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A diphthong ( or ; from Greek: , ''diphthongos'', literally "double sound" or "double tone"; from ''δίς'' "twice" and ''φθόγγος'' "sound"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent
vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and also in Vowel ...
sounds within the same
syllable A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. It is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels a ...
. Technically, a diphthong is a vowel with two different targets: that is, the tongue (and/or other parts of the speech apparatus) moves during the pronunciation of the vowel. In most varieties of
English
English
, the phrase ''no highway cowboy'' has five distinct diphthongs, one in every
syllable A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. It is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels a ...
. Diphthongs contrast with monophthongs, where the tongue or other speech organs do not move and the syllable contains only a single vowel sound. For instance, in English, the word ''ah'' is spoken as a monophthong (), while the word ''ow'' is spoken as a diphthong in most varieties (). Where two adjacent vowel sounds occur in different syllables—for example, in the English word ''re-elect''—the result is described as hiatus, not as a diphthong. (The English word ''hiatus'' is itself an example of both hiatus and diphthongs.) Diphthongs often form when separate vowels are run together in rapid speech during a conversation. However, there are also unitary diphthongs, as in the English examples above, which are heard by listeners as single-vowel sounds (
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Midlan ...
s).definition of 'Diphthong'
on
SIL International SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a :Evangelical parachurch organizations, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are le ...
, accessed 17 January 2008


Transcription

In the
International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (Writing system#General properties, script) b ...
(IPA), monophthongs are transcribed with one symbol, as in English ''sun'' , in which represents a monophthong. Diphthongs are transcribed with two symbols, as in English ''high'' or ''cow'' , in which and represent diphthongs. Diphthongs may be transcribed with two vowel symbols or with a vowel symbol and a semivowel symbol. In the words above, the less prominent member of the diphthong can be represented with the symbols for the palatal approximant and the labiovelar approximant , with the symbols for the close vowels and , or the symbols for the
near-close vowel 250px, Vowel diagram illustrating the and contrasts in Sotho, from . The near-close vowels are normally transcribed without diacritics (i.e. as and , respectively), or even with the symbols for close central vowels ( and , respectively), though ...
s and : Some transcriptions are Broad transcription, broader or Narrow transcription, narrower (less precise or more precise phonetically) than others. Transcribing the English diphthongs in ''high'' and ''cow'' as or is a less precise or broader transcription, since these diphthongs usually end in a vowel sound that is Vowel#Height, more open than the semivowels or the close vowels . Transcribing the diphthongs as is a more precise or narrower transcription, since the English diphthongs usually end in the
near-close vowel 250px, Vowel diagram illustrating the and contrasts in Sotho, from . The near-close vowels are normally transcribed without diacritics (i.e. as and , respectively), or even with the symbols for close central vowels ( and , respectively), though ...
s . The non-syllabic diacritic, the inverted breve below , is placed under the less prominent part of a diphthong to show that it is part of a diphthong rather than a vowel in a separate syllable: . When there is no contrastive vowel sequence in the language, the diacritic may be omitted. Other common indications that the two sounds are not separate vowels are a superscript, , or a tie bar, or . The tie bar can be useful when it is not clear which symbol represents the syllable nucleus, or when they have equal weight. Superscripts are especially used when an on- or off-glide is particularly fleeting. The period is the opposite of the non-syllabic diacritic: it represents a syllable break. If two vowels next to each other belong to two different
syllable A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. It is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels a ...
s ( hiatus), meaning that they do not form a diphthong, they can be transcribed with two vowel symbols with a period in between. Thus, ''lower'' can be transcribed , with a period separating the first syllable, , from the second syllable, . The non-syllabic diacritic is used only when necessary. It is typically omitted when there is no ambiguity, as in . No words in English have the vowel sequences , so the non-syllabic diacritic is unnecessary.


Types


Falling and rising

Falling (or descending) diphthongs start with a vowel quality of higher prominence (phonetics), prominence (higher pitch or volume) and end in a semivowel with less prominence, like in ''eye'', while rising (or ascending) diphthongs begin with a less prominent semivowel and end with a more prominent full vowel, similar to the in ''yard''. (Note that "falling" and "rising" in this context do ''not'' refer to vowel height; for that, the terms "opening" and "closing" are used instead. See below.) The less prominent component in the diphthong may also be transcribed as an approximant, thus in ''eye'' and in ''yard''. However, when the diphthong is analysed as a single
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Midlan ...
, both elements are often transcribed with vowel symbols (, ). Semivowels and approximants are not equivalent in all treatments, and in the English (language), English and Italian (language), Italian languages, among others, many phoneticians do not consider rising combinations to be diphthongs, but rather sequences of approximant and vowel. There are many languages (such as #Romanian, Romanian) that contrast one or more rising diphthongs with similar sequences of a glide and a vowel in their phonetic inventory (see semivowel for examples).


Closing, opening, and centering

In closing diphthongs, the second element is more close vowel, close than the first (e.g. ); in opening diphthongs, the second element is more open vowel, open (e.g. ). Closing diphthongs tend to be falling (), and opening diphthongs are generally rising (), as open vowels are more sonorant, sonorous and therefore tend to be more prominent. However, exceptions to this rule are not rare in the world's languages. In Finnish phonology, Finnish, for instance, the opening diphthongs and are true falling diphthongs, since they begin louder and with higher pitch and fall in prominence during the diphthong. A third, rare type of diphthong that is neither opening nor closing is height-harmonic diphthongs, with both elements at the same vowel height. These occurred in Old English: * ''beorht'' "bright" * ''ċeald'' "cold" A centering diphthong is one that begins with a more peripheral vowel and ends with a more central one, such as , , and in Received Pronunciation or and in Irish language, Irish. Many centering diphthongs are also opening diphthongs (, ). Diphthongs may contrast in how far they open or close. For example, Samoan language, Samoan contrasts low-to-mid with low-to-high diphthongs: * ''’ai'' 'probably' * ''’ae'' 'but' * ''’auro'' 'gold' * ''ao'' 'a cloud'


Narrow and wide

Narrow diphthongs are the ones that end with a vowel which on a vowel chart is quite close to the one that begins the diphthong, for example Northern Dutch , and . Wide diphthongs are the opposite - they require a greater tongue movement, and their offsets are farther away from their starting points on the vowel chart. Examples of wide diphthongs are RP/GA English and .


Length

Languages differ in the length of diphthongs, measured in terms of Mora (linguistics), morae. In languages with phonemically short and long vowels, diphthongs typically behave like long vowels, and are pronounced with a similar length. In languages with only one phonemic length for pure vowels, however, diphthongs may behave like pure vowels. For example, in Icelandic language, Icelandic, both monophthongs and diphthongs are pronounced long before single consonants and short before most consonant clusters. Some languages contrast short and long diphthongs. In some languages, such as Old English, these behave like short and long vowels, occupying one and two Mora (linguistics), morae, respectively. Languages that contrast three quantities in diphthongs are extremely rare, but not unheard of; Northern Sami is known to contrast long, short and "finally stressed" diphthongs, the last of which are distinguished by a long second element.


Phonology

In some languages, diphthongs are single
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Midlan ...
s, while in others they are analyzed as sequences of two vowels, or of a vowel and a semivowel.


Sound changes

Certain sound changes relate to diphthongs and monophthongs. Vowel breaking or diphthongization is a vowel shift in which a monophthong becomes a diphthong. Monophthongization or smoothing is a vowel shift in which a diphthong becomes a monophthong.


Difference from semivowels and vowel sequences

While there are a number of similarities, diphthongs are not the same phonologically as a combination of a vowel and an approximant or glide. Most importantly, diphthongs are fully contained in the syllable nucleus while a semivowel or glide is restricted to the syllable boundaries (either the onset or the coda). This often manifests itself phonetically by a greater degree of constriction, but the phonetic distinction is not always clear. The English word ''yes'', for example, consists of a palatal glide followed by a monophthong rather than a rising diphthong. In addition, the segmental elements must be different in diphthongs and so when it occurs in a language, it does not contrast with . However, it is possible for languages to contrast and . Diphthongs are also distinct from sequences of simple vowels. The Bunaq language of Timor, for example, distinguishes 'exit' from 'be amused', 'dance' from 'stare at', and 'choice' from 'good'.


Examples


Germanic languages


English

In words coming from Middle English, most cases of the Modern English diphthongs originate from the Middle English long monophthongs through the Great Vowel Shift, although some cases of originate from the Middle English phonology#Diphthongs, Middle English diphthongs .


Dutch

The dialect of Hamont (in Limburg (Belgium), Limburg) has five centring diphthongs and contrasts long and short forms of , , , and .


German


=Standard German

= Phonemic diphthongs in German phonology, German: * as in ''Ei'' ‘egg’ * as in ''Maus'' ‘mouse’ * as in ''neu'' ‘new’ In the varieties of German that Speech production, vocalize the in the syllable coda, other diphthongal combinations may occur. These are only phonetic diphthongs, not phonemic diphthongs, since the vocalic pronunciation alternates with consonantal pronunciations of if a vowel follows, cf. ''du hörst'' ‘you hear’ – ''ich höre'' ‘I hear’. These phonetic diphthongs may be as follows: : notes that the length contrast is not very stable before non-prevocalic and that ", following the pronouncing dictionaries (, ) judge the vowel in ''Art'', ''Schwert'', ''Fahrt'' to be long, while the vowel in ''Ort'', ''Furcht'', ''hart'' is supposed to be short. The factual basis of this presumed distinction seems very questionable." He goes on stating that in his own dialect, there is no length difference in these words, and that judgements on vowel length in front of non-prevocalic which is itself vocalized are problematic, in particular if precedes. :According to the 'lengthless' analysis, the aforementioned 'long' diphthongs are analyzed as , , , , , , and . This makes non-prevocalic and homophonous as or . Non-prevocalic and may also merge, but the vowel chart in shows that they have somewhat different starting points. : also states that "laxing of the vowel is predicted to take place in shortened vowels; it does indeed seem to go hand in hand with the vowel shortening in many cases."


=Bernese German

= The diphthongs of some German dialects differ from standard German diphthongs. The Bernese German diphthongs, for instance, correspond rather to the Middle High German diphthongs than to standard German diphthongs: * as in ''lieb'' ‘dear’ * as in ''guet'' ‘good’ * as in ''müed'' ‘tired’ * as in ''Bei'' ‘leg’ * as in ''Boum'' ‘tree’ * as in ''Böim'' ‘trees’ Apart from these phonemic diphthongs, Bernese German has numerous phonetic diphthongs due to L-vocalization in the syllable coda, for instance the following ones: * as in ''Stau'' ‘stable’ * as in ''Staau'' ‘steel’ * as in ''Wäut'' ‘world’ * as in ''wääut'' ‘elects’ * as in ''tschúud'' ‘guilty’


Yiddish

Yiddish phonology, Yiddish has three diphthongs: * as in פּליטה ('refugee' f.) * as in נײַן ('nine') * as in אופֿן ('way') Diphthongs may reach a higher target position (towards ) in situations of coarticulatory phenomena or when words with such vowels are being emphasized.


Norwegian

There are five diphthongs in the Oslo dialect of Norwegian phonology, Norwegian, all of them falling: * as in ''nei'', "no" * as in ''øy'', "island" * as in ''sau'', "sheep" * as in ''hai'', "shark" * as in ''joik'', "Sami song" An additional diphthong, , occurs only in the word ''hui'' in the expression ''i hui og hast'' "in great haste". The number and form of diphthongs vary between dialects.


Faroese

Diphthongs in Faroese language, Faroese are: * as in ''bein'' (can also be short) * as in ''havn'' * as in ''har'', ''mær'' * as in ''hey'' * as in ''nevnd'' * as in ''nøvn'' * as in ''hús'' * as in ''mín'', ''bý'', ''ið'' (can also be short) * as in ''ráð'' * as in ''hoyra'' (can also be short) * as in ''sól'', ''ovn''


Icelandic

Diphthongs in Icelandic phonology, Icelandic are the following: * as in ''átta'', "eight" * as in ''nóg'', "enough" * as in ''auga'', "eye" * as in ''kær'', "dear" * as in ''þeir'', "they" * as in ''koja'', "bunk bed", "berth" (rare, only in handful of words) Combinations of semivowel and a vowel are the following: * as in ''éta'', "eat" * as in ''jata'', "manger" * as in ''já'', "yes" * as in ''joð'', "iodine", "jay", "yod" (only in a handful of words of foreign origin) * as in ''jól'', "Christmas" * as in ''jötunn'', "giant" * as in ''jæja'', "oh well" * as in ''jú'', "yes"


Romance languages


French

In French phonology, French, , , and may be considered true diphthongs (that is, fully contained in the syllable nucleus: ). Other sequences are considered part of a glide formation process that turns a high vowel into a semivowel (and part of the syllable onset) when followed by another vowel. Diphthongs * as in ''roi'' "king" * as in ''groin'' "muzzle" * as in ''huit'' "eight" * as in ''juin'' "June" Semivowels * as in ''oui'' "yes" * as in ''lien'' "bond" * as in ''Ariège'' * as in ''travail'' "work" * as in ''Marseille'' * as in ''bille'' "ball" * as in ''feuille'' "leaf" * as in ''grenouille'' "frog" * as in ''vieux'' "old"


=Quebec French

= In Quebec French, long vowels are generally diphthongized in informal speech when lexical stress, stressed. * as in ''tard'' "late" * as in ''père'' "father" * as in ''fleur'' "flower" * as in ''autre'' "other" * as in ''neutre'' "neutral" * as in ''banque'' "bank" * as in ''mince'' "thin" * as in ''bon'' "well" * as in ''un'' "one"


Catalan

Catalan phonology, Catalan possesses a number of phonetic diphthongs, all of which begin (''rising diphthongs'') or end (''falling diphthongs'') in or . In standard Eastern Catalan, rising diphthongs (that is, those starting with or ) are possible only in the following contexts: * in word initial position, e.g. ''iogurt''. * Both occur between vowels as in ''feia'' and ''veiem''. * In the sequences or and vowel, e.g. ''guant'', ''quota'', ''qüestió'', ''pingüí'' (these exceptional cases even lead some scholars to hypothesize the existence of rare labiovelar phonemes and ). There are also certain instances of ''compensatory diphthongization'' in the Balearic Catalan, Majorcan dialect so that ('logs') (in addition to deleting the palatal plosive) develops a compensating palatal glide and surfaces as (and contrasts with the unpluralized ). Diphthongization compensates for the loss of the palatal stop (part of Catalan's segment loss compensation). There are other cases where diphthongization compensates for the loss of point of articulation features (property loss compensation) as in ('year') vs ('years'). The dialectal distribution of this compensatory diphthongization is almost entirely dependent on the dorsal plosive (whether it is velar or palatal) and the extent of consonant assimilation (whether or not it is extended to palatals).


Portuguese

The Portuguese diphthongs are formed by the labio-velar approximant and palatal approximant with a vowel, European Portuguese has 14 phonemic diphthongs (10 oral and 4 nasal), all of which are falling diphthongs formed by a vowel and a nonsyllabic high vowel. Brazilian Portuguese has roughly the same amount, although the European and non-European dialects have slightly different pronunciations ( is a distinctive feature of some southern and central Portuguese dialects, especially that of Lisbon). A onglide after or and before all vowels as in ''quando'' ('when') or ''guarda'' ('guard') may also form rising diphthongs and triphthongs. Additionally, in casual speech, adjacent heterosyllabic vowels may combine into diphthongs and triphthongs or even sequences of them. In addition, phonetic diphthongs are formed in most Brazilian Portuguese dialects by the L-vocalization, vocalization of in the syllable coda with words like ''sol'' ('sun') and ''sul'' ('south') as well as by yodization of vowels preceding or its allophone at syllable coda in terms like ''arroz'' ('rice'), and (or ) in terms such as ''paz mundial'' ('world peace') and ''dez anos'' ('ten years').


Spanish

Phonetically, Spanish phonology, Spanish has seven falling diphthongs and eight rising diphthongs. In addition, during fast speech, sequences of vowels in hiatus become diphthongs wherein one becomes non-syllabic (unless they are the same vowel, in which case they fuse together) as in ''poeta'' ('poet') and ''maestro'' ('teacher'). The Spanish diphthongs are:


Italian

The existence of true diphthongs in Italian is debatable; however, a list is: The second table includes only 'false' diphthongs, composed of a semivowel + a vowel, not two vowels. The situation is more nuanced in the first table: a word such as 'baita' is actually pronounced ['baj.ta] and most speakers would syllabify it that way. A word such as 'voi' would instead be pronounced and syllabified as ['vo.i], yet again without a diphthong. In general, unstressed in Hiatus (linguistics), hiatus can turn into glides in more rapid speech (e.g. ''biennale'' 'biennial'; ''coalizione'' 'coalition') with the process occurring more readily in syllables further from stress.


Romanian

Romanian has two true diphthongs: and . There are, however, a host of other vowel combinations (more than any other major Romance language) which are classified as vowel glides. As a result of their origin (diphthongization of mid vowels under stress), the two true diphthongs appear only in stressed syllables and make #Vowel alternations, morphological alternations with the mid vowels and . To native speakers, they sound very similar to and respectively. There are no perfect minimal pairs to contrast and , and because doesn't appear in the final syllable of a prosodic word, there are no monosyllabic words with ; exceptions might include ''voal'' ('veil') and ''trotuar'' ('sidewalk'), though Ioana Chițoran argues that these are best treated as containing glide-vowel sequences rather than diphthongs. In addition to these, the semivowels and can be combined (either before, after, or both) with most vowels, while this arguably forms additional diphthongs and triphthongs, only and can follow an obstruent-liquid cluster such as in ''broască'' ('frog') and ''dreagă'' ('to mend'), implying that and are restricted to the syllable boundary and therefore, strictly speaking, do not form diphthongs.


Celtic languages


Irish

All Irish phonology, Irish diphthongs are falling. *, spelled ''aigh, aidh, agh, adh, eagh, eadh, eigh,'' or ''eidh'' *, spelled ''abh, amh, eabh,'' or ''eamh'' *, spelled ''ia, iai'' *, spelled ''ua, uai''


Scottish Gaelic

There are 9 diphthongs in Scottish Gaelic. Group 1 occur anywhere (''eu'' is usually [eː] before ''-m'', e.g. ''Seumas''). Group 2 are reflexes that occur before ''-ll, -m, -nn, -bh, -dh, -gh'' and ''-mh''. For more detailed explanations of Gaelic diphthongs see Scottish Gaelic orthography.


Cornish

The following diphthongs are used in the Standard Written Form of Cornish language, Cornish. Each diphthong is given with its ''Revived Middle Cornish'' (RMC) and ''Revived Late Cornish'' (RLC) pronunciation.


Welsh

Welsh language, Welsh is traditionally divided into Northern and Southern dialects. In the north, some diphthongs may be short or long according to regular vowel length rules but in the south they are always short (see Welsh phonology). Southern dialects tend to simplify diphthongs in speech (e.g. ''gwaith'' is reduced to ). :† The plural ending ''-au'' is reduced to /a/ in the north and /e/ in the south, e.g. ''cadau'' 'battles' is /ˈkada/ (north) or /ˈkade/ (south).


Slavic languages


Czech

There are three diphthongs in Czech phonology, Czech: * as in ''auto'' (almost exclusively in words of foreign origin) * as in ''euro'' (in words of foreign origin only) * as in ''koule'' The vowel groups ''ia, ie, ii, io'', and ''iu'' in foreign words are not regarded as diphthongs, they are pronounced with between the vowels .


Serbo-Croatian

*, as in is conventionally considered a diphthong. However, it is actually in hiatus or separated by a semivowel, . Some Serbo-Croatian phonology, Serbo-Croatian dialects also have ''uo'', as in whereas, in Standard Croatian and Serbian, these words are konj, rod, on.


Finno-Ugric languages


Estonian

All nine vowels can appear as the first component of an Estonian diphthong, but only occur as the second component. There are additional diphthongs less commonly used, such as in Euroopa (Europe), in söandama (to dare), and in näuguma (to mew).


Finnish

All Finnish language, Finnish Finnish phonology#Diphthongs, diphthongs are falling. Notably, Finnish has true opening diphthongs (e.g. ), which are not very common crosslinguistically compared to centering diphthongs (e.g. in English). Vowel combinations across syllables may in practice be pronounced as diphthongs, when an intervening consonant has elided, as in ''näön'' instead of for the genitive of ''näkö'' ('sight'). ; closing * as in ''laiva'' (ship) * as in ''keinu'' (swing) * as in ''poika'' (boy) * as in ''äiti'' (mother) * as in ''öisin'' (at nights) * as in ''lauha'' (mild) * as in ''leuto'' (mild) * as in ''koulu'' (school) * as in ''leyhyä'' (to waft) * as in ''täysi'' (full) * as in ''löytää'' (to find) ; close * as in ''uida'' (to swim) * as in ''lyijy'' (lead) * as in ''viulu'' (violin) * as in ''siistiytyä'' (to smarten up) ; opening * as in ''kieli'' (tongue) * as in ''suo'' (bog) * as in ''yö'' (night)


Northern Sami

The diphthong system in Northern Sami#Phonology, Northern Sami varies considerably from one dialect to another. The Western Finnmark dialects distinguish four different qualities of opening diphthongs: * as in ''leat'' "to be" * as in ''giella'' "language" * as in ''boahtit'' "to come" * as in ''vuodjat'' "to swim" In terms of quantity, Northern Sami shows a three-way contrast between long, short and finally stressed diphthongs. The last are distinguished from long and short diphthongs by a markedly long and stressed second component. Diphthong quantity is not indicated in spelling.


Semitic languages


Maltese

Maltese language, Maltese has seven falling diphthongs, though they may be considered VC sequences phonemically. * ''ej'' or ''għi'' * ''aj'' or ''għi'' * ''oj'' * ''iw'' * ''ew'' * ''aw'' or ''għu'' * ''ow'' or ''għu''


Sino-Tibetan languages


Mandarin Chinese

Rising sequences in Standard Mandarin, Mandarin are usually regarded as a combination of a medial semivowel () plus a vowel, while falling sequences are regarded as one diphthong. *ai: , as in ''ài'' (愛, love) *ei: , as in ''lèi'' (累, tired) *ao: , as in ''dào'' (道, way) *ou: , as in ''dòu'' (豆, bean)


Cantonese

Cantonese has eleven diphthongs. *aai: , as in ''gaai1'' (街, street) *aau: , as in ''baau3'' (爆, explode) *ai: , as in ''gai1'' (雞, chicken) *au: , as in ''au1'' (勾, hook) *ei: , as in ''gei1'' (機, machine) *eu: , as in ''deu6'' (掉, throw) *iu: , as in ''giu3'' (叫, call) *oi: , as in ''oi3'' (愛, love) *ou: , as in ''gou1'' (高, high) *ui: , as in ''pui4'' (陪, accompany) *eui: , as in ''zeoi3'' (醉, drunk)


Tai–Kadai languages


Thai

In addition to vowel nuclei following or preceding and , Thai phonology, Thai has three diphthongs which exist as long-short pairs: * เอีย ia * เอือ üa * อัว ua


Mon-Khmer languages


Vietnamese

In addition to vowel nuclei following or preceding /j/ and /w/, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese has three diphthongs: * ''ia~iê'' * ''ưa~ươ'' * ''ua~uô''


Khmer

Khmer language has rich vocalics with an extra distinction of long and short register to the vowels and diphthongs. * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Bantu languages


Zulu

Zulu language, Zulu has only monophthongs. ''Y'' and ''w'' are semi-vowels: * as in ''ngiyakubeka'' (I am placing it) * as in ''ngiwa'' (I fall/I am falling)


Austronesian languages


Indonesian

Indonesian language, has four native diphthong and may be located at the beginning, middle and end of the words.
Minister of Education and Culture Decree No: 50/2015
Jakarta, 2015.
they are: * : ''balairung'' ('hall') , ''kedai'' ('shop'), ''pandai'' ('clever') * : ''autodidak'' ('autodidact'), ''Taufik'' (Indonesian given name), ''kerbau'' ('buffalo'), ''limau'' ('lemon') * (or in Indonesian): ''boikot'' ('boycott') , ''amboi'' (an expression when amazed) * : ''eigendom'' ('property') , ''survei'' ('survey')


See also

* Digraph (orthography) * Hiatus (linguistics), Hiatus * Index of phonetics articles * Table of vowels * Monophthong * Semivowel * Triphthong * Vowel * Vowel breaking * Diaeresis (prosody), Diaeresis


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * {{Authority control Vowels Phonetics