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Cultural heritage is the legacy of tangible and intangible
heritage assetA heritage asset is an item that has value because of its contribution to a nation’s society, knowledge and/or culture. They are usually physical assets, but some countries also use the term in relation to intangible social and spiritual inheritanc ...
s of a group or
society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be ...

society
that is inherited from past generations. Not all legacies of past generations are "heritage"; rather, heritage is a product of selection by society. Cultural heritage includes tangible culture (such as buildings,
monuments is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end o ...

monuments
, landscapes, books, works of art, and artifacts),
intangible culture An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill considered by UNESCO to be part of a place's cultural heritage. Buildings, Historic site, historic places, monuments, and Artifact (archaeology), ...
(such as folklore, traditions, language, and knowledge), and
natural heritage Natural heritage refers to the sum total of the elements of biodiversity, including flora and fauna, ecosystems and geological structures. It forms part of our natural resources. Definition Heritage is that which is ''inherited'' from past gener ...

natural heritage
(including culturally significant landscapes, and
biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and of . Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the , , and level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near the , which is the result of the warm and high . Biodiversity is not distributed ev ...

biodiversity
).Ann Marie Sullivan, Cultural Heritage & New Media: A Future for the Past, 15 J. MARSHALL REV. INTELL. PROP. L. 604 (2016) https://repository.jmls.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1392&context=ripl The term is often used in connection with issues relating to the protection of
Indigenous intellectual property Indigenous intellectual property is an umbrella legal term used in national and international forums to identify indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous peop ...
. The deliberate act of keeping cultural heritage from the present for the future is known as
preservation Preservation may refer to: Heritage and conservation * Preservation (library and archival science), activities aimed at prolonging the life of a record while making as few changes as possible * Preservation (magazine), ''Preservation'' (magazine ...
(American English) or
conservation Conservation is the preservation or efficient use of resources, or the conservation of various quantities under physical laws. Conservation may also refer to: Environment and natural resources * Nature conservation, the protection and manageme ...
(British English), which cultural and historical ethnic
museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, culture, cu ...

museum
s and
cultural center A cultural center or cultural centre is an organization, building or complex that promotes culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the s ...
s promote, though these terms may have more specific or technical meanings in the same contexts in the other dialect. Preserved heritage has become an anchor of the global
tourism industry at the archaeological site An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history ...
, a major contributor
economic value In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goo ...
to local communities. Legal protection of cultural property comprises a number of international agreements and national laws.
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
,
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
and
Blue Shield International The Blue Shield, formerly the International Committee of the Blue Shield, is an international organization founded in 1996 to protect the world's cultural heritage from threats such as armed conflict and natural disasters. Originally intended as ...
deal with the protection of cultural heritage. This also applies to the integration of
United Nations peacekeeping#REDIRECT United Nations peacekeeping Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peace Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create t ...
.UNIFIL - Action plan to preserve heritage sites during conflict, 12 Apr 2019.
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Types of heritage


Cultural property

Cultural property Cultural property does not have a universal definition, but it is commonly considered to be tangible (physical, material) items that are part of the cultural heritage Cultural heritage is the legacy of cultural resources and intangible attribut ...
includes the physical, or "tangible" cultural heritage, such as artworks. These are generally split into two groups of movable and immovable heritage. Immovable heritage includes buildings (which themselves may include installed art such as organs, stained glass windows, and frescos), large industrial installations, residential projects or other historic places and
monument is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end o ...

monument
s. Moveable heritage includes books, documents, moveable artworks, machines, clothing, and other artifacts, that are considered worthy of preservation for the future. These include objects significant to the archaeology, architecture, science or technology of a specified culture. Aspects and disciplines of the preservation and conservation of tangible culture include: *
Museology Museology or museum studies is the study of museums. It explores the history of museums and their role in society, as well as the activities they engage in, including Curator, curating, Conservation-restoration of cultural heritage, preservation, ...
*
Archival scienceArchival science, or archival studies, is the study and theory of building and Curator, curating archives, which are collections of documents, Sound recording and reproduction, recordings and data storage devices. To build and curate an archive, one ...
*
Conservation (cultural heritage) , burial chamber, in Suceava, Romania (Venice) The conservation and restoration of cultural heritage focuses on protection and care of tangible cultural heritage, including Collection (artwork), artworks, Architectural conservation, architecture ...
**
Art conservation#REDIRECT Conservation and restoration of cultural property {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move ...
**
Archaeological conservation , burial chamber, in Suceava, Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders with Bulgaria to ...
**
Architectural conservation Architectural conservation describes the process through which the material, historical, and design integrity of any built heritage are prolonged through carefully planned interventions. The individual engaged in this pursuit is known as an arch ...
**
Film preservation Film preservation, or film restoration, describes a series of ongoing efforts among film historians, archivists, museums, cinematheques, and non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for- ...
** *
Digital preservation In library A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or electronic media, digital access to material, and may be ...


Intangible culture

"Intangible cultural heritage" consists of non-physical aspects of a particular culture, more often maintained by social customs during a specific period in history. The concept includes the ways and means of behavior in a society, and the often formal rules for operating in a particular cultural climate. These include social values and
tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to attitudes about the wo ...

tradition
s,
customs Vienna Convention road sign for customs Customs is an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds every ...
and practices,
aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aesthetics). It examines subjective and ...

aesthetic
and beliefs,
artistic expression Art is a diverse range of (products of) human behavior, human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of what constitute ...
,
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and ...

language
and other aspects of human activity. The significance of physical artifacts can be interpreted as an act against the backdrop of socioeconomic, political, ethnic, religious and philosophical values of a particular group of people. Naturally, intangible cultural heritage is more difficult to preserve than physical objects. Aspects of the preservation and conservation of cultural intangibles include: *
folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition ab ...

folklore
*
oral history Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interview Some interviews are recorded for televis ...
*
language preservationLanguage preservation is the effort to prevent languages from becoming unknown. A language is at risk of being lost when it no longer is taught to younger generations, while fluent speakers of the language (usually the elderly) die. Basis Language ...


Natural heritage

"Natural heritage" is also an important part of a society's heritage, encompassing the countryside and natural environment, including flora (plants), flora and fauna (animals), fauna, scientifically known as
biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and of . Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the , , and level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near the , which is the result of the warm and high . Biodiversity is not distributed ev ...

biodiversity
, as well as geological elements (including mineralogical, geomorphological, paleontological, etc.), scientifically known as geodiversity. These kind of heritage sites often serve as an important component in a country's tourist industry, attracting many visitors from abroad as well as locally. Heritage can also include cultural landscapes (natural features that may have cultural attributes). Aspects of the preservation and conservation of natural heritage include: * Rare breed (agriculture), Rare breeds conservation * Heirloom plants


Protection of cultural heritage


History

There have been examples of respect for the cultural assets of enemies since ancient times. The roots of today's legal situation for the precise protection of cultural heritage also lie in some of Austria's ruler Maria Theresa (1717 - 1780) decided Regulations and the demands of the Congress of Vienna (1814/15) not to remove works of art from their place of origin in the war. The process continued at the end of the 19th century when, in 1874 (in Brussels), at least a draft international agreement on the laws and customs of war was agreed. 25 years later, in 1899, an international peace conference was held in the Netherlands on the initiative of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, with the aim of revising the declaration (which was never ratified) and adopting a convention. The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 also significantly advanced international law and laid down the principle of the immunity of cultural property. Three decades later, in 1935, the preamble to the Treaty on the Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions (Roerich Pact) was formulated. On the initiative of UNESCO, the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict was signed in 1954. Protection of cultural heritage or protection of cultural goods means all measures to protect cultural property against damage, destruction, theft, embezzlement or other loss. The term “monument protection” is also used for immovable cultural property. This relates in particular to the prevention of robbery digs at archaeological sites, the looting or destruction of cultural sites and the theft of works of art from churches and museums all over the world and basically measures regarding the conservation and general access to our common cultural heritage. Legal protection of cultural heritage comprises a number of international agreements and national laws, and these must also be implemented. There is a close partnership between the UN,
United Nations peacekeeping#REDIRECT United Nations peacekeeping Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peace Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create t ...
,
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
, the International Committee of the Red Cross and
Blue Shield International The Blue Shield, formerly the International Committee of the Blue Shield, is an international organization founded in 1996 to protect the world's cultural heritage from threats such as armed conflict and natural disasters. Originally intended as ...
. The protection of the cultural heritage should also preserve the particularly sensitive cultural memory, the growing cultural diversity and the economic basis of a state, a municipality or a region. Whereby there is also a connection between cultural user disruption or cultural heritage and the cause of flight. But only through the fundamental cooperation, including the military units and the planning staff, with the locals can the protection of world heritage sites, archaeological finds, exhibits and archaeological sites from destruction, looting and robbery be implemented sustainably. The founding president of Blue Shield International Karl von Habsburg summed it up with the words: “Without the local community and without the local participants, that would be completely impossible”.


The ethics and rationale of cultural preservation

Objects are a part of the study of human history because they provide a concrete basis for ideas, and can validate them. Their preservation demonstrates a recognition of the necessity of the past and of the things that tell its story. In ''The Past is a Foreign Country'', David Lowenthal observes that preserved objects also validate memory, memories. While 3D scanner, digital acquisition techniques can provide a technological solution that is able to acquire the shape and the appearance of artifacts with an unprecedented precision in human history, the actuality of the object, as opposed to a reproduction, draws people in and gives them a literal way of touching the past. This, unfortunately, poses a danger as places and things are damaged by the hands of tourists, the light required to display them, and other risks of making an object known and available. The reality of this risk reinforces the fact that all artifacts are in a constant state of chemical transformation, so that what is considered to be preserved is actually changing – it is never as it once was. Similarly changing is the value each generation may place on the past and on the artifacts that link it to the past. Classical civilizations, especially Indian, have attributed supreme importance to the preservation of tradition. Its central idea was that social institutions, scientific knowledge and technological applications need to use a "heritage" as a "resource". Using contemporary language, we could say that ancient Indians considered, as social resources, both economic assets (like natural resources and their exploitation structure) and factors promoting social integration (like institutions for the preservation of knowledge and for the maintenance of civil order). Ethics considered that what had been inherited should not be consumed, but should be handed over, possibly enriched, to successive generations. This was a moral imperative for all, except in the final life stage of sannyasa. What one generation considers "cultural heritage" may be rejected by the next generation, only to be revived by a subsequent generation.


World heritage movement

Significant was the Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage that was adopted by the General Conference of
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
in 1972. As of 2011, there are 936 World Heritage Sites: 725 cultural, 183 natural, and 28 mixed properties, in 153 countries. Each of these sites is considered important to the international community. The underwater cultural heritage is protected by the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. This convention is a legal instrument helping states parties to improve the protection of their underwater cultural heritage. In addition, UNESCO has begun designating masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights sitting as part of the United Nations Economic and Social Council with article 15 of its Covenant had sought to instill the principles under which cultural heritage is protected as part of a basic human right. Key international documents and bodies include: * Athens Charter (Preservation), Athens Charter, 1931 * Roerich Pact, 1935 * Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, 1954, (with a definition of cultural heritage item adopted by some national law) * Venice Charter, 1964 * Barcelona Charter, 2002 (regarding maritime vessel preservation) * ICOMOS *Blue Shield International, The Blue Shield, a network of committees of dedicated individuals across the world that is “''committed to the protection of the world’s cultural property, and is concerned with the protection of cultural and natural heritage, tangible and intangible, in the event of armed conflict, natural- or human-made disaster''.” * International Institute for Conservation


National and regional heritage movements

Much of heritage preservation work is done at the national, regional, or local levels of society. Various national and regional regimes include: * Australia: :Burra Charter :Heritage Overlay in Victoria, Australia * Brazil: :National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage * Canada :Heritage conservation in Canada * Chile :National Monuments Council (Chile) * China :State Administration of Cultural Heritage * Egypt : Supreme Council of Antiquities * Estonia : Ministry of Culture (Estonia) : National Heritage Board (Estonia) * Ghana :Ghana’s material cultural heritage * Honduras : Secretary of State for Culture, Arts and Sports * Hong Kong :Heritage conservation in Hong Kong * India :Ministry of Culture (India) :National Archives of India :Archaeological Survey of India :Anthropological Survey of India :Culture of India : :National Museum Institute of the History of Art, Conservation and Museology :List of World Heritage Sites in India :Indian Heritage Cities Network, Mysore :Heritage structures in Hyderabad * Iran :Cultural Heritage, Handcrafts and Tourism Organization * Japan :Cultural Properties of Japan * Kenya :National Museums of Kenya :International Inventories Programme * Macedonia : Institute for Protection of Cultural Monuments and National Museum, Institute for Protection of Cultural Monuments * Malaysia :The National Heritage Act * Namibia :National Heritage Council of Namibia :National Monuments Council (South Africa and Namibia), National Monuments Council * New Zealand :New Zealand Historic Places Trust * Pakistan : Lahore Museum, Lahore Museum of Art and Cultural History : Lok Virsa Museum, Lok Virsa Heritage Museum : National Museum of Pakistan : Pakistan Monument, Pakistan Monument and Heritage Museum * Philippines :National Commission for Culture and the Arts :National Historical Commission of the Philippines * Poland :Ossolineum, National Ossoliński Institute * South Africa :South African Heritage Resources Agency :Provincial heritage resources authority, Provincial heritage resources authorities :Amafa aKwaZulu-Natali :Heritage Western Cape :Northern Cape Heritage Resources Authority :National Monuments Council (South Africa and Namibia), National Monuments Council :Historical Monuments Commission * United Kingdom :Conservation in the United Kingdom :English Heritage :English Heritage Archive :National Trust :Cadw :Northern Ireland Environment Agency :Historic Environment Scotland :National Trust for Scotland * United States of America :National Register of Historic Places * Zimbabwe :National Monuments of Zimbabwe


Issues in cultural heritage

Broad philosophical, technical, and political issues and dimensions of cultural heritage include: * art repatriation, Cultural heritage repatriation * Cultural heritage management * Cultural property law * Heritage tourism * Virtual heritage *Sustainable preservation


Management of cultural heritage

Issues in cultural heritage management include: * Exhibition of cultural heritage objects * Radiography of cultural objects * Storage of cultural heritage objects *Collections maintenance *Disaster preparedness (cultural property), Disaster preparedness


Value Creation through Digitisation

Through digitisation a range of values can be created relating to documentation, preservation, research, education, commercialisation, engagement, etc.


See also

* Antiquarian * Architectural Heritage * Collecting * Heritage film * International Council on Monuments and Sites * Values (heritage)


Digital methods in preservation

* DigiCULT * ERPANET * Intellectual property issues in cultural heritage (IPinCH) *


References


Further reading

* Michael Falser. ''Cultural Heritage as Civilizing Mission. From Decay to Recovery''. Heidelberg, New York: Springer (2015), . * Michael Falser, Monica Juneja (eds.). Archaeologizing' Heritage? Transcultural Entanglements between Local Social Practices and Global Virtual Realities''. Heidelberg, New York: Springer (2013), . * * Ann Marie Sullivan, Cultural Heritage & New Media: A Future for the Past, 15 J. MARSHALL REV. INTELL. PROP. L. 604 (2016) https://repository.jmls.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1392&context=ripl * Barbara T. Hoffman, ''Art and cultural heritage: law, policy, and practice'', Cambridge University Press, 2006 * Leila A. Amineddoleh, "Protecting Cultural Heritage by Strictly Scrutinizing Museum Acquisitions," Fordham Intellectual Property, Media & Entertainment Law Journal, Vol. 24, No. 3. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2467100 * Paolo Davide Farah, Riccardo Tremolada, Desirability of Commodification of Intangible Cultural Heritage: The Unsatisfying Role of IPRs, in TRANSNATIONAL DISPUTE MANAGEMENT, Special Issues “The New Frontiers of Cultural Law: Intangible Heritage Disputes”, Volume 11, Issue 2, March 2014, Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2472339 * Paolo Davide Farah, Riccardo Tremolada, Intellectual Property Rights, Human Rights and Intangible Cultural Heritage, Journal of Intellectual Property Law, Issue 2, Part I, June 2014, , Giuffrè, pp. 21–47. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2472388 * Nora Lafi
Building and Destroying Authenticity in Aleppo: Heritage between Conservation, Transformation, Destruction, and Re-Invention
in Christoph Bernhardt, Martin Sabrow, Achim Saupe. Gebaute Geschichte. Historische Authentizität im Stadtraum, Wallstein, pp.206-228, 2017 * Dallen J. Timothy and Gyan P. Nyaupane, ''Cultural heritage and tourism in the developing world : a regional perspective'', Taylor & Francis, 2009 * Peter Probst, "Osogbo and the Art of Heritage: Monuments, Deities, and Money", Indiana University Press, 2011 * Constantine Sandis (ed.), ''Cultural Heritage Ethics: Between Theory and Practice'', Open Book Publishers, 2014 * Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Zuckermann, Ghil'ad et al.
''ENGAGING - A Guide to Interacting Respectfully and Reciprocally with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People, and their Arts Practices and Intellectual Property''
Australian Government: Indigenous Culture Support, 2015 * * Kocój E., Między mainstremem a undergroundem. Dziedzictwo regionalne w kulturze europejskiej – odkrywanie znaczeń, [w:] Dziedzictwo kulturowe w regionach europejskich. Odkrywanie, ochrona i (re)interpretacja, Seria wydawnicza:, Studia nad dziedzictwem i pamięcią kulturową“, tom I, Kraków 2019, red. Ewa Kocój, Tomasz Kosiek, Joanna Szulborska-Łukaszewicz, pp. 10–35. * Dziedzictwo kulturowe w regionach europejskich. Odkrywanie, ochrona i (re)interpretacja, Seria wydawnicza:, Studia nad dziedzictwem i pamięcią kulturową“, tom I, red. Ewa Kocój, Tomasz Kosiek, Joanna Szulborska-Łukaszewicz, Kraków 2019, p. 300.


External links


Cultural heritage policy - history and resources
Getty Museum - list of major international cultural heritage documents, charters, and treaties
UNESCO World Heritage Centre
– Official website of the United Nations organization for cultural heritage
International Council on Monuments and Sites

International Council of Museums

International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property

Cultural routes and landscapes, a common heritage of Europe
(English and French language)
EPOCH – European Research Network on Excellence in Processing Open Cultural Heritage

Peace Palace Library - Research Guide

National Council for Preservation Education

Dédalo
Open source management system for Cultural heritage * {{Authority control Cultural heritage, Museology Cultural studies, Heritage Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage Articles containing video clips