ceasefire
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A ceasefire (or truce), also spelled cease fire (the antonym of 'open fire'), is a temporary stoppage of a
war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, g ...

war
in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. Historically, the concept existed at least by the time of the Middle Ages, when it was known as a 'truce of God'. Ceasefires can be declared as a humanitarian gesture, be preliminary, i.e., prior to a political agreement, or definitive, i.e., with the intention of resolving a conflict. Ceasefires may be declared as part of a formal
treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but can sometimes include individuals, business entities, and other Leg ...

treaty
, but they have also been called as part of an informal understanding between opposing forces. Ceasefires may be between state actors or involve non-state actors. They may be formal (usually written), or informal; their conditions may be public or secret. Ceasefires may occur via mediation or otherwise as part of a
peace process A peace process is the set of sociopolitical negotiations, agreements and actions that aim to solve a specific armed conflict. Definitions Prior to an armed conflict occurring, peace processes can include the prevention of an intra-state or inte ...
or be imposed by
United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, se ...

United Nations Security Council
resolutions via Chapter VII of the
United Nations Charter The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) is the foundational treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and inter ...
. A ceasefire is usually more limited than a broader
armistice An armistice is a Treaty, formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting. It is not necessarily the end of a war, as it may constitute only a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to negotiate a lasting peace. It is derived from ...
, which is a formal agreement to end fighting. Ceasefires may be abused by parties as cover to re-arm or reposition forces, and they typically fail, when they are referred to as 'failed ceasefires'; however, successful ceasefires may be followed by armistices and then by
peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of ...
. The durability of ceasefire agreements is affected by several factors, such as demilitarized zones, withdrawal of troops and third-party guarantees and monitoring (e.g.
peacekeeping Peacekeeping comprises activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace. Research generally finds that peacekeeping reduces civilian and battlefield deaths, as well as reduces the risk of renewed warfare. Within the United N ...
). Ceasefire agreements are more likely to be durable when they reduce incentives to attack, reduce uncertainty about the adversary's intentions, and when mechanisms are put in place to prevent and control accidents from developing into conflict.


Historical examples


World War I

During
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...

World War I
, on December 24, 1914, there was an official ceasefire on the
Western FrontWestern Front or West Front may refer to: Military frontiers *Western Front (World War I), a military frontier to the west of Germany *Western Front (World War II), a military frontier to the west of Germany *Western Front (Russian Empire), a major ...

Western Front
as
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...
, the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

United Kingdom
, and
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...
observed
Christmas Christmas (or the Feast of the Nativity) is an annual festival commemorating Nativity of Jesus, the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration by billions of people Observance of Christmas ...
. There are accounts that claimed the unofficial ceasefire took place throughout the week leading to Christmas, and that British and German troops exchanged seasonal greetings and songs between their trenches. The ceasefire was brief but spontaneous. Beginning when German soldiers lit
Christmas tree A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen pinophyta, conifer, such as a spruce, pine, or fir, or an artificial tree of similar appearance, associated with the celebration of Christmas, originating in Germany associated with S ...

Christmas tree
s, it quickly spread up and down the Western Front. One account described the development in the following words:
It was good to see the human spirit prevailed amongst all sides at the front, the sharing and fraternity. All was well until the higher echelons of command got to hear about the effect of the ceasefire, whereby their wrath ensured a return to hostilities.
There was no peace treaty signed during the
Christmas truce The Christmas truce (german: Weihnachtsfrieden; french: Trêve de Noël) was a series of widespread unofficial ceasefires along the Western Front of the First World War World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1 ...
, and the war resumed after a few days.


Korean War

On November 29, 1952, the US
president-elect An ''officer-elect'' refers to a person who has been elected to a position but has not yet been installed. For example, a president who has been elected but not yet installed would be referred to as a ''president-elect'' (e.g. President-elect ...
, Dwight D. Eisenhower, went to Korea to see how to end the
Korean War The Korean War (South Korean: ; North Korean: , "Fatherland Liberation War"; 25 June 1950–27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the support of the United Nations, ...

Korean War
. With the 's acceptance of
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
's proposed armistice, the ceasefire of the
Korean People's Army The Korean People's Army (KPA; Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, an ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language * Korean alphabet, or Hangul Places * Korea ...

Korean People's Army
(KPA), the
People's Volunteer Army The (Chinese) People's Volunteer Army (PVA) was the armed forces deployed by the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies ...
(PVA), and the
UN Command United Nations Command (UNC or UN Command) is the multinational military force that supported the Republic of Korea South Korea ( Korean: /, RR: ''Hanguk''; literally /, RR: ''Namhan'', or /, MR: ''Namchosŏn'' in North Korean usage ...
had the battle line approximately at the 38th parallel north. These parties signed the
Korean Armistice Agreement The Korean Armistice Agreement ( ko, 한국정전협정/조선정전협정, zh, t=韓國停戰協定/朝鮮停戰協定) is an armistice that brought about a complete cessation of hostilities of the Korean War The Korean War (South Kor ...
on July 27, 1953, to end the fighting. South Korean President
Syngman Rhee Syngman Rhee (, ; 26 March 1875 – 19 July 1965) was a South Korean politician and dictator who was the founder and served as the first President of South Korea, from 1948 to 1960. Rhee was also the first and last president of the Provisiona ...

Syngman Rhee
attacked the peace proceedings and did not sign the armistice. Upon agreeing to the ceasefire agreement, which called upon the governments of South Korea, North Korea,
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
, and the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...

United States
to participate in continued peace talks. the principal
belligerents A belligerent is an individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat Combat (French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France Fran ...
established the
Korean Demilitarized Zone The Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ; Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: ; Hanja Hanja (, , or Hancha) is the Korean name for a traditional writing system consisting mainly of Traditional Chinese characters () that was incorporated and used since ...
(DMZ), which has since been patrolled by the KPA and the joint
Republic of Korea Army ) , colors = , colors_label = , march = "Army Anthem" ( ko, 《육군가》, Yukgunga) , mascot = Hogugi ( ko, 호국이) , equipment = ...
, US, and UN Command. The war is considered to have ended at that point even though there still is no peace treaty.


Vietnam War

On New Years Day, 1968,
Pope Paul VI Pope Paul VI ( la, Paulus VI; it, Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini, ; 26 September 18976 August 1978) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the Li ...
convinced
South Vietnam South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN; vi, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa; french: République du Viêt Nam), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam , image_map ...
and the United States to declare a 24-hour-truce. However, the
Viet Cong The Viet Cong ( vi, Việt Cộng; ), officially known as the National Liberation Front of Southern Vietnam ( vi, Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam), was an armed communist political revolutionary organization in So ...

Viet Cong
and
North Vietnam North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) ( vi, Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa) was a state in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1954 and a country from 1954 to 1976. During the August Revolution following World War I ...

North Vietnam
did not adhere to the truce, and ambushed the 2nd Battalion,
Republic of Vietnam Marine Division The Republic of Vietnam Marine Division (RVNMD, vi, Sư Đoàn Thủy Quân Lục Chiến QLC was part of the armed forces of South Vietnam. It was established by Ngo Dinh Diem in 1954 when he was Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam, which beca ...
, 10 minutes after midnight in
Mỹ Tho Mỹ Tho () is a city in the Tiền Giang Province in the Mekong Delta region of South Vietnam. It has a population of approximately 169,000 in 2006 and 220,000 in 2012. It is the regional center of economics, education and technology. The majority ...
. The Viet Cong would also attack a
U.S. Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The vast majority of human activity throughout history has occurred in land areas that support agriculture ...
fire support base near
Saigon , population_density_km2 = 4292 , population_density_metro_km2 = 697.2 , population_demonym = Saigonese , demographics_type1 = Ethnic groups , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 ...

Saigon
, causing more casualties. On January 15, 1973, US President
Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. A member of the Republican Party, Nixon previously served as the 36th vice president from 1953 to 1961, having ...

Richard Nixon
ordered a ceasefire of the aerial bombings in
North Vietnam North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) ( vi, Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa) was a state in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1954 and a country from 1954 to 1976. During the August Revolution following World War I ...

North Vietnam
. The decision came after
Henry Kissinger Henry Alfred Kissinger (; ; born Heinz Alfred Kissinger; May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, diplomat, and Geopolitics, geopolitical consultant who served as United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor (United ...

Henry Kissinger
, the National Security Advisor to the President, returned to
Washington, DC ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial on the National Mall, United States Capitol, Washington Metro, National Air and Space Museum, Air and Space ...
, from
Paris, France Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, ...

Paris, France
, with a draft peace proposal. Combat missions continued in
South Vietnam South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN; vi, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa; french: République du Viêt Nam), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam , image_map ...
. By January 27, 1973, all parties of the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars and the Cold War , image = VNWarMontage.png , image_size = 300px , caption = Clockwise, from top left: U.S. ...
signed a ceasefire as a prelude to the Paris Peace Accord.


Gulf War

After
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country in ...

Iraq
was driven out of
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar, الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar, دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf, bordering Iraq to Iraq–Kuw ...

Kuwait
by US-led coalition forces during
Operation Desert Storm Operation or Operations may refer to: Science and technology * Surgical operation or surgery, in medicine * Operation (mathematics), a calculation from zero or more input values (called operands) to an output value ** Arity, number of arguments ...

Operation Desert Storm
, Iraq and the
UN Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, se ...

UN Security Council
signed a ceasefire agreement on March 3, 1991. Subsequently, throughout the 1990s, the
U.N. Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, se ...

U.N. Security Council
passed numerous resolutions calling for Iraq to disarm its
weapons of mass destruction A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological File:Radioactive.svg, upThe international symbol for types and levels of ionizing radiation (radioactivity) that are unsafe for Radiation shield, unshielded humans. Radiation, ...
unconditionally and immediately. Because no peace treaty was signed after the
Gulf War The Gulf War was a war waged by Coalition of the Gulf War, coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Ba'athist Iraq, Iraq in response to Iraq's Invasion of Kuwait, invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pri ...
, the war still remained in effect, including an alleged assassination attempt of former US President
George H. W. Bush George Herbert Walker BushSince around 2000 he was usually called George H. W. Bush, Bush Senior, Bush 41 or Bush the Elder to distinguish him from his eldest son, George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American p ...

George H. W. Bush
by Iraqi agents while on a visit to Kuwait; Iraq being bombed in June 1993 as a response, Iraqi forces firing on coalition aircraft patrolling the
Iraqi no-fly zones The Iraqi no-fly zones conflict was a low-level conflict in the two no-fly zones (NFZs) in Iraq that were proclaimed by the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...
, US President
Bill Clinton William Jefferson Clinton (; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. He previously served as governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and again from ...

Bill Clinton
's bombing of Baghdad in 1998 during
Operation Desert Fox The 1998 bombing of Iraq (code-named Operation Desert Fox) was a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from 16 to 19 December 1998, by the United States and the United Kingdom. The contemporaneous justification for the strikes was Ira ...
, and an earlier 1996 bombing of Iraq by the US during Operation Desert Strike. The war remained in effect until 2003, when US and UK forces invaded Iraq and toppled
Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (; Arabic alphabet, Arabic: '; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was an Iraqi politician who served as the fifth president of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003. A leading member of the rev ...

Saddam Hussein
's regime from power.


Kashmir conflict

A UN-mediated ceasefire was agreed between
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
, on 1 January 1949, ending the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 (also called the 1947 Kashmir War). Fighting broke out between the two newly independent countries in
Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. T ...
in October 1947, with India intervening on behalf of the princely ruler of Kashmir, who had joined India, and Pakistan supporting the rebels. The fighting was limited to Kashmir, but, apprehensive that it might develop into a full-scale international war, India referred the matter to the UN Security Council under Article 35 of the UN Charter, which addresses situations "likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace". The Security Council set up the dedicated
United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan The United Nations Security Council Resolution A United Nations Security Council resolution is a United Nations resolution adopted by the fifteen members of the Security Council (UNSC); the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an ...
, which mediated for an entire year as the fighting continued. After several UN resolutions outlining a procedure for resolving the dispute via a
plebiscite A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct and universal vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal and can have nationwide or local forms. This may result in the adoption of a ...
, a ceasefire agreement was reached between the countries towards the end of December 1948, which came into effect in the New Year. The Security Council set up the
United Nations Military Observer Group for India and Pakistan The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and ...
(UNMOGIP) to monitor the ceasefire line. India declared a ceasefire in Kashmir Valley during Ramadan in 2018.


Israeli–Palestinian conflict

An example of a ceasefire in the
Israeli–Palestinian conflict The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century amidst the greater Arab–Israeli conflict. Various attempts have been made to resolve the conflict as part of the I ...
was announced between
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
and the
Palestinian National Authority The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; ar, السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية '), commonly known as the Palestinian Authority and officially the State of Palestine,
on February 8, 2005. When announced, chief
Palestinian The Palestinian people ( ar, الشعب الفلسطيني, ''ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī''), also referred to as Palestinians ( ar, الفلسطينيون, links=no, ''al-Filasṭīniyyūn''; he, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian A ...
negotiator
Saeb Erekat Saeb Muhammad Salih Erekat ( ar, صائب محمد صالح عريقات ''Ṣāʼib ʻUrayqāt''; also ''ʻRēqāt, Erikat, Erakat, Arekat''; 28 April 195510 November 2020) was a Palestinian politician and diplomat who was the Secretary Genera ...
publicly defined the ceasefire as follows: "We have agreed that today President
Mahmoud Abbas Mahmoud Abbas ( ar, مَحْمُود عَبَّاس, Maḥmūd ʿAbbās; born 15 November 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen ( ar, أَبُو مَازِن, links=no, ), is the president of the State of Palestine and Palestinian National ...

Mahmoud Abbas
will declare a full cessation of violence against Israelis anywhere and Prime Minister
Ariel Sharon Ariel Sharon (; , ', also known by his diminutive Arik, , born Ariel Scheinermann, ; 26 February 1928 – 11 January 2014) was an Israeli general and politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Israel from March 2001 until April 2006. ...
will declare a full cessation of violence and military activities against Palestinians anywhere."


Syrian Civil War

Several attempts have been made to broker ceasefires in the
Syrian Civil War#REDIRECT Syrian civil war The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأَهْلِيَّةُ السُّورِيَّةُ, ''al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah'') is an ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria fought between the Syrian Ara ...

Syrian Civil War
.


2020 global ceasefire

The 2020 global ceasefire was a response to a formal appeal by United Nations Secretary-General on March 23 for a global ceasefire as part of the United Nations' response to the COVID-19
coronavirus pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavi ...
. On 24 June, 2020, 170 UN Member States and Observers signed a non-binding statement in support of the appeal, rising to 172 on 25 June, 2020, and on 1 July 2020, the UN Security Council passed a resolution demanding a general and immediate global cessation of hostilities for at least 90 days.


See also

*
Armistice An armistice is a Treaty, formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting. It is not necessarily the end of a war, as it may constitute only a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to negotiate a lasting peace. It is derived from ...
* Ekecheiria
Olympic TruceThe Olympic Truce is a tradition originating from ancient Greece that dates back to 776 BC. A "truce" (Ancient Greek: Ekecheiria, ékécheiria, meaning "laying down of arms") was announced before and during the Ancient Olympic Games, Olympic Games to ...
*
Korean Armistice Agreement The Korean Armistice Agreement ( ko, 한국정전협정/조선정전협정, zh, t=韓國停戰協定/朝鮮停戰協定) is an armistice that brought about a complete cessation of hostilities of the Korean War The Korean War (South Kor ...
*
Peacemaking Peacemaking is practical conflict transformation focused upon establishing equitable power relationships robust enough to forestall future conflict, often including the establishment of means of agreeing on ethical decisions within a community, ...
*
Peace process A peace process is the set of sociopolitical negotiations, agreements and actions that aim to solve a specific armed conflict. Definitions Prior to an armed conflict occurring, peace processes can include the prevention of an intra-state or inte ...
*
Peace treaty A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of ...


References


Further reading

* Akebo, Malin. (2016). ''Ceasefire Agreements and Peace Processes: A Comparative Study''. Routledge. * Colletta, Nat. (2011). Mediating ceasefires and cessations of hostilities agreements in the framework of peace processes. In ''Peacemaking: From Practice to Theory''. Praeger, 135–147. * Forsta, Robert A. (2019)
Ceasefires
In ''The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies''. Palgrave. * Fortna, Virginia Page. (2004). ''Peace Time: Cease-fire Agreements and the Durability of Peace''. Princeton University Press. * Sosnowski, Marika. (2019).
Ceasefires as State-Building
'. Program on Governance and Local Development Working Paper No. 22. University of Gothenburg. *Williams, R., Gustafson, D., Gent, S., & Crescenzi, M. (2021).
A latent variable approach to measuring and explaining peace agreement strength.
''Political Science Research and Methods,'' ''9''(1), 89-105.


External links

{{Wiktionary, ceasefire, truce
University of Edinburgh Ceasefires TrackerSearch for ceasefire agreements on the Peace Agreement Access Tool (PA-X), 1990-2015.Search for ceasefire agreements in the UN Peacemaker DatabaseSearch for women and ceasefire agreements in PA-X Women Database
Military diplomacy Military strategy Peace mechanisms