] the continued sowing of thirsty crops..." (p. 35.)


External links


GIDMaPS
Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System, University of California, Irvine

from FAO Water (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
Drought: Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, First Session, on Exploring the Effects of Drought on Energy And Water Management, April 25, 2013

U.S. Billion-dollar Weather and Climate Disasters

Global Real-Time Drought Media Monitoring
* Prokurat S.,
Drought and water shortages in Asia as a threat and economic problem
, in: "Journal of Modern Science", 26 March 2015, pp. 235–250. {{Authority control Droughts, Meteorological phenomena Civil defense Climate variability and change Hydrology Water and the environment Weather hazards Articles containing video clips Natural disasters