cultural genocide
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Cultural genocide or cultural cleansing is a concept which was proposed by lawyer
Raphael Lemkin Raphael Lemkin ( pl, Rafał Lemkin; 24 June 1900 – 28 August 1959) was a Polish lawyer of Jewish descent who is best known for coining the word '' genocide'' and initiating the Genocide Convention. Lemkin coined the word ''genocide Gen ...
in 1944 as a component of
genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an , , , or group. coined the term in 1944, combining the word (, "race, people") with the ("act of killing").. In 1948, the defined genocide as "acts committed wi ...
. Though the precise definition of ''cultural genocide'' remains contested, the
Armenian Genocide Museum
Armenian Genocide Museum
defines it as "acts and measures undertaken to destroy nations' or ethnic groups' culture through spiritual, national, and cultural destruction." Some
ethnologists Ethnology (from the grc-gre, ἔθνος, meaning 'nation') is an academic field that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationships between them (compare cultural anthropology, cultural, social anthropolog ...
, such as
Robert Jaulin Robert Jaulin (7 March 1928, Le Cannet, Alpes-Maritimes – 21 November 1996, Grosrouvre) was a French ethnologist. After several journeys to Chad, between 1954 and 1959, among the Sara people, he published in 1967 ''La Mort Sara'' (The Sara Death) ...
, use the term ''
ethnocide Ethnocide is the extermination of national cultures as a genocide component. Reviewing the legal and academic history of usage of the terms genocide and ethnocide, Bartolomé Clavero differentiates them by stating that "Genocide kills people wh ...
'' as a substitute for ''cultural genocide'', although this usage has been criticized as risking the confusion between
ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancest ...

ethnicity
and
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an int ...

culture
. Juxtaposed next to ''ethnocide'', ''cultural genocide'' was considered in the 2007
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP or DOTROIP) is a legally non-binding resolution passed by the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peac ...
; however, it was removed in the final document and simply replaced with "genocide."


Definition

The legal definition of ''
genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an , , , or group. coined the term in 1944, combining the word (, "race, people") with the ("act of killing").. In 1948, the defined genocide as "acts committed wi ...
'' is unspecific about the exact way in which genocide is committed, only stating that it is destruction with the intent to destroy a racial, religious, ethnic or national group. Among many other potential reasons, cultural genocide may be committed for religious motives (e.g.,
iconoclasm alt=A painting, 288px, In this Elizabethan work of propaganda, the top right of the picture depicts men busy pulling down and smashing icons, while power is shifting from the dying King Henry VIII at left, pointing to his far more staunchly Pr ...
); as part of a campaign of
ethnic cleansing Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic, racial, and religious groups from a given area, with the intent of making a region ethnically homogeneous Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the Science, science ...
in order to remove the evidence of a people from a specific locale or history; as part of an effort to implement a
Year Zero A year zero does not exist in the Anno Domini The terms (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It was in ...
, in which the past and its associated culture is deleted and history is "reset".


Binding international law


Cultural property Cultural property does not have a universal definition, but it is commonly considered to be tangible (physical, material) items that are part of the cultural heritage Cultural heritage is the legacy of cultural resources and intangible attribut ...

Cultural genocide involves the eradication and destruction of
cultural artifact Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an int ...
s, such as books, artworks, and structures. *Such practices are forbidden during an armed conflict under the Hague Convention of 1907 Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, which states in Article 25 that ''the attack or bombardment, by whatever means, of towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings which are undefended is prohibited''; in Article 27 that ''in sieges and bombardments all necessary steps must be taken to spare, as far as possible, buildings dedicated to religion, art, science, or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals, and places where the sick and wounded are collected, provided they are not being used at the time for military purposes;'' and in Article 28 that ''the pillage of a town or place, even when taken by assault, is prohibited.'' *In the Americas, the
Roerich Pact The Treaty on the Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments or Roerich Pact is an inter-American treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law Internatio ...
became the first international treaty substantially expanding and entirely dedicated to protection of cultural property; its Article 1 states: ''The historic monuments, museums, scientific, artistic, educational and cultural institutions shall be considered as neutral and as such respected and protected by belligerents. The same respect and protection shall be due to the personnel of the institutions mentioned above. The same respect and protection shall be accorded to the historic monuments, museums, scientific, artistic, educational and cultural institutions in time of peace as well as in war.'' *Following the experiences of World War II and the success of the regional
Roerich Pact The Treaty on the Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments or Roerich Pact is an inter-American treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law Internatio ...
, a new global treaty, the
Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict is the first international treaty that focuses exclusively on the protection of cultural property in armed conflict. It was signed at The Hague, Nether ...
, was adopted, followed by its two supplentary protocols. Under the Second Protocol to the latter convention, it is obligatory for the contracting parties to penalise the perpetrators of such acts. *In addition, the
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
s are also at any time protected by the
World Heritage Convention A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
, which states in Article 4 ''Each State Party to this Convention recognizes that the duty of ensuring the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage referred to in Articles 1 and 2 and situated on its territory, belongs primarily to that State. It will do all it can to this end, to the utmost of its own resources and, where appropriate, with any international assistance and co-operation, in particular, financial, artistic, scientific and technical, which it may be able to obtain.'', while under Article 6 (3) ''Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to take any deliberate measures which might damage directly or indirectly the cultural and natural heritage referred to in Articles 1 and 2 situated on the territory of other States Parties to this Convention.'' *The basic rules were reinforced by the two 1977 protocols to the 1949
Geneva Convention file:Geneva Convention 1864 - CH-BAR - 29355687.pdf, upright=1.15, Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four Treaty, treaties, and three additional Protocol (diplomacy), protocols, that establish the s ...
**Article 53 of the Protocol Additional to the
Geneva Conventions upright=1.15, Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by soverei ...
of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977., states: ''Without prejudice to the provisions of the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict of 14 May 1954, and of other relevant international instruments, it is prohibited: to commit any acts of hostility directed against the historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples; to use such objects in support of the military effort; to make such objects the object of reprisals.'' **Article 16 of the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), 8 June 1977., states: ''Without prejudice to the provisions of the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict of 14 May 1954, it is prohibited to commit any acts of hostility directed against historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples, and to use them in support of the military effort.'' *If the perpetrators are not penalised due to failure or unwilingness of a state to prosecute them, they may be brought to justice under the
Rome Statute The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international l ...
, adopted in July 1998 and entering into force four years later, the legal basis of the
International Criminal Court The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an and that sits in , . The ICC is the first and only permanent international court with to prosecute s for the of , , s and the . It is intended to complement existing national s, and it may ...

International Criminal Court
(ICC), which defines in Article 8(2) the following cultural property-related
war crimes A war crime is a violation of the laws of war The law of war is the component of international law that regulates the conditions for initiating war (''jus ad bellum'') and the conduct of warring parties (''jus in bello''). Laws of war de ...
in both international and non-international armed conflicts: ''Intentionally launching an attack in the knowledge that such attack will cause incidental loss of life or injury to civilians or damage to civilian objects or widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment which would be clearly excessive in relation to the concrete and direct overall military advantage anticipated ''(international conflicts only)''; Extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly; Destroying or seizing the enemy’s/adversary’s property unless such destruction or seizure be imperatively demanded by the necessities of war/conflict; Attacking or bombarding, by whatever means, towns, villages, dwellings or buildings which are undefended and which are not military objectives; Deliberate attacks against buildings of a religious, educational, artistic, scientific or non-profit nature and against historical monuments; Pillaging a town or place, even when taken by assault.''


Intangible cultural heritage An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill considered by UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies po ...

Cultural genocide may also involve
forced assimilation Forced assimilation is an involuntary process of cultural assimilation of religious or ethnic minority groups during which they are forced to adopt language, Identity (social science), identity, Social norm, norms, mores, Convention (norm), customs, ...
, as well as the suppression of a language or cultural activities that do not conform to the destroyer's notion of what is appropriate. *Article 2 of the
Genocide Convention The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was unanimously adopted by the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of t ...
defines the following intangible culture-related aspects of
genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an , , , or group. coined the term in 1944, combining the word (, "race, people") with the ("act of killing").. In 1948, the defined genocide as "acts committed wi ...
: ''Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group''; *Article 27 of the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the c ...
mandates the rights of
ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancest ...
,
religious Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain v ...
and
linguistic minority A minority language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed of ...
to enjoy their own culture, to profess their own religion, and to use their own language. *Article 15 of the
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a multilateral treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states ...
assures
minority groups A minority group, by its original definition, refers to a group of people whose practices, race, religion, ethnicity, or other characteristics are lesser in numbers than the main groups of those classifications. However, in present-day sociology, ...
the right to practice and preserve their languages, religions, art forms, and ways of life. *
The International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid The 1973 United Nations International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid was the first binding international treaty which declared the crime of apartheid and racial segregation under international law. 109 count ...
lists, among others: ''any legislative measures and other measures calculated to prevent a racial group or groups from participation in the political, social, economic and cultural life of the country and the deliberate creation of conditions preventing the full development of such a group or groups, in particular Ъу denying to members of a racial group or groups basic human rights and freedoms, including the right to work, the right to form recognized trade unions, the right to education, the right to leave and to return to their country, the right to a nationality, the right to freedom of movement and residence, the right to freedom of opinion and expression, and the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association; any measures, including legislative measures, designed to divide the population along racial lines by the creation of separate reserves and ghettos for the members of a racial group or groups, the prohibition of mixed marriages among members of various racial groups, the expropriation of landed property belonging to a racial group or groups or to members thereof'' - as a manifestation of the crime of
apartheid Apartheid (: ; , segregation; lit. "aparthood") was a system of institutionalised that existed in and (now ) from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on ' (or ), wh ...

apartheid
and requires the States Parties to prosecute perpetors of such practices. If it is not the case due to failure or unwilingness of a state to prosecute them, they may be brought to justice under the Rome Statute (see below) *Some of the abovementioned oppresive or repressive practices are illegal also under the
Convention on the Rights of the Child The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (commonly abbreviated as the CRC or UNCRC) is an international international human rights instruments, human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health an ...

Convention on the Rights of the Child
, in particular its Article 20(3) concerning the choice of foster placement ''When considering solutions, due regard shall be paid to the desirability of continuity in a child's upbringing and to the child's ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background.'', as well as Article 30 which states that ''In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practise his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language.'' *The
Rome Statute The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international l ...
**Article 6 defines the following intangible culture-related aspects of
genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an , , , or group. coined the term in 1944, combining the word (, "race, people") with the ("act of killing").. In 1948, the defined genocide as "acts committed wi ...
: ''Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group''; **Article 7 (1) defines the following intangible culture-related
crimes against humanity Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are purposefully committed as part of a widespread or systematic policy, directed against civilians, in times of war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A g ...
: ''Enslavement; Deportation or forcible transfer of population; Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity; Persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender as defined in paragraph 3, or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court; The crime of apartheid.'', **Article 8 (2) defines the following intangible culture-related
war crimes A war crime is a violation of the laws of war The law of war is the component of international law that regulates the conditions for initiating war (''jus ad bellum'') and the conduct of warring parties (''jus in bello''). Laws of war de ...
: ''Committing outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment; Committing rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, as defined in article 7, paragraph 2 (f), enforced sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence also constituting a grave breach of the Geneva Convention; Unlawful deportation or transfer or unlawful confinement; The transfer, directly or indirectly, by the Occupying Power of parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies, or the deportation or transfer of all or parts of the population of the occupied territory within or outside fthis territory; Ordering the displacement of the civilian population for reasons related to the conflict, unless the security of the civilians involved or imperative military reasons so demand''. *Under Article 11 of the
Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage The Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage is a UNESCO multilateral treaty, treaty adopted by the UNESCO General Conference on 17 October 2003. The convention entered into force in 2006, after thirtieth instruments of ...
, ''each State Party shall take the necessary measures to ensure the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage present in its territory'', while under Article 19 (2), ''Without prejudice to the provisions of their national legislation and customary law and practices, the States Parties recognize that the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage is of general interest to humanity, and to that end undertake to cooperate at the bilateral, subregional, regional and international levels.'' *In Europe, the
European Convention on Human Rights The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR; formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international convention to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe. Drafted in 1950 by t ...
(
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE; french: Conseil de l'Europe, ) is an international organization, international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold European Convention on Human Rights, human rights, democracy and the Law in Eu ...

Council of Europe
members, including all European sovereign countries, except for
Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages = , languages2_type = Recognized minority language , languages2 = , ethnic_groups = , demonym = Belarusians, Belarusi ...

Belarus
,
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
and the
Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Cidade do Vatica ...

Vatican City
) and the
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) is a multilateral treaty of the Council of Europe aimed at protecting the minority rights, rights of minorities. It came into effect in 1998 and by 2009 it had been ratif ...
(all European sovereign countries, except for
Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages = , languages2_type = Recognized minority language , languages2 = , ethnic_groups = , demonym = Belarusians, Belarusi ...

Belarus
,
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the ...

Belgium
,
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in . Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2021; is its largest and capital city, followed by . Situated on the southern tip of the , ...

Greece
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
,
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#No ...

Iceland
,
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
,
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkans in Southeast Europe. It shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; the ...

Turkey
and the
Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Cidade do Vatica ...

Vatican City
) greatly expand the protection against such activities, as well as provide the necessary legal means (tools) to safeguard and exercise these rights in practice, in particular an application to the
European Court of Human Rights European, or Europeans, may refer to: In general * ''European'', an adjective referring to something of, from, or related to Europe ** Ethnic groups in Europe ** Demographics of Europe ** European cuisine, the cuisines of Europe and other Western ...

European Court of Human Rights
**in the European Union, additional protection of the cultural, religious and linguistic diversity is granted by the
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union A charter is the grant of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social scien ...
, in particular by its titles II (Freedoms) and III (Equality); it may be enforced in practice through an application to the
Court of Justice of the European Union The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (french: Cour de justice de l'Union européenne or "''CJUE''"; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European language ...


History


Etymology

The notion of 'cultural genocide' has been acknowledged as early as 1944, when lawyer
Raphael Lemkin Raphael Lemkin ( pl, Rafał Lemkin; 24 June 1900 – 28 August 1959) was a Polish lawyer of Jewish descent who is best known for coining the word '' genocide'' and initiating the Genocide Convention. Lemkin coined the word ''genocide Gen ...
distinguished a cultural component of genocide. The term itself would not emerge until later. In 1989,
Robert Badinter Robert Badinter (; born 30 March 1928) is a France, French lawyer, politician, and author who enacted the Capital punishment in France, abolition of the death penalty in France in 1981, while serving as Minister of Justice under François Mitte ...

Robert Badinter
, a French criminal lawyer known for his stance against the
death penalty Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ' ...

death penalty
, used the term "cultural genocide" on a television show to describe what he said was the disappearance of
Tibetan culture Tibet developed a distinct culture due to its geographic and climatic conditions. While influenced by neighboring cultures from China, India, and Nepal, the Himalayas, Himalayan region's remoteness and inaccessibility have preserved distinct l ...
in the presence of the
14th Dalai Lama The 14th Dalai Lama (spiritual name Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso, known as Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Dhondup), was born in the Wood-Pig Year, 5th month, 5th day of the Tibetan Calendar, or 6 July 1935. Known as Gyalwa Rinpoc ...

14th Dalai Lama
. The Dalai Lama would later use the term in 1993 and he would use it again in 2008.


Proposed inclusion in the UN's DRIP

Those who drafted the 1948
Genocide Convention The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was unanimously adopted by the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of t ...
initially considered using of the term, but later dropped it from inclusion. Article 7 of a 1994 draft of the
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP or DOTROIP) is a legally non-binding resolution passed by the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peac ...
(DRIP) uses the phrase "cultural genocide" but does not define what it means. The complete article in the draft read as follows: :Indigenous peoples have the collective and individual right not to be subjected to
ethnocide Ethnocide is the extermination of national cultures as a genocide component. Reviewing the legal and academic history of usage of the terms genocide and ethnocide, Bartolomé Clavero differentiates them by stating that "Genocide kills people wh ...
and cultural genocide, including prevention of and redress for: ::(a) Any action which has the aim or effect of depriving them of their integrity as distinct peoples, or of their cultural values or ethnic identities; ::(b) Any action which has the aim or effect of dispossessing them of their lands, territories or resources; ::(c) Any form of
population transfer Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or reli ...
which has the aim or effect of violating or undermining any of their rights; ::(d) Any form of assimilation or integration by other cultures or ways of life imposed on them by legislative, administrative or other measures; ::(e) Any form of propaganda directed against them. This wording only ever appeared in a draft. The DRIP—which was adopted by the
United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), serving as the main deliberative, policymaking, and representative organ of the UN. Its ...
during its 62nd session at
UN Headquarters zh, 联合国总部大楼french: Siège des Nations uniesrussian: Штаб-квартира Организации Объединённых Наций es, Sede de las Naciones Unidas , image = UN HQ 2724390955 bfc562c6a9 (cropped).jpg , image_ ...

UN Headquarters
in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the major city in the United States. Located at the s ...

New York City
on 13 September 2007—only makes reference to genocide once, when it mentions "genocide, or any other act of violence" in Article 7. Though the concept of "ethnocide" and "cultural genocide" was removed in the version adopted by the General Assembly, the sub-points from the draft noted above were retained (with slightly expanded wording) in Article 8 that speaks to "the right not to be subject to forced assimilation."


List of cultural genocides

The term has been used to describe the destruction of
cultural heritage Cultural heritage is the legacy of tangible and intangible heritage assetA heritage asset is an item that has value because of its contribution to a nation’s society, knowledge and/or culture. They are usually physical assets, but some countries ...
in connection with various events listed mainly from the 20th century:


Europe

* Historian Stephen Wheatcroft states that Soviet peasantry were subject to cultural destruction in the creation of the "
New Soviet man The New Soviet man or New Soviet person (russian: новый советский человек ''novy sovetsky chelovek''), as postulated by the ideologists of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (C ...
".The Complexity of the Kazakh Famine: Food Problems and Faulty Perceptions Stephen G. Wheatcroft * In reference to the Axis powers (primarily,
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
)'s policies towards some nations during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
(ex. the
German occupation of Poland German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = Ge ...
& the destruction of Polish culture). * In the
Bosnian War The Bosnian War ( sh, Rat u Bosni i Hercegovini / Рат у Босни и Херцеговини) was an international armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or ...
during the
Siege of Sarajevo The siege of Sarajevo – the capital of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina – was the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare. After being initially besieged by the forces of the Yugoslav People ...

Siege of Sarajevo
, cultural genocide was committed by Bosnian Serb forces. The
National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina The National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina (NUL) ( Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: ''Nacionalna i univerzitetska biblioteka Bosne i Hercegovine'' / Национална и универзитетска библиотека Бос ...
was specifically targeted and besieged by cannons positioned all around the city. The National Library was completely destroyed in the fire, along with 80 percent of its contents. Some 3 million books were destroyed, along with hundreds of original documents from the Ottoman Empire and the Austria-Hungary, Austro-Hungarian monarchy. * 2004 unrest in Kosovo#Destroyed churches, 2004 unrest in Kosovo. In an urgent appeal, issued on 18 March by the extraordinary session of the Expanded Convocation of the Holy Synod of the Serbian Orthodox Church, Holy Synod of Serbian Orthodox Church (), it was reported that a number of Serbian churches and shrines in Kosovo had been damaged or destroyed by rioters. At least 30 sites were completely destroyed, more or less destroyed, or further destroyed (sites that had been previously damaged). *After the Greek Civil War, Greek authorities had conducted a cultural genocide upon Macedonians (ethnic group), Slavic Macedonians in Northern Greece through prohibition of communication in Slavic languages, renaming of cities, towns and villages (Lerin/Лерин to Florina etc.), deportation of Slavic Macedonians, particularly women and children, as well as many other actions intended to marginalize and oppress the Slavic Macedonians residing in Northern Greece. While some of these actions had been motivated by political ideology, as many of the Slavic Macedonians had sided with the defeated communists, the majority of actions were committed in order to wipe out any traces of Slavic Macedonians or their culture in Northern Greece. *Francoist Spain: the alleged prohibition of the use of minority languages such as Catalan in the public space, from schools to shops, public transport, or even in the streets, the banning of the use of Catalan birth names for children, the persecution and destruction of books in Catalan language, renaming of cities, streets and all toponyms from Catalan to Spanish, and the abolition of government and all cultural institutions in Catalonia, with the goal of total cultural suppression and Cultural assimilation, assimilation. ** John D. Hargreaves writes that "A policy of cultural genocide was implemented: the Catalan language and key symbols of Catalan independent identity and nationhood, such as the flag (the senyera), the national hymn ('Els Segadors') and the national dance (the sardana), were proscribed. Any sign of independence or opposition, in fact, was brutally suppressed. Catalan identity and consequently the Catalan nation were threatened with extinction." ** Although Josep Pla and other Catalan authors published books in Catalan in the 1950s, and even there were prizes of Catalan Literature during Francoism like the Premi Sant Jordi de novel·la, editorial production in Catalan never recovered the peak levels it had reached before Spanish Civil War

A prominent case of popularization of Catalan was Serrat, Joan Manuel Serrat: although he could compose Catalan songs and gained certain notoriety, he was not allowed to sing in Catalan in the Eurovision contest its La, la, la. theme, and was replaced by Spanish singer Massiel, who won the Eurovision Song Contest, Eurovision contes

Overall, despite some tolerance as Franco's regime relaxed in the late 60s and early 70s, Catalan and the rest of minority languages of Spain were strictly banned from higher education, administration and all official endeavors, thus being in practice confined to the private sphere and domestic uses (see Language policies of Francoist Spain). *Ireland has been described as enduring cultural genocide under British rule, which aimed to eradicate the Irish language, Irish culture, and the Catholic Church, Catholic faith. Ireland's cultural genocide is discussed in the ''Dictionary of Genocide'' (2007), as well as by Christopher Murray (1997) in reference to the suppression of the Irish language; Hilary Carey, Hilary M. Carey (1997) in reference to the Penal transportation, transportation of Irish convicts to Australia; and by Tomás Mac Síomóin (2018). *
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
's Language policy in France, policies towards its various Languages of France, regional and minority languages, also known as Patois, patois, have been described as genocide by professor of Catalan Philology, philology at the University of the Balearic Islands :ca:Jaume Corbera i Pou, Jaume Corbera i Pou who argues,
When at the mid-19th century, primary school is made compulsory all across the State, it is also made clear that only French will be taught, and the teachers will severely punish any pupil speaking in ''patois''. The aim of the French educational system will consequently not be to dignify the pupils' natural humanity, developing their culture and teaching them to write their language, but rather to humiliate them and morally degrade them for the simple fact of being what tradition and their nature made them. The self-proclaimed country of the "human rights" will then ignore one of man's most fundamental rights, the right to be himself and speak the language of his nation. And with that attitude France, the "grande France" that calls itself the champion of liberty, will pass the 20th century, indifferent to the timid protest movements of the various linguistic communities it submitted and the literary prestige they may have given birth to. [...] France, that under Francisco Franco, Franco's reign was seen here [in Catalonia] as the safe haven of freedom, has the miserable honour of being the [only] State of Europe—and probably the world — that succeeded best in the diabolical task of destroying its own ethnic and linguistic patrimony and moreover, of destroying human family bonds: many parents and children, or grandparents and grandchildren, have different languages, and the latter feel ashamed of the first because they speak a despicable ''patois'', and no element of the grandparents' culture has been transmitted to the younger generation, as if they were born out of a completely new world. This is the French State that has just entered the 21st century, a country where stone monuments and natural landscapes are preserved and respected, but where many centuries of popular creation expressed in different tongues are on the brink of extinction. The "gloire" and the "grandeur" built on a genocide. liberté, égalité, fraternité, No liberty, no equality, no fraternity: just cultural extermination, this is the real motto of the French Republic.


Asia

* The persecution of Baháʼís in Iran as a case of religious persecution has been called a cultural genocide. *The persecution of Sri Lankan Tamils as a case of ethnic cleansing , which was sponsored by the government and continuous till date by Sinhalaisation of northern and eastern parts of the island * The Khachkar destruction in Nakhchivan, destruction by Azerbaijan of thousands of medieval Armenian gravestones at a cemetery in Julfa, Azerbaijan (city), Julfa, and Azerbaijan's subsequent denial that the site had ever existed, has been cited as an example of cultural genocide. * Historian Sarah Cameron believes that while the Kazakh famine of 1931–1933 combined with a campaign against nomads was not genocide in the sense of the Genocide Convention definition, it complies with Raphael Lemkin's original concept of genocide, which considered destruction of culture to be as genocidal as physical annihilation.The Complexity of the Kazakh Famine: Food Problems and Faulty Perceptions Stephen G. Wheatcroft * Branch of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the Korea under Japanese rule, Japanese occupation of Korea. * The Sinicization of Tibet from the 1950's onwards. * The Cultural Revolution in People's Republic of China is considered to be the worst Chinese cultural genocide in Chinese history, whereby state-sponsored systematic destruction of traditional Chinese culture was carried out on a massive scale unparallel in Chinese history. *The destruction of Armenian cultural heritage in Turkey during, and in the decades after, the Armenian genocide). *Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, ISIL forced conversions in its territory and destroyed ancient Assyrian, Rome, Roman, Yazidi and Christianity, Christian heritage sites and museums. *The Uyghur genocide, Uyghur genocide in China. Some one million members of Islam in China, China's Muslim Uyghurs, Uyghur minority have been detained in mass Xinjiang re-education camps, detention camps, termed "Re-education through labor, reeducation camps," which are aimed at changing the political thinking of detainees, their identities, and their religious beliefs. Satellite evidence suggests that China has also razed more than two dozen Uyghur Muslim religious sites to the ground.


Oceania

* The Stolen Generations in Australia where half-caste children were removed from their families.


North America

*Indigenous peoples in Canada. **In 2007, a Canadian Member of Parliament criticized the Minister of Indian Affairs, Ministry of Indian Affairs' destruction of documents that were evidence to the "cultural genocide" imposed on Indigenous peoples within Canada. **The Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada concluded that the Canadian Indian residential school system "can best be described as 'cultural genocide. **In 2015, Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin, Beverly McLachlin, of the Supreme Court of Canada, stated in a speech to the Global Centre for Pluralism that Canada's historical treatment of Indigenous peoples was an attempt at cultural genocide, and "the worst stain on Canada's human-rights record."


See also

* American Indian boarding schools * Canadian Indian residential school system * Cultural conflict * Cultural imperialism * Culture war * Ethnic cleansing * Ethnocide * Forced assimilation * Institutional racism * Language death * Linguistic discrimination (includes Linguicide) * List of destroyed heritage * Native schools, Native schools in New Zealand * Policide * Religious cleansing * Stolen Generations (Australia) * Uyghur genocide


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Cultural Genocide Cultural genocide, 1940s neologisms Genocide Human rights by issue Majority–minority relations pt:Genocídio cultural