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A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part of the central trunk of a
tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ...

tree
(or sometimes a
shrub A shrub (often called a bush) is a small- to medium-sized perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the p ...

shrub
). Large branches are known as boughs and small branches are known as twigs. The term "
twig A twig or stick is a thin branch of a tree or bush. The buds on the twig are an important diagnostic characteristic, as are the abscission Abscission (from Latin ''ab'', "away", and ''scindere'', "to cut'") is the shedding of various parts of ...

twig
" often refers to a terminus, while "bough" refers only to branches coming directly from the trunk. Due to a broad range of species of trees, branches and twigs can be found in many different shapes and sizes. While branches can be nearly horizontal,
vertical Vertical may refer to: * Vertical direction In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects ...
, or
diagonal In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position o ...

diagonal
, the majority of trees have upwardly diagonal branches. A number of mathematical properties are associated with tree branchings: they are natural examples of
fractal In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities a ...

fractal
patterns in nature, and, as observed by
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
, their cross-sectional areas closely follow the
da Vinci branching rule Patterns of the mood_as_well_as_sexual_selection.html" ;"title="aposematism.html" ;"title="camouflage.html" ;"title="veiled chameleon, ''Chamaeleo calyptratus'', provide camouflage">veiled chameleon, ''Chamaeleo calyptratus'', provide camouflag ...
.


Words

Because of the enormous quantity of branches in the world, there are a variety of names in
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
alone for them. In general however, unspecific words for a branch (such as rise) have been replaced by the word branch itself.


Specific terms

A bough can also be called a limb or arm, and though these are arguably
metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of ...
s, both are widely accepted
synonym A synonym is a word, morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical item in a language. A morpheme is not a word. The difference between a morpheme and a word is that a morpheme bound and free morphemes, sometimes does not stand alone ...
s for bough. A crotch or fork is an area where a trunk splits into two or more boughs. A
twig A twig or stick is a thin branch of a tree or bush. The buds on the twig are an important diagnostic characteristic, as are the abscission Abscission (from Latin ''ab'', "away", and ''scindere'', "to cut'") is the shedding of various parts of ...

twig
is frequently referred to as a sprig as well, especially when it has been plucked. Other words for twig include branchlet, spray, and surcle, as well as the technical terms surculus and ramulus. Branches found under larger branches can be called underbranches. Some branches from specific trees have their own names, such as osiers and withes or
withiesImage:Willow1.jpg, 200px, A pollarding, pollarded willow with a crop of withies ready for harvest A withy or withe is a strong flexible willow stem, typically used in thatching and for gardening. Several species and hybrid cultivars of willows (oft ...
, which come from
willow Willows, also called sallows and osiers, from the genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classifica ...

willow
s. Often trees have certain words which, in English, are naturally collocated, such as
holly ''Ilex'' (), or holly, is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classificati ...

holly
and
mistletoe Mistletoe is the common name for obligate{{wiktionary, obligate As an adjective, obligate means "by necessity" (antonym '' facultative'') and is used mainly in biology in phrases such as: * Obligate aerobe 300px, Aerobic and anaerobic bacte ...

mistletoe
, which usually employ the phrase "sprig of" (as in, a "sprig of mistletoe"). Similarly, the branch of a
cherry tree A cherry is the fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fru ...

cherry tree
is generally referred to as a "cherry branch", while other such formations (i.e., "
acacia ''Acacia'', commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large of shrubs and trees in the subfamily of the pea family . Initially, it comprised a group of plant species native to Africa and Australasia, but it has now been limited to conta ...

acacia
branch" or "
orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
branch") carry no such alliance. A good example of this versatility is
oak An oak is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including on ...

oak
, which could be referred to as variously an "oak branch", an "oaken branch", a "branch of oak", or the "branch of an oak
ree
ree
. Once a branch has been cut or in any other way removed from its source, it is most commonly referred to as a stick, and a stick employed for some purpose (such as
walking Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gait Gait is the pattern of Motion (physics), movement of the limb (anatomy), limbs of animals, including Gait (human), humans, during Animal locomotion, locomotion over a solid substrate. M ...

walking
,
spanking Spanking is a common form of corporal punishment involving the act of striking, with either the palm of the hand or an implement, the buttocks of a person to cause them physical pain. Although the term spanking broadly encompasses the use of ei ...

spanking
, or beating) is often called a rod. Thin, flexible sticks are called
switch In , a switch is an that can disconnect or connect the conducting path in an , interrupting the or diverting it from one conductor to another. The most common type of switch is an electromechanical device consisting of one or more sets of movab ...
es, wands, shrags, or vimina (singular vimen).


History and etymology

In
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
, there are numerous words for branch, including ', ', ', and '. There are also numerous descriptive words, such as ' (that is, something that has bled, or "bloomed", out), ' (literally "little bough"), ' (literally "on growth"), and ' (literally "offspringing"). Numerous other words for twigs and boughs abound, including ', which still survives as the "-toe" in ''mistletoe''."mistletoe" on American Heritage.
Latin words for branch are ''ramus'' or ''cladus''. The second term is an affix found in other modern words such as cladodonts (prehistoric sharks with branched teeth) or
cladogram A cladogram (from Greek ''clados'' "branch" and ''gramma'' "character") is a diagram used in cladistics Cladistics (, from Greek language, Greek , ''kládos'', "branch") is an approach to Taxonomy (biology), biological classification in whi ...

cladogram
.


See also

*
Basal shoot Image:Sucker on tree.jpg, A basal shoot emerging from the base of a juvenile tree Basal shoots, root sprouts, adventitious shoots, and suckers are words for various kinds of shoots that grow from adventitious buds on the base of a tree or shrub, o ...
*
Plant stem '' has lost its leaves, but is producing adventitious rootsImportant structures in plant development are buds, shoots, root In vascular plants, the roots are the plant organ, organs of a plant that are modified to provide anchorage for the pl ...

Plant stem
*
Root In vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large group ...

Root
*
Shoot In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancie ...

Shoot
*
Stolon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms ...
*
Switch (corporal punishment) A switch is a flexible rod which is typically used for corporal punishment Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment , England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome up ...
*
Trunk (botany) In botany, the trunk (or bole) is the plant stem, stem and main wooden axis of a tree, which is an important feature in tree identification, and which often differs markedly from the bottom of the trunk to the top, depending on the species. The t ...
*
Turion (botany) A turion (from Latin turio meaning "shoot") is a type of bud that is capable of growing into a complete plant. A turion may be an underground bud. Many members of the genus ''Epilobium'' are known to produce turions at or below ground level. Some ...
*
Twig A twig or stick is a thin branch of a tree or bush. The buds on the twig are an important diagnostic characteristic, as are the abscission Abscission (from Latin ''ab'', "away", and ''scindere'', "to cut'") is the shedding of various parts of ...

Twig
*
Wand A wand is a thin, light-weight rod that is held with one hand, and is traditionally made of wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic mate ...

Wand


References

{{reflist
Plant morphology ''Plant morphology'' is the field in botany that studies the diversity in forms, with the naked eye or slight optical magnification. This is opposed to plant anatomy (see :Plant anatomy) that needs to cut into plants to be able to study its subject, ...
ja:分枝 (生物学)