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The term "computer", in use from the early 17th century (the first known written reference dates from 1613), meant "one who computes": a person performing mathematical
calculation A calculation is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results. The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetic Arithmetic (from the Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:en:ἀριθμός#A ...

calculation
s, before
electronic computers A computer is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural ...

electronic computers
became commercially available.
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
described the "human computer" as someone who is "supposed to be following fixed rules; he has no authority to deviate from them in any detail." Teams of people, often women from the late nineteenth century onwards, were used to undertake long and often tedious calculations; the work was divided so that this could be done in parallel. The same calculations were frequently performed independently by separate teams to check the correctness of the results. Since the end of the 20th century, the term "human computer" has also been applied to individuals with prodigious powers of
mental arithmetic Mental calculation consists of arithmetic Arithmetic (from the Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:en:ἀριθμός#Ancient Greek, ἀριθμός ''arithmos'', 'number' and wikt:en:τική#Ancient Greek, τική wikt:en:τέχνη#Ancient Greek, ...
, also known as
mental calculator Human calculator is a term to describe a person with a prodigious ability in some area of mental calculation Mental calculation consists of arithmetical calculations using only the human brain, with no help from any supplies (such as pencil and ...
s.


Origins in sciences

Astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astronomical objects such as stars, planets, natural satellite, moons, comets and galaxy, g ...

Astronomer
s in
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
times used that term about as often as they called themselves "mathematicians" for their principal work of calculating the positions of planets. They often hired a "computer" to assist them. For some men, such as
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a in the field of who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of . They observe s such as s, s, , s and ...

Johannes Kepler
, assisting a scientist in computation was a temporary position until they moved on to greater advancements. Computing became more organized when the Frenchman
Alexis Claude Clairaut Alexis Claude Clairaut (; 13 May 1713 – 17 May 1765) was a French mathematician, astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They obs ...
(1713–1765) divided the computation to determine the time of the return of
Halley's Comet Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a List of periodic comets, short-period comet visible from Earth every 75–76 years. Halley is the only known short-period comet that is regularly visible to the naked eye fro ...

Halley's Comet
with two colleagues,
Joseph Lalande Joseph is a common masculine given name, derived from the Hebrew Yosef Yosef (; also transliterated as Yossef, Josef, Yoseph Tiberian Hebrew and Aramaic ''Yôsēp̄'') is a Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, No ...
and
Nicole-Reine Lepaute Nicole-Reine Lepaute (née Étable de la Briere; also known as Hartense Lepaute or Hortense Lepaute), (5 January 1723 – 6 December 1788) was a French astronomer and mathematician. Lepaute predicted the return of Halley's Comet by calculating ...

Nicole-Reine Lepaute
. Human computers continued plotting the future movements of astronomical objects to create celestial tables for
almanac An almanac (also spelled ''almanack'' and ''almanach'') is an annual publication Annual publications, more often simply called annuals, are periodical publications appearing regularly once per year."Annuals", in ''Encyclopedia of library and info ...
s in the late 1760s. The computers working on the ''
Nautical Almanac A nautical almanac is a publication describing the positions of a selection of celestial bodies for the purpose of enabling navigators to use celestial navigation to determine the position of their ship while at sea. The Almanac specifies for each ...
'' for the British Admiralty included William Wales,
Israel Lyons Israel Lyons the Younger (1739–1775), mathematician and botanist, was born at Cambridge, the son of Israel Lyons the elder (died 1770). He was regarded as a prodigy, especially in mathematics, and Robert Smith (mathematician), Robert Smith, maste ...
and
Richard Dunthorne Richard Dunthorne (1711 – 3 March 1775) was an English astronomy, astronomer and surveyor, who worked in University of Cambridge, Cambridge as astronomical and scientific assistant to Roger Long (master of Pembroke Hall and Lowndean Professor of ...
. The project was overseen by
Nevil Maskelyne Nevil Maskelyne FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Reso ...

Nevil Maskelyne
. Maskelyne would borrow tables from other sources as often as he could in order to reduce the number of calculations his team of computers had to make. Women were generally excluded, with some exceptions such as Mary Edwards who worked from the 1780s to 1815 as one of thirty-five computers for the British ''
Nautical Almanac A nautical almanac is a publication describing the positions of a selection of celestial bodies for the purpose of enabling navigators to use celestial navigation to determine the position of their ship while at sea. The Almanac specifies for each ...
'' used for navigation at sea. The United States also worked on their own version of a nautical almanac in the 1840s, with
Maria Mitchell Maria Mitchell ( /məˈraɪə/; August 1, 1818 – June 28, 1889) was an American astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They ob ...

Maria Mitchell
being one of the best-known computers on the staff. Other innovations in human computing included the work done by a group of boys who worked in the Octagon Room of the
Royal Greenwich Observatory The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, temporarily moved south from Greenwich to Herstmonceux Herstmonceux ( , ) is a village and ci ...

Royal Greenwich Observatory
for Astronomer Royal,
George Airy Sir George Biddell Airy (; 27 July 18012 January 1892) was an English mathematician and astronomer, and the seventh Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881. His many achievements include work on planetary orbits, measuring the mean density of the Ea ...

George Airy
. Airy's computers, hired after 1835, could be as young as fifteen and they were working on a backlog of astronomical data. The way that Airy organized the Octagon Room with a manager, pre-printed computing forms and standardized methods of calculating and checking results (similar to the way the ''Nautical Almanac'' computers operated) would remain a standard for computing operations for the next 80 years. Women were increasingly involved in computing after 1865. Private companies hired them for computing and to manage office staffs. In the 1870s, the United States
Signal Corps A signal corps is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governmen ...
created a new way of organizing human computing to track weather patterns. This built on previous work from the
US Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = "Anchors Aweigh "Anchors Aweigh" is the fight song of the United States Naval A ...
and the Smithsonian meteorological project. The Signal Corps used a small computing staff that processed data that had to be collected quickly and finished in "intensive two-hour shifts". Each individual human computer was responsible for only part of the data. In the late nineteenth century
Edward Charles Pickering Edward Charles Pickering (July 19, 1846 – February 3, 1919) was an American astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe ...

Edward Charles Pickering
organized the "
Harvard Computers The Harvard Computers was a team of women working as skilled worker A skilled worker is any Labour (economics), worker who has special skill (labor), skill, training, knowledge which they can then apply to their employment, work. A skilled worker ...
". The first woman to approach them,
Anna Winlock Anna Winlock (1857–1904) was an American astronomer and human computer, one of the first members of female computer group known as "the Harvard Computers." She made the most complete catalog of stars near the north and south poles of her era. She ...
, asked Harvard Observatory for a computing job in 1875. By 1880, all of the computers working at the Harvard Observatory were women. The standard computer pay started at twenty-five cents an hour. There would be such a huge demand to work there, that some women offered to work for the Harvard Computers for free. Many of the women astronomers from this era were computers with possibly the best-known being
Florence Cushman Florence Cushman (1860-1940) was an United States, American astronomer specializing in stellar classification at the Harvard College Observatory who worked on the Henry Draper catalogue, ''Henry Draper Catalogue''. Life Florence was born in Bost ...
, Henrietta Swan Leavitt, and
Annie Jump Cannon Annie Jump Cannon (; December 11, 1863 – April 13, 1941) was an American astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astro ...
, who worked with Pickering from 1888, 1893, and 1896 respectively. Cannon could classify stars at a rate of three per minute. Mina Fleming, one of the Harvard Computers, published ''The Draper Catalogue of Stellar Spectra'' in 1890. The catalogue organized stars by
spectral line A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spect ...
s. The catalogue continued to be expanded by the Harvard Computers and added new stars in successive volumes.
Elizabeth Williams
Elizabeth Williams
was involved in calculations in the search for a new planet,
Pluto Pluto (minor-planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of trans-Neptunian object, bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. It was the first and the largest Kuiper belt object to be discovered. After Pluto wa ...

Pluto
, at the
Lowell Observatory Lowell Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona Flagstaff ( ; nv, Kinłání Dookʼoʼoosłííd Biyaagi, ) is a city in, and the county seat of, Coconino County, Arizona, Coconino County in northern Arizona, in the s ...

Lowell Observatory
. In 1893,
Francis Galton Sir Francis Galton, FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family R ...

Francis Galton
created the Committee for Conducting Statistical Inquiries into the Measurable Characteristics of Plants and Animals which reported to the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exis ...
. The committee used advanced techniques for scientific research and supported the work of several scientists. W.F. Raphael Weldon, the first scientist supported by the committee worked with his wife, Florence Tebb Weldon, who was his computer. Weldon used logarithms and mathematical tables created by
August Leopold Crelle
August Leopold Crelle
and had no calculating machine.
Karl Pearson Karl Pearson (; born Carl Pearson; 27 March 1857 – 27 April 1936) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics ...

Karl Pearson
, who had a lab at the
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a p ...
, felt that the work Weldon did was "hampered by the committee". However, Pearson did create a mathematical formula that the committee was able to use for data correlation. Pearson brought his correlation formula to his own Biometrics Laboratory. Pearson had volunteer and salaried computers who were both men and women. Alice Lee was one of his salaried computers who worked with
histogram A histogram is an approximate representation of the distribution of numerical data. It was first introduced by Karl Pearson Karl Pearson (; born Carl Pearson; 27 March 1857 – 27 April 1936) was an English mathematician A mathematician i ...

histogram
s and the chi-squared statistics. Pearson also worked with Beatrice and Frances Cave-Brown-Cave. Pearson's lab, by 1906, had mastered the art of
mathematical table Mathematical tables are lists of numbers showing the results of a calculation with varying arguments. Table (information), Tables of trigonometric functions were used in ancient Greece and India for applications to astronomy and celestial navigatio ...
making.


Mathematical tables

Human computers were used to compile 18th and 19th century Western European
mathematical tables Mathematical tables are lists of numbers showing the results of a calculation with varying arguments. Tables Table may refer to: * Table (information), a data arrangement with rows and columns * Table (furniture), a piece of furniture with a fla ...
, for example those for
trigonometry Trigonometry (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ...

trigonometry
and
logarithm In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ...

logarithm
s. Although these tables were most often known by the names of the principal
mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces ...

mathematician
involved in the project, such tables were often in fact the work of an army of unknown and unsung computers. Ever more accurate tables to a high degree of precision were needed for navigation and engineering. Approaches differed, but one was to break up the project into a form of
piece work Piece work (or piecework) is any type of employment Employment is the relationship between two parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; cropped aw ...

piece work
completed at home. The computers, often educated middle class women who society deemed it unseemly to engage in the professions or go out to work, would receive and send back packets of calculations by post. The Royal Astronomical Society eventually gave space to a new committee, the Mathematical Tables Committee, which was the only professional organization for human computers in 1925.


Fluid dynamics

Human computers were used to predict the effects of building the
Afsluitdijk The ''Afsluitdijk'' (; fry, Ofslútdyk; nds-nl, Ofsluutdiek; en, "Enclosure Dam") is a major dam A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of surface water An example of surface water is Lake Kinney. Surface water is w ...

Afsluitdijk
between 1927 and 1932 in the
Zuiderzee The Zuiderzee or Zuider Zee ( , also , ; old spelling ''Zuyderzee'' or ''Zuyder Zee'') was a shallow bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The oce ...

Zuiderzee
in the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
. The computer simulation was set up by
Hendrik Lorentz Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (; 18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical met ...

Hendrik Lorentz
. A visionary application to meteorology can be found in the scientific work of
Lewis Fry Richardson Lewis Fry Richardson, FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family ...

Lewis Fry Richardson
who, in 1922, estimated that 64,000 humans could forecast the weather for the whole globe by solving the attending differential
primitive equations The primitive equations are a set of nonlinear partial differential equations that are used to approximate global atmospheric flow and are used in most atmospheric model An atmospheric model is a mathematical model A mathematical model is a de ...
numerically. Around 1910 he had already used human computers to calculate the stresses inside a masonry dam.


Wartime computing and electronics

It was not until World War I that computing became a profession. "The First World War required large numbers of human computers. Computers on both sides of the war produced map grids, surveying aids, navigation tables and artillery tables. With the men at war, most of these new computers were women and many were college educated." This would happen again during World War II, as more men joined the fight, college educated women were left to fill their positions. One of the first female computers, Elizabeth Webb Wilson, was hired by the Army in 1918 and was a graduate of George Washington University. Wilson "patiently sought a war job that would make use of her mathematical skill. In later years, she would claim that the war spared her from the 'Washington social whirl', the rounds of society events that should have procured for her a husband" and instead she was able to have a career. After the war, Wilson continued with a career in mathematics and became an actuary and turned her focus to life tables. Human computers played integral roles in the World War II war effort in the United States, and because of the depletion of the male labor force due to the
draft Draft, The Draft, or Draught may refer to: Watercraft dimensions * Draft (hull), the distance from waterline to keel of a vessel * Draft (sail), degree of curvature in a sail * Air draft, distance from waterline to the highest point on a vessel ...
, many computers during World War II were women, frequently with degrees in mathematics. In the 1940s, women were hired to examine nuclear and particle tracks left on photographic emulsions. In the
Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development Research and development (R&D, R+D), known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), is the set of innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in ...
, human computers working with a variety of mechanical aids assisted numerical studies of the complex formulas related to
nuclear fission Nuclear fission is a reaction Reaction may refer to a process or to a response to an action, event, or exposure: Physics and chemistry *Chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the IUPAC nomenclature for organic tr ...

nuclear fission
. Human computers were involved in calculating ballistics tables during World War I. Between the two world wars, computers were used in the Department of Agriculture in the United States and also at
Iowa State College Iowa State University of Science and Technology (Iowa State University or Iowa State) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the to ...
. The human computers in these places also used calculating machines and early electrical computers to aid in their work. In the 1930s, The Columbia University Statistical Bureau was created by Benjamin Wood. Organized computing was also established at
Indiana University Indiana University (IU) is a major multicampus public research institution, grounded in the liberal arts and sciences. Indiana University’s mission is to provide broad access to undergraduate and graduate education for students throughout Ind ...
, the
Cowles Commission The Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics is an economic An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), di ...
and the
National Research CouncilNational Research Council may refer to: * National Research Council (Canada), sponsoring research and development * National Research Council (Italy), scientific and technological research, Rome * National Research Council (United States), part of t ...
. Following World War II, the
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a United States federal agency founded on March 3, 1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. On October 1, 1958, the agency was dissolved and its assets ...
(NACA) used human computers in flight research to transcribe raw data from celluloid film and paper and then, using
slide rule The slide rule is a mechanical . The slide rule is used primarily for and and for functions such as , , s, and . They are not designed for addition or subtraction which was usually performed manually, with used to keep track of the magnitude ...

slide rule
s and electric
calculator An electronic calculator is typically a portable device used to perform s, ranging from basic to complex . The first calculator was created in the early 1960s. Pocket-sized devices became available in the 1970s, especially after the , the f ...

calculator
s, reduced the data to standard engineering units.
Margot Lee Shetterly Margot Lee Shetterly (born June 30, 1969) is an American non-fiction Nonfiction (also spelled non-fiction) is any document A document is a written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'' ...

Margot Lee Shetterly
's biographical book, ''
Hidden Figures ''Hidden Figures'' is a 2016 American biographical A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, and death; it portrays a person's ...
'' (made into a
movie of the same name A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images. These image ...
in 2016), depicts African American women who served as human computers at
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
in support of the Friendship 7, the first American manned mission into Earth orbit. NACA had begun hiring black women as computers from 1940. One such computer was who began her work in 1943 with the
Langley Research Center The Langley Research Center (LaRC or NASA Langley), located in , , , is the oldest of 's . It directly borders and the on the . LaRC has focused primarily on aeronautical research, but has also tested space hardware at the facility, such as the ...

Langley Research Center
as a special hire to aid the war effort, and who came to supervise the West Area Computers, a group of African-American women who worked as computers at Langley. Human computing was, at the time, considered menial work. On November 8, 2019, the
Congressional Gold Medal The Congressional Gold Medal is an award bestowed by the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the U ...
was awarded "In recognition of all the women who served as computers, mathematicians, and engineers at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) between the 1930s and the 1970s." As electrical computers became more available, human computers, especially women, were drafted as some of the first
computer programmers A computer programmer, sometimes called a software developer, a programmer or more recently a coder (especially in more informal contexts), is a person who creates computer software Software is a collection of instructions Instruction or ...

computer programmers
. Because the six people responsible for setting up problems on the
ENIAC ENIAC (; Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the first programmable, electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission ...

ENIAC
(the first general-purpose electronic digital computer built at the
University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a in , Pennsylvania. The university, established as the College of Philadelphia in 1740, is one of the nine chartered prior to the . , Penn's founder and first president, advocated an edu ...

University of Pennsylvania
during World War II) were drafted from a corps of human computers, the world's first professional computer programmers were women, namely: Kay McNulty,
Betty Snyder Frances Elizabeth Holberton (March 7, 1917 – December 8, 2001) was one of the six original programmers of the first general-purpose electronic digital computer, ENIAC ENIAC (; Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the fi ...

Betty Snyder
, , , Betty Jean Jennings, and Fran Bilas.ENIAC Programmers Project – Awards


Human-assisted computation

The term "human computer" has been recently used by a group of researchers who refer to their work as "human computation". In this usage, "human computer" refers to activities of humans in the context of
human-based computation Human-based computation (HBC), human-assisted computation, ubiquitous human computing or distributed thinking (by analogy to distributed computing) is a computer science technique in which a machine performs its function by outsourcing certain step ...
(HBC). This use of "human computer" is debatable for the following reason: HBC is a computational technique where a machine outsources certain parts of a task to humans to perform, which are not necessarily algorithmic. In fact, in the context of HBC most of the time humans are not provided with a sequence of exact steps to be executed to yield the desired result; HBC is agnostic about how humans solve the problem. This is why "outsourcing" is the term used in the definition above. The use of humans in the historical role of "human computers" for HBC is very rare.


See also

*
Difference engine A difference engine is an automatic mechanical calculator A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic automatically. Most mechanical calculators were comparable i ...
an early automatic mechanical calculator designed to replace human computers *
Mathematical Tables ProjectThe Mathematical Tables Project was one of the largest and most sophisticated computing organizations that operated prior to the invention of the digital electronic computer. Begun in the United States in 1938 as a project of the Works Progress Admin ...
a project of the
Works Progress Administration The Works Progress Administration (WPA; renamed in 1939 as the Work Projects Administration) was an American New Deal agency, employing millions of jobseekers (mostly men who were not formally educated) to carry out public works Public wor ...
(WPA) that employed human computers *
Mentat Multiple organizations of the ''Dune'' universe dominate the political, religious, and social arena of the setting of Frank Herbert Franklin Patrick Herbert Jr. (October 8, 1920February 11, 1986) was an American science fiction author best kn ...
a fictional human computer *
Women in computing Women in computing were among the first programmers in the early 20th century, and contributed substantially to the industry. As technology and practices altered, the role of women as programmers has changed, and the recorded history of the field ...


Notes


References

* * * * Grier, David Alan (May 11, 2001).
The Human Computer and the Birth of the Information Age
', Joseph Henry Lecture,
Philosophical Society of Washington The Philosophical Society of Washington is the oldest scientific society in Washington, D.C. It was founded in 1871 by Joseph Henry. Today it continues as PSW Science. Since 1887, the regular meeting place has been the assembly hall of the Cosmo ...
. * *
Excerpt
* * * * * * * * *


External links



photograph, October 1949.

by David Skinner

{{DEFAULTSORT:Computer (job description) History of computing Classes of computers Obsolete occupations Traditional occupations