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A city-state is an independent
sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the It ...
city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory. They have existed in many parts of the world since the dawn of history, including cities such as
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , fo ...

Rome
,
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 rect 15 475 485 874 rect 500 475 ...

Athens
,
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric, or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an Ancient Greek dialect. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese as well as in Sicily, Epirus, Southern Italy, Crete, Rhodes, some ...

Sparta
,
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient Ancient Carthage, Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now Tunisia. Carthage was one of the most important trading hubs of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of ...

Carthage
, and the
Italian city-states The Italian city-states were numerous political and independent territorial entities that existed in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of ...
during the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...
and
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...

Renaissance
, such as
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...

Florence
,
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, d ...

Venice
,
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Italian region The regions of Italy ( it, regioni d'Italia) are the first-level constituent entity, constituent entities of the Italia ...

Genoa
and
Milan Milan (, , Milanese Milanese (endonym in traditional orthography ''Milanes'', ''Meneghin'') is the central variety of the Western dialect of the Lombard language spoken in Milan, the rest of its Metropolitan City of Milan, metropolitan cit ...

Milan
. With the rise of
nation states A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
worldwide, only a few modern sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which qualify;
Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque dialect, Monégasque Ligurian: ''Prinçipatu de Mu̍negu''), is a Sovereign state, sovereign city-state and European microstates, microstate on the ...

Monaco
,
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a island in . It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the , off the southern tip of the , bordering the to the west, the () to the south, and the to the east. The country' ...

Singapore
, and
Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Cidade do Vatica ...

Vatican City
are most commonly accepted as such. Singapore is the clearest example, with full self-governance, its own currency, a robust military, and a population of 5.3 million. Several non-sovereign cities enjoy a high degree of autonomy, and are sometimes considered city-states.
Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a and of the in the western by the . With a population of about 680,000 and an area of , it is the most in the ...

Macau
,
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a and of China on the eastern in . With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a territory, Hong ...

Hong Kong
, and members of the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia. It is located at the eastern end of the Arabian Peninsula, and shares borders with Oma ...

United Arab Emirates
– most notably
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in ...

Dubai
and
Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (, ; ar, أَبُو ظَبْيٍ ' ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more fo ...

Abu Dhabi
– are often cited as such.


Historical background


Ancient and medieval world

Historical city-states included
Sumer Sumer ()The name is from '; ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land". means "native, local", ifrom ''The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary''). Literally, "land of the native (local, noble) lor ...

Sumer
ian cities such as
Uruk Uruk, also known as Warka, was an ancient city of (and later of ) situated east of the present bed of the River on the dried-up ancient channel of the Euphrates east of modern , , .Harmansah, 2007 Uruk is the for the . Uruk played a leading ...
and ;
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a of , concentrated along the lower reaches of the , situated in the place that is now the country . Ancient Egyptian civilization followed and coalesced around 3100 (according to ) with the political unification of u ...

Ancient Egypt
ian city-states, such as Thebes and
Memphis Memphis is the name of: *Memphis, Egypt , alternate_name = , image = , alt = , caption = Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses IIat Mit Rahina , map_type = Egypt , map_alt = , map_size = , reli ...
; the
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0 ...
n cities (such as
Tyre Tyre may refer to: * Tire, the outer part of a wheel Places * Tyre, Lebanon, a city ** See of Tyre, a Christian diocese seated in Tyre, Lebanon ** Tyre Hippodrome, a UNESCO World Heritage site * Tyre District, Lebanon * Tyre, New York, a town in t ...
and
Sidon Sidon ( ), known locally as Sayda or Saida ( ar, صيدا), is the third-largest city in Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western A ...

Sidon
); the five
Philistine The Philistines were an ancient people who lived on the south coast of Canaan from the 12th century BC until 604 BC, when their polity, after having already been subjugated for centuries by Assyria, was finally destroyed by King Nebuchadnezzar I ...
city-states; the
Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco ) , ...
city-states of the
Garamantes The Garamantes ( Berber: ''iɣerman'', "castles, cities") were an ancient civilisation based primarily in present day Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Libya, ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībīyā) is a ...
; the city-states of
ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
(the
poleis ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ...
such as
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 rect 15 475 485 874 rect 500 475 ...
,
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric, or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an Ancient Greek dialect. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese as well as in Sicily, Epirus, Southern Italy, Crete, Rhodes, some ...

Sparta
, Thebes, and
Corinth Corinth ( ; el, Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, ) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of sel ...

Corinth
); the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the , run through of the . Beginning with the of the (traditionally dated to 509 BC) and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the , Rome's control rapidly expanded durin ...
(which grew from a city-state into a vast empire); the
Italian city-states The Italian city-states were numerous political and independent territorial entities that existed in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of ...
from the Middle Ages to the early modern period, such as
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...
,
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena. The city is historically linked to commercial and banking activities, having been a major banking cen ...
,
Ferrara Ferrara (, ; egl, Fràra ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting o ...
,
Milan Milan (, , Milanese Milanese (endonym in traditional orthography ''Milanes'', ''Meneghin'') is the central variety of the Western dialect of the Lombard language spoken in Milan, the rest of its Metropolitan City of Milan, metropolitan cit ...
(which as they grew in power began to dominate neighboring cities) and
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Italian region The regions of Italy ( it, regioni d'Italia) are the first-level constituent entity, constituent entities of the Italia ...
and
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, d ...
, which became powerful
thalassocracies A thalassocracy or thalattocracy (from grc-x-classical, θάλασσα, translit=thalassa () , and grc, κρατεῖν, translit=kratein, lit=power; giving grc-x-koine, θαλασσοκρατία, translit=thalassokratia, lit=sea power) is a s ...
; the
Mayan Mayan most commonly refers to: * Maya peoples, various indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica and northern Central America * Maya civilization, pre-Columbian culture of Mesoamerica and northern Central America * Mayan languages, language family spoken i ...
and other cultures of pre-Columbian
Mesoamerica Mesoamerica is a historical and important region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), and the interaction of humanity and th ...
(including cities such as
Chichen Itza Chichen Itza , es, Chichén Itzá , often with the emphasis reversed in English to ; from yua, Chiʼchʼèen Ìitshaʼ () "at the mouth of the well of the people" was a large built by the of the Terminal Classic period. The is located ...

Chichen Itza
,
Tikal Tikal () (''Tik’al'' in modern Mayan orthography) is the ruin of an ancient city, which was likely to have been called Yax Mutal, found in a rainforest in Guatemala Guatemala ( ; ), officially the Republic of Guatemala ( es, República ...

Tikal
,
Copán Copán is an archaeological site of the Maya civilization in the Copán Department of western Honduras Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras, is a country in Central America. The republic A republic ( la, res publica, link ...
and ); the
central Asia Central Asia is a region in which stretches from the in the west to and in the east, and from and in the south to in the north, including the former of , , , , and . It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries all ...

central Asia
n cities along the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade route A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of ...

Silk Road
; the city-states of the ;
RagusaRagusa is the historical name of Dubrovnik. It may also refer to: Places Croatia * the Republic of Ragusa (or Republic of Dubrovnik), the maritime city-state of Ragusa * Cavtat (historically ' in Italian), a town in Dubrovnik-Neretva County, Croa ...

Ragusa
; states of the medieval Russian lands such as
Novgorod Veliky Novgorod ( rus, links=yes, Великий Новгород, p=vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), also known as just Novgorod (russian: Новгород, lit=newtown, links=yes), is the largest city and administrative centerAn administrati ...
and
Pskov Pskov ( rus, Псков, a=pskov-ru.ogg, p=pskof; see also names in other languages) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1 ...
; and many others. Danish historian Poul Holm has classed the Vikings, Viking colonial cities in medieval Ireland, most importantly the Kingdom of Dublin, as city-states. In Cyprus, the
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0 ...
n settlement of Kition (in present-day Larnaca) was a city-state that existed from around 800 BC until the end of the 4th century BC. Some of the most well-known examples of city-state culture in human history are the ancient Greek city-states and the merchant city-states of Italian Renaissance, Renaissance Italy, which organised themselves as independent centers. The success of regional units coexisting as autonomy, autonomous actors in loose geographical and cultural unity, as in Italy and Greece, often prevented their Amalgamation (politics), amalgamation into larger national units. However, such small political entities often survived only for short periods because they lacked the resources to defend themselves against incursions by larger states (such as Roman conquest of Greece). Thus they inevitably gave way to larger organisations of society, including the empire and the nation-state.


Central Europe

In the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) over 80 Free imperial city, Free Imperial Cities came to enjoy considerable autonomy in the Middle Ages and in early modern times, buttressed legally by international law following the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. Some, like three of the earlier Hanseatic cities – Bremen, History of Hamburg, Hamburg and Free City of Lübeck, Lübeck – pooled their economic relations with foreign powers and were able to wield considerable diplomatic clout. Individual cities often made protective alliances with other cities or with neighbouring regions, including the Hanseatic League (1358 – 17th century), the Swabian League of Cities (1331–1389), the Décapole (1354–1679) in the Alsace, or the Old Swiss Confederacy ( 1300 – 1798). The Cantons of Switzerland, Swiss cantons of Canton of Zürich, Zürich, Canton of Bern, Bern, Canton of Lucerne, Lucerne, Canton of Fribourg, Fribourg, Canton of Solothurn, Solothurn, Canton of Basel, Basel, Canton of Schaffhausen, Schaffhausen, and Canton of Geneva, Geneva originated as city-states. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, some cities – then members of different confederation, confederacies – officially became sovereign city-states, such as the Bremen (state) , Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (1806–11 and again 1813–71), the Free City of Frankfurt , Free City of Frankfurt upon Main (1815–66), the Hamburg , Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (1806–11 and again 1814–71), the Free City of Lübeck, Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck (1806–11 and again 1813–71), and the Free City of Kraków (1815–1846). Under Habsburg rule the city of Fiume had the status of a Corpus separatum (Fiume), ''corpus separatum'' (1779–1919), which – while falling short of an independent sovereignty – had many attributes of a city-state.


Italy

In Northern Italy, Northern and Central Italy during the medieval and Renaissance periods, city-states - with various amounts of associated land - became the standard form of polity. Some of them, despite being de facto independent states, were formally part of the Holy Roman Empire. The era of the Italian states, in particular from the 11th century to the 15th century, was characterized by the remarkable economic development, trade, manufacture, and mercantile capitalism, together with increasing urbanization. With remarkable influence throughout much of the Mediterranean world and Europe as a whole. During this time, most of the Italian city-states were ruled by one person, such as the Signoria or by a dynasty, such as the House of Gonzaga and the House of Sforza. Examples of Italian city-states during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: Republic of Florence, Duchy of Milan, Duchy of Ferrara, History of San Marino , San Marino, Duchy of Modena and Reggio, Duchy of Urbino, Duchy of Mantua and the Republic of Lucca. Another example of Italian city-states, were the powerful maritime republics, the best known are: Republic of Venice, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Amalfi and Republic of Pisa.


Southeast Asia

In the history of Mainland Southeast Asia, aristocratic groups, Buddhist leaders, and others organized settlements into autonomous or semi-autonomous city-states. These were referred to as ''mueang'', and were usually related in a tributary relationship now described as Mandala (political model), mandala or as ''over-lapping sovereignty'', in which smaller city-states paid tribute to larger ones that paid tribute to still larger ones—until reaching the apex in cities like Ayutthaya (city), Ayutthaya, Bagan, Bangkok and others that served as centers of Southeast Asian royalty. The system existed until the 19th century, when colonization by European powers occurred. Rattanakosin Kingdom, Siam, a regional power at the time, needed to define their territories for negotiation with the European powers so the Siamese government established a nation-state system, incorporated their tributary cities (Lan Xang, Dark Ages of Cambodia, Cambodia and some Malay cities) into their territory and abolished the mueang and the tributary system. In early Philippine history, the Barangay state, barangay was a complex sociopolitical unit which scholars have historically considered the dominant organizational pattern among the various Filipinos, peoples of the Geography of the Philippines, Philippine archipelago. , . These sociopolitical units were sometimes also referred to as barangay states, but are more properly referred to using the technical term ''polity''. Evidence suggests a considerable degree of independence as city states ruled by Datus, Rajahs and Sultans. Early chroniclers record that the name evolved from the term ''balangay'', which refers to a plank boat widely used by various cultures of the Philippine archipelago prior to the arrival of European colonizers.


20th-century cities under international supervision


Danzig

The Free City of Danzig was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns in the surrounding areas. It was created on 15 November 1920 under the terms of Article 100 (Section XI of Part III) of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles after the end of World War I.


Fiume

After a prolonged period where the city of Fiume enjoyed considerable autonomy under Habsburg rule (see Corpus separatum (Fiume)), The Free State of Fiume was proclaimed as a fully independent free state which existed between 1920 and 1924. Its territory of 28 km2 (11 sq mi) comprised the city of Fiume (now in Croatia and, since the end of World War II, known as Rijeka) and rural areas to its north, with a corridor to its west connecting it to Italy.


Jerusalem

Under the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine of 1947, Mandatory Palestine was to be partitioned into three states: a Jewish state of Israel, an Arab state of State of Palestine, Palestine, and a ''corpus separatum'' (Latin language, Latin for "Corpus separatum (disambiguation), separated body") consisting of a Jerusalem city-state under the control of United Nations Trusteeship Council. Although the plan had some international support and the UN accepted this proposal (and still officially holds the stance that Jerusalem should be held under this regime), implementation of the plan failed as the 1948 Palestine war broke out with the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, ultimately resulting in Jerusalem being split into West Jerusalem and East Jerusalem. Israel would eventually gain control of East Jerusalem in the Six-Day War in 1967.


Memel

The Klaipėda Region or Memel Territory was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 when it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors. The Memel Territory was to remain under the control of the League of Nations until a future day when the people of the region would be allowed to vote on whether the land would return to Germany or not. The then predominantly ethnic German Memel Territory (Prussian Lithuanians and Memellanders constituted the other ethnic groups), situated between the river and the town of that name, was occupied by Lithuania in the Klaipėda Revolt of 1923.


Shanghai

The Shanghai International Settlement (1845–1943) was an international zone with its own legal system, postal service, and currency.


Tangier

The international zone within the city of Tangier, in North Africa was approximately 373 km2 (144 sq mi). It was at first under the joint administration of France, Spain, and the United Kingdom, plus later Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. The international zone was initially attached to Morocco. It then became a French-Spanish protectorate from 1923 until 29 October 1956, when it was reintegrated into the state of Morocco.


Trieste

The Free Territory of Trieste was an independent territory situated in Central Europe between northern Italy and Yugoslavia, facing the north part of the Adriatic Sea, under direct responsibility of the United Nations Security Council in the aftermath of World War II, from 1947 to 1954. The UN attempted to make the Free Territory of Trieste into a city state, but it never gained real independence and in 1954 its territory was divided between Italy and Yugoslavia.


West Berlin

In the 20th century West Berlin, though lacking sovereignty, functioned from 1948 until 1990 as a state legally not belonging to any other state, but ruled by the Western Bloc, Western Allies. They allowed – notwithstanding their overlordship as occupant powers – its internal organisation as one state simultaneously being a city, officially called Berlin (West). Though West Berlin maintained close ties to the West German West Germany, Federal Republic of Germany, it never legally formed a part of it.


Modern city-states


Monaco

The Monaco, Principality of Monaco is an independent city-state. Monaco-Ville (the ancient fortified city) and Monaco's well-known area Monte Carlo are districts of a continuous urban zone, not distinct cities, though they were three separate municipalities (''communes'') until 1917. The Principality of Monaco and the city of Monaco (each having specific powers) govern the same territory. Though they maintain a small Military of Monaco, military, they would still have to rely on France for defence in the face of an aggressive power.


Singapore

Singapore is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. About 5.6 million people live and work within , making Singapore the List of countries by population density, 2nd-most-densely populated country in the world after Monaco. Singapore was part of Malaysia before it was Singapore in Malaysia#Expulsion, expelled from the federation in 1965, becoming an independent republic, a city and a
sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the It ...
country. ''The Economist'' refers to the nation as the "world's only fully functioning city-state". In particular, it has its own Singapore dollar, currency and a full Singapore Armed Forces, armed forces for deterrence to safeguard the nation's sovereignty against potential aggressors.


Vatican City

Until September 1870, the city of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , fo ...

Rome
had been controlled by the pope as part of his Papal States. When King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, Victor Emmanuel II seized the city in 1870, Pope Pius IX refused to recognize the newly formed Italian unification, Kingdom of Italy. Because he could not travel without effectively acknowledging the authority of the king, Pius IX and his successors each claimed to be a "Prisoner in the Vatican", unable to leave the papal enclave once they had ascended the throne, papal thrones. The Roman Question, impasse was resolved in 1929 by the Lateran Treaties negotiated by the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini between King Victor Emmanuel III and Pope Pius XI. Under this treaty, the Vatican was recognized as an independent state, with the Pope as its head. The Vatican City, Vatican City State has its own citizenship, diplomatic corps, Flag of the Vatican City, flag, and postage stamps. With a population of less than 1,000 (mostly clergymen), it is by far the smallest sovereign country in the world.


States with similar characteristics

A number of other small states share many of these characteristics, and are sometimes cited as modern city-states. Djibouti, Qatar,Parker, Geoffrey. 2005. ''Sovereign City: The City-state Through History'' Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 219 Brunei, Kuwait, Bahrain, Malta, Estonia, Costa Rica, Jordan, Suriname, Uruguay, Latvia, and MongoliaBhaswati Ray and Rajib Shaw. "Urban Drought: Emerging Water Challenges in Asia." Springer Singapore, November 2018. Page 360: "Ulaanbaatar is the center of administrative, commercial, and financial activities in the country. The city covers approximately 0.3% of the territory of Mongolia, but also half of the Mongolian population, with almost two-thirds of Mongolia's GDP produced in Ulaanbaatar." each have a capital urban center comprising a major portion of the population and the majority of GDP. Each has more than one distinct municipality, with one identified as a capital city, though the same was often the case for historical city-states. Occasionally, Microstate, microstates with high population densities such as San Marino are cited, despite lacking a large urban centre.Hansen, Mogens. 2000. "Introduction: The Concepts of City-States and City-State Culture." In ''A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures,'' Copenhagen: Copenhagen Polis Centre. Pg. 19Parker, Geoffrey. 2005. ''Sovereign City: The City-state Through History'' Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Mogens, Hansen. 2002. ''A Comparative Study of Six City-State Cultures: An Investigation'' p. 91


Non-sovereign city-states

Some cities or urban areas, while not sovereign states, may nevertheless be constituent states of a federation, or enjoy a high degree of autonomy. As such, they function as "city-states" within the context of the sovereign state to which they belong. Historian Mogens Herman Hansen describes this aspect of self-government as: "The city-state is a self-governing, but not necessarily independent political unit." A city with more limited self-government may be referred to as an independent city. Some non-sovereign cities which a high degree of autonomy which have been described as city-states include: *Spain: Ceuta and Melilla *China:
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a and of China on the eastern in . With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a territory, Hong ...

Hong Kong
and
Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a and of the in the western by the . With a population of about 680,000 and an area of , it is the most in the ...

Macau
*United Kingdom: Gibraltar Some cities that are constituent states in a federation, and as such can be accurately described as non-sovereign city-states include: *Switzerland: Canton of Basel-Stadt, Basel-Stadt * Germany: Bremen (state), Bremen, Berlin and Hamburg


Proposed city-states


London

The London independence movement seeks a city-state separate from the United Kingdom.


New York

There have been various proposals for the New York City, City of New York to secede from New York State. In Origins of the American Civil War, the period of national crisis immediately preceding the American Civil War, Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Mayor Fernando Wood proposed the secession of the city as a sovereign city-state to be called the ''Free City of Tri-Insula'' (''Tri-Insula'' meaning "three islands" in Latin), and incorporating Manhattan, Long Island and Staten Island. In an address to the city's Common Council on January 6, 1861, Mayor Wood expressed a Copperheads (politics), Copperhead sympathy with the Confederate States of America, seceding states and a desire to maintain profitable cotton shipping, confidence that the city state would prosper on the Import tariff, import tariffs that then supplied 2/3 of federal revenue, and especially dissatisfaction with the state government at Albany. But the idea of leaving the United States proved too radical even in the turmoil of 1861 and was poorly received, especially after the Battle of Fort Sumter, Southern bombardment of Fort Sumter starting on April 12. The war, and especially conscription, was nevertheless often unpopular in the city, sparking the deadly New York Draft Riots. The neighboring City of Brooklyn, in contrast, was staunchly Unionist. In 1969, writer Norman Mailer and columnist Jimmy Breslin ran together on an independent ticket seeking the mayoralty and City Council Presidency, challenging Mayor John Lindsay with an agenda to make New York City the 51st state. When questioned as to the name of the new state, Breslin said the city deserved to keep "New York" and that upstate should be renamed "Buffalo, New York, Buffalo", after its largest city. On 26 February 2003, a bill was introduced by Astoria, Queens, New York, Astoria, Queens Council Member Peter Vallone, Jr., and sponsored by 20 of 51 City Council members, reviving the idea of referendum for secession from New York State in the context of the red state vs. blue state divide and opposition to the policies of Governor George Pataki. A committee report was written but otherwise little action was taken, and the bill was reintroduced with one additional sponsor on the same date in 2004. Like Mayor Wood, Council Member Vallone emphasized the fiscal benefits of secession, with revenue now derived not from tariffs, but from Wall Street (Manhattan), Wall Street. Council Member Vallone reintroduced the bill in 2006. In January 2008, Vallone again offered a bill for the secession of New York City from New York State. After Mayor Michael Bloomberg testified to New York State legislators that New York City gives the state $11 billion more than it gets back, Vallone stated: "If not secession, somebody please tell me what other options we have if the state is going to continue to take billions from us and give us back pennies? Should we raise taxes some more? Should we cut services some more? Or should we consider seriously going out on our own?" The New York City Council planned to hold a meeting on the topic.Benjamin Sarlin
A Secession Plan Is Floated for New York City
New York Sun, 30 January 2008.


Washington, D.C.


See also

*Charter city *City network *Federal district *Pyu city-states *Royal free city *List of fictional city-states in literature


References


Further reading

*Mogens Herman Hansen (ed.), ''A comparative study of thirty city-state cultures : an investigation conducted by the Copenhagen Polis Centre'', Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 2000. (Historisk-filosofiske skrifter, 21). . *Mogens Herman Hansen (ed.), ''A comparative study of six city-state cultures : an investigation'', Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 2002. (Historisk-filosofiske skrifter, 27). .


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:City-State City-states, Country classifications Political geography