In

mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics ...

a cocycle is a closed cochain
In mathematics, a chain complex is an algebraic structure that consists of a sequence of abelian groups (or modules) and a sequence of homomorphisms between consecutive groups such that the image of each homomorphism is included in the kernel of t ...

. Cocycles are used in algebraic topology
Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces. The basic goal is to find algebraic invariant (mathematics), invariants that classification theorem, classify topological spaces up t ...

to express obstructions (for example, to integrating a differential equation
In mathematics, a differential equation is an equation that relates one or more unknown functions and their derivatives. In applications, the functions generally represent physical quantities, the derivatives represent their rates of change, an ...

on a closed manifold
In mathematics, a closed manifold is a manifold without boundary that is compact.
In comparison, an open manifold is a manifold without boundary that has only ''non-compact'' components.
Examples
The only connected one-dimensional example ...

). They are likewise used in group cohomology
In mathematics (more specifically, in homological algebra), group cohomology is a set of mathematical tools used to study groups using cohomology theory, a technique from algebraic topology. Analogous to group representations, group cohomology loo ...

. In autonomous
In developmental psychology and moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy, from , ''autonomos'', from αὐτο- ''auto-'' "self" and νόμος ''nomos'', "law", hence when combined understood to mean "one who gives oneself one's ow ...

dynamical system
In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a Function (mathematics), function describes the time dependence of a Point (geometry), point in an ambient space. Examples include the mathematical models that describe the swinging of a ...

s, cocycles are used to describe particular kinds of map, as in the Oseledets theorem
In mathematics, the multiplicative ergodic theorem, or Oseledets theorem provides the theoretical background for computation of Lyapunov exponents of a nonlinear dynamical system. It was proved by Valery Oseledets (also spelled "Oseledec") in 1965 ...

.
See also

*Čech cohomology
In mathematics, specifically algebraic topology, Čech cohomology is a cohomology theory based on the intersection properties of open covers of a topological space. It is named for the mathematician Eduard Čech.
Motivation
Let ''X'' be a topolo ...

* Cocycle condition
In mathematics a cocycle is a closed cochain (algebraic topology), cochain. Cocycles are used in algebraic topology to express obstructions (for example, to integrating a differential equation on a closed manifold). They are likewise used in grou ...

References

Algebraic topology Cohomology theories Dynamical systems {{topology-stub