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Secrecy is the practice of hiding information from certain individuals or groups who do not have the "need to know", perhaps while sharing it with other individuals. That which is kept hidden is known as the secret. Secrecy is often controversial, depending on the content or nature of the secret, the group or people keeping the secret, and the motivation for secrecy. Secrecy by government entities is often decried as excessive or in promotion of poor operation; excessive revelation of information on individuals can conflict with virtues of
privacy Privacy (, ) is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. When something is private to a person, it usually means that something is inherently special ...

privacy
and
confidentiality Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through Non-disclosure agreement, confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information. Legal confidentiality Lawyers are o ...
. It is often contrasted with social transparency. Secrecy can exist in a number of different ways: encoding or
encryption In cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logy, -logia'', "study", respectively), is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in ...

encryption
(where mathematical and technical strategies are used to hide messages), true secrecy (where restrictions are put upon those who take part of the message, such as through government security classification) and
obfuscation Obfuscation is the obscuring of the intended meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discussed ...
, where secrets are hidden in plain sight behind complex idiosyncratic language (
jargon Jargon is the specialized terminology associated with a particular field or area of activity. Jargon is normally employed in a particular Context (language use), communicative context and may not be well understood outside that context. The conte ...
) or
steganography Steganography ( ) is the practice of concealing a message within another message or a physical object. In computing/electronic contexts, a computer file, message, image, or video is concealed within another file, message, image, or video. The wor ...

steganography
. Another classification proposed by Claude Shannon in 1948 reads there are three systems of secrecy within communication: # concealment systems, including such methods as invisible ink, concealing a message in an innocent text, or in a fake covering cryptogram, or other methods in which the existence of the message is concealed from the enemy # privacy systems, for example,
voice inversion Voice Inversion scrambler, scrambling is an analog method of obscuring the content of a transmission. It is sometimes used in public service radio, automobile racing, cordless telephones and the Family Radio Service. Without a descrambler, the trans ...
, in which special equipment is required to recover the message # "true" secrecy systems where the meaning of the message is concealed by the cypher, code, etc., although its existence is not hidden, and the enemy is assumed to have any special equipment necessary to intercept and record the transmitted signal


Secrecy in sociology and zoology

Animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...

Animal
s conceal the location of their
den
den
or
nest A nest is a structure built for certain animals to hold eggs Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including bird egg, birds, reptiles, amphibians, a few monotreme, mammals, and fish, and many of these have been eaten ...

nest
from
predators Predation is a biological interaction where one organism, the predator, kills and eats another organism, its prey. It is one of a family of common List of feeding behaviours, feeding behaviours that includes parasitism and micropredation (which ...

predators
. Squirrels bury nuts, hiding them, and they try to remember their locations later.
Human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A speci ...

Human
s attempt to consciously conceal aspects of themselves from others due to
shame Shame is an unpleasant self-conscious emotion typically associated with a negative evaluation of the self; withdrawal motivations; and feelings of distress, exposure, mistrust, powerlessness, and worthlessness. Definition Shame is a discre ...

shame
, or from
fear Fear is an intensely unpleasant emotion Emotions are psychological state A mental state is a state of mind that an agent is in. Most simplistically, a mental state is a mental condition. It is a relation that connects the agent with a pr ...

fear
of violence, rejection, harassment, loss of
acceptance Acceptance in human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. They are ...
, or loss of
employment Employment is the relationship between two parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; cropped away black border edge.jpg, 300px, ''Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' ...

employment
. Humans may also attempt to conceal aspects of their own
self The self is an individual person as the object of its own reflective consciousness Consciousness, at its simplest, is or of internal and external existence. Despite millennia of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosoph ...
which they are not capable of incorporating psychologically into their
conscious Consciousness, at its simplest, is sentience or awareness of internal and external existence. Despite millennia of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial ...

conscious
being.
Families In human society, family (from la, familia) is a Social group, group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or Affinity (law), affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the w ...

Families
sometimes maintain "
family secret A family secret is a Secrecy, secret kept within a family. Most families have secrets, but the kind and importance vary. Family secrets can be shared by the whole family, by some family members or kept by an individual member of the family. The secr ...
s", obliging family members never to discuss disagreeable issues concerning the family with outsiders or sometimes even within the family. Many "family secrets" are maintained by using a mutually agreed-upon construct (an official family story) when speaking with outside members. Agreement to maintain the secret is often coerced through "shaming" and reference to family
honor Honour (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage a ...

honor
. The information may even be something as trivial as a
recipe A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something, especially a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting bo ...

recipe
. Secrets are sometimes kept to provide the pleasure of surprise. This includes keeping secret about a surprise party, not telling
spoiler Spoiler may refer to: * Spoiler (aeronautics), a device to reduce lift in aeronautics * Spoiler (car), a device to modify air flow in order to increase fuel efficiency or improve handling in automobiles * Spoiler effect (sports), a team that has ...
s of a story, and avoiding exposure of a magic trick. Keeping one's
strategy Strategy (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxim ...

strategy
secret is important in many aspects of
game theory Game theory is the study of mathematical model A mathematical model is a description of a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. ...
.


Secret sharing (anthropology)

In
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...
''secret sharing'' is one way for people to establish traditional relations with other people. A commonly used narrative that describes this kind of behavior is
Joseph Conrad Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, ; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language. Though he did not speak English fluently u ...

Joseph Conrad
's short story "
The Secret Sharer "The Secret Sharer" is a short story by Polish-British author Joseph Conrad Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, ; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest noveli ...
".


Government secrecy

Government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

Government
s often attempt to conceal information from other governments and the public. These state secrets can include
weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict physical damage or harm. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting, crime, law enforcement, self-defe ...
designs, military plans,
diplomatic Diplomatics (in American English, and in most anglophone countries), or diplomatic (in British English), is a scholarly discipline centred on the critical analysis of document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, or me ...

diplomatic
negotiation Negotiation is a between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues. Negotiation is an interaction and process between ...
tactics, and secrets obtained illicitly from others ("
intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction, logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving. More generally, it can be des ...
"). Most nations have some form of
Official Secrets Act An Official Secrets Act (OSA) is legislation that provides for the protection of state secrets and official information, mainly related to national security but in unrevised form (based on the UK OSA 1911) can include all information held by gov ...
(the
Espionage Act The Espionage Act of 1917 is a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, which prescribes the foundation o ...
in the U.S.) and classify material according to the level of protection needed (hence the term "
classified information Classified Information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information Information sensitivity is the control of access to information Access may refer to: Companies and organizations * ACCESS (Australia), an Australian ...
"). An individual needs
security clearance
for access and other protection methods, such as keeping documents in a
safe A safe (also called a strongbox or coffer) is a secure lockable box used for securing valuable objects against theft Theft is the taking of another person's property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of va ...

safe
, are stipulated. Few people dispute the desirability of keeping
Critical Nuclear Weapon Design InformationCritical Nuclear Weapon Design Information (CNWDI, often pronounced ''SIN-widdy'' or ''SIN-wuh-dee'') is a U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) category of Top Secret Restricted Data or Secret Restricted Data that reveals the theory of operation or de ...
secret, but many believe government secrecy to be excessive and too often employed for political purposes. Many countries have laws that attempt to limit government secrecy, such as the U.S.
Freedom of Information Act Freedom of Information Act may refer to the following legislations in different jurisdictions which mandate the national government to disclose certain data to the general public upon request: * Freedom of Information Act 1982 The ''Freedom of Inf ...
and
sunshine law Freedom of information laws allow access by the general public to data held by national governments and, where applicable, by state and local governments. The emergence of freedom of information legislation was a response to increasing dissatisfac ...
s. Government officials sometimes
leak A leak is a way (usually an opening) for fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress, or external force. Fluids are a Phase (matter), phase of matter and i ...
information they are supposed to keep secret. (''For a recent (2005) example, see
Plame affair The Plame affair (also known as the CIA leak scandal and Plamegate) was a political scandal that revolved around journalist Robert Novak's public identification of Valerie Plame as a covert Central Intelligence Agency officer in 2003.

Corporate secrecy

Organizations, ranging from multi-national for profit
corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law "born out of statute"; a legal person in legal ...

corporation
s to nonprofit
charities A charitable organization or charity is an organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. educational, religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, b ...
, keep secrets fo
competitive advantage
to meet legal requirements, or, in some cases, to conceal nefarious behavior. New products under development, unique manufacturing techniques, or simply lists of customers are types of information protected by
trade secret Trade secrets are a type of intellectual property that comprise formulas, best practice, practices, business process, processes, designs, legal instrument, instruments, patterns, or compilations of information that have inherent economic value be ...
laws. Research on corporate secrecy has studied the factors supporting secret organizations. In particular, scholars in economics and management have paid attention to the way firms participating in cartels work together to maintain secrecy and conceal their activities from antitrust authorities. The diversity of the participants (in terms of age and size of the firms) influences their ability to coordinate to avoid being detected. The
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depe ...

patent
system encourages inventors to publish information in exchange for a limited time
monopoly A monopoly (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...

monopoly
on its use, though patent applications are initially secret.
Secret societies A secret society is a club or an organization whose activities, events, inner functioning, or membership are concealed. The society may or may not attempt to conceal its existence. The term usually excludes covert groups, such as intelligence a ...
use secrecy as a way to attract members by creating a sense of importance.
Shell companies A shell corporation is a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal or a mixture of both, with a specific obje ...
may be used to launder money from criminal activity, to finance terrorism, or to evade taxes. Registers of
beneficial ownership Beneficial ownership is a term in domestic and international commercial law which refers to the natural person or persons "who ultimately own or control a legal entity or arrangement, such as a company, a trust, or a foundation". The legal owner (i ...
aim at fighting corporate secrecy in that sense. Other laws ''require'' organizations to keep certain information secret, such as
medical record The terms medical record, health record, and medical chart are used somewhat interchangeably to describe the systematic documentation of a single patient A patient is any recipient of health care services that are performed by Health profession ...

medical record
s (
HIPAA The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA or the Kennedy–Kassebaum Act) is a United States federal statute enacted by the 104th United States Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton William ...
in the U.S.), or
financial report Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of the financial activities and position of a business, person, or other entity. Relevant financial information is presented in a structured manner and in a form which is easy to un ...
s that are under preparation (to limit
insider trading Insider trading is the trading of a public company's stock or other security (finance), securities (such as bond (finance), bonds or Option (finance), stock options) based on material, nonpublic information about the company. In various countries ...
). Europe has particularly strict laws about
database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and sof ...

database
privacy. In many countries,
neoliberal Neoliberalism, or neo-liberalism, is a term used to describe the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with free-market In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with valu ...
reforms of government have included expanding the outsourcing of government tasks and functions to private businesses with the aim of improving efficiency and effectiveness in government administration. However, among the criticisms of these reforms is the claim that the pervasive use of
Commercial-in-confidence
(or secrecy) clauses in contracts between government and private providers further limits public accountability of governments and prevents proper public scrutiny of the performance and probity of the private companies. Concerns have been raised that 'commercial-in-confidence' is open to abuse because it can be deliberately used to hide corporate or government maladministration and even corruption.


Technology secrecy

Preservation of secrets is one of the goals of
information security #REDIRECT Information security #REDIRECT Information security Information security, sometimes shortened to infosec, is the practice of protecting information by mitigating information risks. It is part of Risk management information systems, inform ...

information security
. Techniques used include
physical security Physical security describes security measures that are designed to deny unauthorized access to facilities, equipment and resources and to protect personnel and property from damage or harm (such as espionage, theft, or terrorist attacks). Physical ...
and
cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logia ''-logy'' is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in (''- ...

cryptography
. The latter depends on the secrecy o
cryptographic keys
Many believe that security technology can be more effective if it itself is not kept secret.
Information hiding
is a design principle in much
software engineering Software engineering is the systematic application of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The d ...
. It is considered easier to verify software reliability if one can be sure that different parts of the program can only access (and therefore depend on) a known limited amount of information.


Military secrecy

Military secrecy is the concealing of information about martial affairs that is purposely not made available to the general public and hence to any enemy, in order to gain an advantage or to not reveal a weakness, to avoid
embarrassment Embarrassment or awkwardness is an emotion Emotions are mental state, psychological states brought on by neurophysiology, neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of plea ...

embarrassment
, or to help in
propaganda Propaganda is communication that is primarily used to Social influence, influence an audience and further an Political agenda, agenda, which may not be Objectivity (journalism), objective and may be selectively presenting facts to encourage a pa ...
efforts. Most military secrets are tactical in nature, such as the strengths and weaknesses of
weapon system#REDIRECT Weapon System Legend for Numeric Designations CL: Lockheed D: Douglas NA: North American WS (Weapon System) Weapon System was a United States Armed Forces The United States Armed Forces are the Military, military forces of the U ...
s,
tactics Tactic(s) or Tactical may refer to: * Tactic (method), a conceptual action implemented as one or more specific tasks ** Military tactics, the disposition and maneuver of units on a particular sea or battlefield ** Chess tactics ** Political tactic ...
, training methods, plans, and the number and location of specific weapons. Some secrets involve information in broader areas, such as secure communications,
cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logia ''-logy'' is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in (''- ...

cryptography
, intelligence operations, and cooperation with third parties.


Views on secrecy

Excessive secrecy is often citedLightfoot, Geoffrey, and Tomasz Piotr Wisniewski. "Information asymmetry and power in a surveillance society." Information and Organization 24.4 (2014): 214-235. as a source of much human conflict. One may have to
lie A lie is an assertion that is believed to be false, typically used with the purpose of deception, deceiving someone. The practice of communicating lies is called lying. A person who communicates a lie may be termed a liar. Lies may serve a vari ...

lie
in order to hold a secret, which might lead to
psychological Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is ...

psychological
repercussions. The alternative, declining to answer when asked something, may suggest the answer and may therefore not always be suitable for keeping a secret. Also, the other may insist that one answer the question. Nearly 2500 years ago,
Sophocles Sophocles (; grc, Σοφοκλῆς, ; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41. is one of three ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , ...

Sophocles
wrote, "Do nothing secretly; for Time sees and hears all things, and discloses all." Gautama Siddhartha, the
Buddha Gautama Buddha, popularly known as the Buddha (also known as Siddhattha Gotama or Siddhārtha Gautama or Buddha Shakyamuni), was an ascetic Asceticism (; from the el, ἄσκησις ''áskesis'', "exercise, training") is a lifestyle ...

Buddha
, once said "Three things cannot long stay hidden: the
sun The Sun is the star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma (physics), plasma held together by its own gravity. The List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many othe ...

sun
, the
moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its plane ...

moon
and the
truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact A fact is something that is true True most commonly refers to truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionarytruth 2005 In ...

truth
". The Bible addresses this: "Be sure your sin will find you out." Numbers 32:23


See also

*
Ambiguity Ambiguity is a type of meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discussed in philosophy * ...
*
Banking secrecy Banking secrecy, alternately known as financial privacy, banking discretion, or bank safety,Guex (2000), p. 240 is a Non-disclosure agreement, conditional agreement between a bank and its clients that all foregoing activities remain Economic securi ...
*
Classified information Classified Information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information Information sensitivity is the control of access to information Access may refer to: Companies and organizations * ACCESS (Australia), an Australian ...
*
Concealment device Concealment devices or diversion safes are used to hide things for the purpose of secrecy or security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted Coercion, coercive change) caused by others. Beneficiaries ( ...
*
Confidentiality Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through Non-disclosure agreement, confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information. Legal confidentiality Lawyers are o ...
*
Conspiracy theory A conspiracy theory is an explanation for an event or situation that invokes a conspiracy A conspiracy, also known as a plot, is a secret plan or agreement between persons (called conspirers or conspirators) for an unlawful or harmful purp ...
*
Covert operation A covert operation is a military operation intended to conceal the identity of (or allow plausible denial ''Plausible Denial: Was the CIA Involved in the Assassination of JFK?'' is a 1991 book by American attorney, Mark Lane (author), Mark Lane ...
*
Cover-up A cover-up is an attempt, whether successful or not, to evidence of wrongdoing, error, incompetence, or other information. In a passive cover-up, information is simply not provided; in an active cover-up, is used. The expression is usually ...
*
Deception Deception or falsehood is an act or statement which misleads, hides the truth, or promotes a belief, concept, or idea that is not true. It is often done for personal gain or advantage. Deception can involve dissimulation, propaganda and sleight ...
*
Don't ask, don't tell "Don't ask, don't tell" (DADT) was the official United States policy on military service by gay men, bisexuals, and lesbians, instituted during the Clinton administration Bill Clinton's tenure as the List of presidents of the United Sta ...
*
Espionage Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret Secrecy is the practice of hiding information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both it ...

Espionage
*
Freedom of information legislation Freedom of information laws allow access by the general public to data held by national governments and, where applicable, by state and local governments. The emergence of freedom of information legislation was a response to increasing dissatisfa ...
*
Media transparency Media transparency (or transparent media), also referred to as Media Opacity, is a concept that explores how and why information subsidies are being produced, distributed and handled by media professionals, including journalists, editors, public re ...
*
Need to know The term "need to know", when used by government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally ...
*
Open secret An open secret is a concept or idea that is "officially" (''de jure In law and government, ''de jure'' ( ; , "by law") describes practices that are legally recognized, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, ("in ...
* Secrecy (sociology) *
Secret passage ''Secret Passage'' is a 2004 film directed by Ademir Kenović. It was written by Kenović and Olivier Bonas.http://www.vernonjohns.org/snuffy1186/secret%20passage.html The film stars John Turturro, Katherine Borowitz, Tara Fitzgerald, and Hannah T ...
*
Secret sharing Secret sharing (also called secret splitting) refers to methods for distributing a '' secret'' among a group of participants, each of whom is allocated a ''share'' of the secret. The secret can be reconstructed only when a sufficient number, of p ...
*
Self-concealmentSelf-concealment is a psychological construct defined as "a predisposition to actively conceal from others personal information that one perceives as Mental distress, distressing or negative".Larson and Chastain (1990). Its opposite is self-disclosu ...
* Somebody Else's Problem *
Smuggling Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison A prison, also known as a jail or gaol (dated, English language in England, standard English, Austr ...
* State Secrets Privilege * ''
Sub rosa ''Sub rosa'' ( New Latin for "under the rose") denotes secrecy or confidentiality. The rose has an ancient history as a symbol of secrecy. History In Hellenistic and later Roman mythology, roses were associated with secrecy because Cupid ...
'' *
WikiLeaks WikiLeaks () is an international non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public o ...


References

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * ::Also available as:
Preview.


Further reading

*


External links


An Open Source Collection of Readings on Secrecy

Secrecy News
from the
Federation of American Scientists The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is an American nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
{{Authority control Classified information