beverage alcohol
   HOME

TheInfoList



OR:

An alcoholic beverage (also called an alcoholic drink, adult beverage, or a drink) is a
drink A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption. In addition to their basic function of satisfying thirst, drinks play important roles in human culture. Common types of drinks include plain drinking water, milk, juice, smoothies a ...
that contains
ethanol Ethanol (abbr. EtOH; also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic compound. It is an Alcohol (chemistry), alcohol with the chemical formula . Its formula can be also written as or (an ethyl ...
, a type of
alcohol Alcohol most commonly refers to: * Alcohol (chemistry) In chemistry, an alcohol is a type of organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl () functional group bound to a Saturated and unsaturated compounds, saturated carbon atom. The ...
that acts as a drug and is produced by
fermentation Fermentation is a metabolism, metabolic process that produces chemical changes in organic Substrate (chemistry), substrates through the action of enzymes. In biochemistry, it is narrowly defined as the extraction of energy from carbohydrates in ...
of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. The consumption of alcoholic drinks, often referred to as "drinking", plays an important
social role A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English) is the range of Action (philosophy), actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems or Artificial In ...
in many cultures. Most countries have
laws Law is a set of rules that are created and are law enforcement, enforceable by social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate. ...
regulating the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Regulations may require the labeling of the percentage alcohol content (as
ABV Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol Ethanol (abbr. EtOH; also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic compound. It is ...
or proof) and the use of a
warning label A warning label is a label attached to a Product (business), product, or contained in a product's Owner's manual, instruction manual, warning the user about risks associated with its use, and may include restrictions by the Manufacturing, man ...
. Some countries ban such activities entirely, but alcoholic drinks are legal in most parts of the world. The global alcoholic drink industry exceeded $1 trillion in 2018. Alcohol is a
depressant A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain. Depressants are also colloquially referred to as downers as they lower the l ...
, which in low doses causes
euphoria Euphoria ( ) is the experience (or affect (psychology), affect) of pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness. Certain natural rewards and social activities, such as aerobic exercise, laughter, listening to or ma ...
, reduces
anxiety Anxiety is an emotion which is characterized by an unpleasant state of inner wikt:turmoil, turmoil and includes feelings of dread over Anticipation, anticipated events. Anxiety is different than fear in that the former is defined as the anticipa ...
, and increases sociability. In higher doses, it causes
drunkenness Alcohol intoxication, also known as alcohol poisoning, commonly described as drunkenness or inebriation, is the negative behavior and physical effects caused by a recent consumption of alcohol. In addition to the toxicity of ethanol Et ...
,
stupor Stupor is the lack of critical mental function and a level of consciousness, in which an affected person is almost entirely unresponsive and responds only to intense stimuli such as pain. The word derives from the Latin ''wikt:stupor, stupor'' ("nu ...
,
unconsciousness Unconsciousness is a state in which a living individual exhibits a complete, or near-complete, inability to maintain an consciousness, awareness of self and environment or to respond to any human or environmental Stimulus (physiology), stimulus. ...
, or
death Death is the Irreversible process, irreversible cessation of all biological process, biological functions that sustain an organism. For organisms with a brain, death can also be defined as the irreversible cessation of functioning of the whol ...
. Long-term use can lead to an
alcohol use disorder Alcoholism is, broadly, any drinking of alcohol (drug), alcohol that results in significant Mental health, mental or physical health problems. Because there is disagreement on the definition of the word ''alcoholism'', it is not a recognize ...
, an increased risk of developing several types of cancer,
cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina pectoris, angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs in ...
, and
physical dependence Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a drug tolerance, tolerance-forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms. Physical dependence can develop from low-dose therapeuti ...
. Alcohol is one of the most widely used
recreational drug Recreational drug use indicates the use of one or more psychoactive drugs to induce an altered state of consciousness either for pleasure or for some other casual purpose or pastime by modifying the perceptions and emotions of the user. When a ...
s in the world, and about 33% of all humans currently drink alcohol. In 2015, among
Americans Americans are the citizens and nationals of the United States of America.; ; Although direct citizens and nationals make up the majority of Americans, many dual citizens, expatriates, and permanent residents could also legally claim Ame ...
, 86% of adults had consumed alcohol at some point, with 70% drinking it in the last year and 56% in the last month. Alcoholic drinks are typically divided into three classes—
beer Beer is one of the oldest and the most widely consumed type of alcoholic drink in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and Fermentation (food), fermentation of starches, mainl ...
s,
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different ...
s, and spirits—and typically their alcohol content is between 3% and 50%. Discovery of late
Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistory, prehistoric period during which Rock (geology), stone was widely used to make tools with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface. The period lasted for roughly 3.4 million years, and ended between 4,0 ...
jugs suggest that intentionally
fermented drink This is a list of fermented foods, which are foods produced or preserved by the action of microorganisms. In this context, Fermentation in food processing, fermentation typically refers to the fermentation of sugar to ethanol, alcohol using yeas ...
s existed at least as early as the
Neolithic The Neolithic period, or New Stone Age, is an Old World archaeological period and the final division of the Stone Age. It saw the Neolithic Revolution, a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several pa ...
period (). Several other animals are affected by alcohol similarly to humans and, once they consume it, will consume it again if given the opportunity, though humans are the only species known to produce alcoholic drinks intentionally.


Fermented drinks


Beer

Beer Beer is one of the oldest and the most widely consumed type of alcoholic drink in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and Fermentation (food), fermentation of starches, mainl ...
is a beverage fermented from
grain A grain is a small, hard, dry fruit (caryopsis) – with or without an attached husk, hull layer – harvested for human or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-producing plant. The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals and l ...
mash #REDIRECT Mash {{redirect category shell, {{R from ambiguous page{{R from other capitalisation{{R unprintworthy ...
. It is typically made from
barley Barley (''Hordeum vulgare''), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia Eurasia (, ) is the largest continental area o ...
or a blend of several grains and flavored with
hops Hops are the flowers (also called seed cones or strobilus, strobiles) of the hop plant ''Humulus lupulus'', a member of the Cannabaceae family of flowering plants. They are used primarily as a bittering, flavouring, and stability agent in be ...
. Most beer is naturally carbonated as part of the fermentation process. If the fermented mash is distilled, then the drink becomes a spirit. Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world.


Cider

Cider Cider ( ) is an alcoholic beverage made from the Fermented drink, fermented Apple juice, juice of apples. Cider is widely available in the United Kingdom (particularly in the West Country) and the Republic of Ireland. The UK has the world's hig ...
or cyder ( ) is a
fermented Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main functions of metabolism are: the conversion of the energy in foo ...
alcoholic drink made from any
fruit juice Juice is a drink made from the extraction or Cold-pressed juice, pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables. It can also refer to liquids that are flavored with concentrate or other biological food sources, such as meat ...
;
apple juice Apple juice is a fruit juice made by the maceration and pressing of an apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most ...
(traditional and most common),
peach The peach (''Prunus persica'') is a deciduous tree first domesticated and Agriculture, cultivated in Zhejiang, Zhejiang province of East China, Eastern China. It bears edible juicy fruits with various characteristics, most called peaches and o ...
es,
pear Pears are fruits produced and consumed around the world, growing on a tree and harvested in the Northern Hemisphere in late summer into October. The pear tree and shrub are a species of genus ''Pyrus'' , in the Family (biology), family Rosacea ...
s ("
Perry Perry, also known as pear cider, is an alcoholic beverage made from fermentation (food), fermented pears, traditionally the perry pear. It has been common for centuries in England, particularly in Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, and Worcesters ...
" cider) or other fruit. Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2%
ABV Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol Ethanol (abbr. EtOH; also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic compound. It is ...
to 8.5% or more in traditional English ciders. In some regions, cider may be called " apple wine".


Fermented tea

Fermented tea Fermented tea (also known as post-fermented tea or dark tea) is a class of tea that has undergone microbial fermentation (biochemistry), fermentation, from several months to many years. The exposure of the tea leaves to humidity and oxygen duri ...
(also known as post-fermented tea or dark tea) is a class of
tea Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over Curing (vegetable preservation), cured or fresh leaves of ''Camellia sinensis'', an evergreen shrub native to East Asia which probably originated in the borderlands of ...
that has undergone microbial
fermentation Fermentation is a metabolism, metabolic process that produces chemical changes in organic Substrate (chemistry), substrates through the action of enzymes. In biochemistry, it is narrowly defined as the extraction of energy from carbohydrates in ...
, from several months to many years. The tea leaves and the liquor made from them become darker with oxidation. Thus, the various kinds of fermented teas produced across
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population exceeding 1.4 billion, slig ...
are also referred to as dark tea, not be confused with
black tea Black tea, also translated to red tea in various East Asian languages, is a type of tea that is more tea processing, oxidized than oolong, yellow tea, yellow, white tea, white and green tea, green teas. Black tea is generally stronger in flav ...
. The most famous fermented tea is
kombucha Kombucha (also tea mushroom, tea fungus, or Manchurian mushroom when referring to the Microbiological culture, culture; Latin name ''Medusomyces gisevii'') is a fermented beverage, fermented, lightly effervescent, Sweetened beverage, sweetene ...
which is often homebrewed, pu-erh, produced in
Yunnan Province Yunnan , () is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or sovereign state, state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ''Roman province, provincia'', which was the major territoria ...
,Mo, Haizhen, Yang Zhu, and Zongmao Chen. "Microbial fermented tea–a potential source of natural food preservatives." Trends in food science & technology 19.3 (2008): 124-130.Lv, Hai-peng, et al. "Processing and chemical constituents of Pu-erh tea: A review." Food Research International 53.2 (2013): 608-618. and the Anhua dark tea produced in
Anhua County Anhua County () is a county in the Province of Hunan Hunan (, ; ) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the People's Republic of China, part of the South Central China region. Located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watersh ...
of
Hunan Province Hunan (, ; ) is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most popul ...
. The majority of kombucha on the market are under 0.5%
ABV Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol Ethanol (abbr. EtOH; also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic compound. It is ...
.


Fermented water

Fermented water is an
ethanol Ethanol (abbr. EtOH; also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic compound. It is an Alcohol (chemistry), alcohol with the chemical formula . Its formula can be also written as or (an ethyl ...
-based water solution with approximately 15-17% ABV without
sweet reserve The subjective sweetness of a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, r ...
. Fermented water is ''exclusively''
fermented Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main functions of metabolism are: the conversion of the energy in foo ...
with
white sugar White sugar, also called table sugar, granulated sugar, or regular sugar, is a commonly used type of sugar, made either of beet sugar or cane sugar, which has undergone a Sugar refinery, refining process. Description The refining process compl ...
,
yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom (biology), kingdom. The first yeast originated hundreds of millions of years ago, and at least 1,500 species are currently recognized. They are est ...
, and water. Fermented water is clarified after the fermentation to produce a colorless or off-white liquid with no discernible taste other than that of
ethanol Ethanol (abbr. EtOH; also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic compound. It is an Alcohol (chemistry), alcohol with the chemical formula . Its formula can be also written as or (an ethyl ...
.


Fermented sugar water

Fermented sugar water is fermented water with added refined
sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Compound sugars, also called disaccharides o ...
.


Mead

Mead Mead () is an Alcoholic drink, alcoholic beverage made by fermenting honey mixed with water, and sometimes with added ingredients such as fruits, spices, grains, or hops. The alcoholic content ranges from about 3.5% Alcohol by volume, ABV to mo ...
() is an alcoholic drink made by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops. The alcoholic content of mead may range from as low as 3% ABV to more than 20%. The defining characteristic of mead is that the majority of the drink's fermentable sugar is derived from honey. Mead can also be referred to as "honeywine."


Pulque

Pulque Pulque (; nci, metoctli), or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation (food), fermented sap of the Agave americana, maguey (agave) plant. It is traditional in central Mexico, where it has been produced for millennia. It has t ...
is the
Mesoamerica Mesoamerica is a historical region and cultural area in southern North America and most of Central America. It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica. Withi ...
n fermented drink made from the "honey water" of
maguey Maguey may refer to various American plants: * Genus ''Agave'', especially ** Species ''Agave americana'', the century plant ** Species ''Agave salmiana'' * Genus ''Furcraea'', a source of natural fiber * Maguey flowers, an edible flower Other uses ...
, ''
Agave americana ''Agave americana'', common names century plant, maguey, or American aloe, is a species of flowering plant in the family (biology), family Asparagaceae, native plant, native to Mexico and the United States in Texas. It is cultivated worldwide a ...
''. The drink distilled from pulque is
tequila Tequila (; ) is a liquor, distilled beverage made from the Agave tequilana, blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila, Jalisco, Tequila northwest of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Guadalajara, and in the Jaliscan Highlands ...
or mescal Mezcal.


Rice wine

Sake Sake, also spelled saké ( ; also referred to as Japanese rice wine), is an alcoholic beverage of Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally , ''Nihonkoku'') is a ...
,
huangjiu ''Huangjiu'' (), meaning yellow wine, is a Chinese alcoholic beverage, and is most popular in the Jiangnan area. ''Huangjiu'' is brewed by mixing boiled grains including rice, glutinous rice or millet with qū as starter culture, followed by ...
,
mijiu Mijiu () is a Chinese rice wine made from glutinous rice. It is generally clear in appearance with balanced sweetness and acidity, similar to its Japanese counterpart sake and Korean counterpart Cheongju (beverage), cheongju. The alcohol content ...
, and
cheongju Cheongju () is the capital and largest List of cities in South Korea, city of North Chungcheong Province in South Korea. History Cheongju has been an important provincial town since ancient times. In the Cheongju Mountains, specifically in the ...
are popular examples of
East Asian East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia (, ) is one of the world's most notable geographical regions, which is either considered a continent in its own right or a subcontinent of Eurasia, which shares the continental landmas ...
rice wine Rice wine is an alcoholic beverage Fermentation, fermented and Distilled beverage, distilled from rice, traditionally consumed in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia. Rice wine is made by the fermentation of rice starch that has been convert ...
.


Wine

Wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different ...
is a fermented beverage produced from
grape A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry (botany), berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus ''Vitis''. Grapes are a non-Climacteric (botany), climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters. The cultivation of ...
s and sometimes other fruits. Wine involves a longer fermentation process than beer and a long aging process (months or years), resulting in an alcohol content of 9%–16%
ABV Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol Ethanol (abbr. EtOH; also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic compound. It is ...
.


Others

Fruit wine Fruit wines are Ethanol fermentation, fermented alcoholic beverages made from a variety of base ingredients (other than grapes); they may also have additional flavors taken from fruits, flowers, and herbs. This definition is sometimes broadened t ...
s are made from fruits other than grapes, such as plums, cherries, or apples.
Sparkling wine Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it, making it fizzy. While the phrase commonly refers to champagne, European Union countries legally reserve that term for products exclusively produced in the Champagne (win ...
like French
Champagne Champagne (, ) is a sparkling wine originated and produced in the Champagne wine region of France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas Fra ...
, Catalan Cava or Italian
Prosecco Prosecco (; Italian: ) is an Italian wine, Italian Denominazione di origine controllata, DOC or DOCG white wine produced in a large area spanning nine provinces in the Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions, and named after the village of Pro ...
can be made by means of a secondary fermentation.


Distilled beverages

Distilled beverages (also called liquors or spirit drinks) are alcoholic drinks produced by
distilling Distillation, or classical distillation, is the process of separation process, separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by using selective boiling and condensation, usually inside an apparatus known as a still. Dry distilla ...
(i.e., concentrating by distillation)
ethanol Ethanol (abbr. EtOH; also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic compound. It is an Alcohol (chemistry), alcohol with the chemical formula . Its formula can be also written as or (an ethyl ...
produced by means of
fermenting Fermentation is a metabolism, metabolic process that produces chemical changes in organic Substrate (chemistry), substrates through the action of enzymes. In biochemistry, it is narrowly defined as the extraction of energy from carbohydrates in ...
grain, fruit, or vegetables. Unsweetened, distilled, alcoholic drinks that have an alcohol content of at least 20%
ABV Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol Ethanol (abbr. EtOH; also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic compound. It is ...
are called ''spirits''. For the most common distilled drinks, such as whiskey and vodka, the alcohol content is around 40%. The term ''hard liquor'' is used in
North America North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Car ...
to distinguish distilled drinks from undistilled ones (implicitly weaker).
Vodka Vodka ( pl, wódka , russian: водка , sv, vodka ) is a clear distilled beverage, distilled alcoholic beverage. Different varieties originated in Poland, Russia, and Sweden. Vodka is composed mainly of water and ethanol but sometimes with ...
,
gin Gin () is a distilled alcoholic drink that derives its flavour from juniper berries A juniper berry is the female seed cone produced by the various species of junipers. It is not a true berry, but a Galbulus, cone with unusually fleshy and ...
,
baijiu ''Baijiu'' (), also known as ''shaojiu'' (/), is a colorless Chinese liquor typically coming in between 35% and 60% alcohol by volume (ABV). Each type of baijiu uses its own type of ''qū'' for fermentation to create a distinct and characte ...
,
shōchū is a Japanese distilled beverage Liquor (or a spirit) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruits, vegetables, or sugar, that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation. Other terms for liquor include: sp ...
,
soju (; Hangul: ; Hanja: ) is a clear and colorless Korean distilled alcoholic beverage. It is usually consumed neat (bartending), neat. Its alcohol content varies from about 12.9% to 53% alcohol by volume (ABV), although since 2007 low alcoh ...
,
tequila Tequila (; ) is a liquor, distilled beverage made from the Agave tequilana, blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila, Jalisco, Tequila northwest of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Guadalajara, and in the Jaliscan Highlands ...
,
whiskey Whisky or whiskey is a type of liquor, distilled alcoholic beverage made from Fermentation in food processing, fermented grain mashing, mash. Various grains (which may be Malting, malted) are used for different varieties, including barley, Maize ...
,
brandy Brandy is a liquor produced by Distillation, distilling wine. Brandy generally contains 35–60% alcohol by volume (70–120 alcohol proof, US proof) and is typically consumed as an Apéritif and digestif, after-dinner digestif. Some brandies a ...
and
rum Rum is a liquor made by fermentation (food), fermenting and then distillation, distilling sugarcane molasses or sugarcane juice. The distillate, a clear liquid, is usually aged in oak barrels. Rum is produced in nearly every sugar-producing reg ...
are examples of distilled drinks. Distilling concentrates the alcohol and eliminates some of the congeners. Freeze distillation concentrates ethanol along with
methanol Methanol (also called methyl alcohol and wood spirit, amongst other names) is an organic chemical and the simplest aliphatic alcohol, with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group In organic chemistry, a methyl group is an alkyl derived from m ...
and
fusel alcohol Fusel alcohols or fuselol, also sometimes called fusel oils in Europe, are mixtures of several higher alcohols (those with more than two carbons, chiefly amyl alcohol) produced as a by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product de ...
s (fermentation by-products partially removed by distillation) in applejack.
Fortified wine Fortified wine is a wine to which a distilled spirit, usually brandy, has been added. In the course of some centuries, winemakers have developed many different styles of fortified wine, including Port wine, port, sherry, Madeira wine, madeira ...
is wine, such as
port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility comprising one or more Wharf, wharves or loading areas, where ships load and discharge Affreightment, cargo and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, ports can a ...
or
sherry Sherry ( es, jerez ) is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the city of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain. Sherry is produced in a variety of styles made primarily from the Palomino (grape), Palomino grape, rangin ...
, to which a distilled beverage (usually
brandy Brandy is a liquor produced by Distillation, distilling wine. Brandy generally contains 35–60% alcohol by volume (70–120 alcohol proof, US proof) and is typically consumed as an Apéritif and digestif, after-dinner digestif. Some brandies a ...
) has been added. Fortified wine is distinguished from spirits made from wine in that spirits are produced by means of
distillation Distillation, or classical distillation, is the process of separation process, separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by using selective boiling and condensation, usually inside an apparatus known as a still. Dry distilla ...
, while fortified wine is wine that has had a spirit added to it. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including
port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility comprising one or more Wharf, wharves or loading areas, where ships load and discharge Affreightment, cargo and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, ports can a ...
, sherry,
madeira ) , anthem = ( en, "Anthem of the Autonomous Region of Madeira") , song_type = Regional anthem , image_map=EU-Portugal_with_Madeira_circled.svg , map_alt=Location of Madeira , map_caption=Location of Madeira , subdivision_type=Sovereign st ...
,
marsala Marsala (, local ; la, Lilybaeum) is an Italian town located in the Province of Trapani in the westernmost part of Sicily. Marsala is the most populated town in its province and the fifth in Sicily. The town is famous for the docking of Gius ...
,
commandaria Commandaria (also called Commanderia and Coumadarka; el, κουμανδαρία, and Cypriot Greek Cypriot Greek ( el, κυπριακή ελληνική or ) is the Varieties of Modern Greek, variety of Modern Greek that is spoken by the maj ...
, and the aromatized wine
vermouth Vermouth (, ) is an aromatized wine, aromatized fortified wine, flavoured with various Botany, botanicals (roots, Bark (botany), barks, flowers, seeds, herbs, and spices) and sometimes colored. The modern versions of the beverage were first p ...
.


Rectified spirit

Rectified spirit Rectified spirit, also known as neutral spirits, rectified alcohol or ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin, is highly concentrated ethanol that has been purified by means of repeated distillation in a process called Distillation#Fractional distil ...
, also called "neutral grain spirit", is alcohol which has been purified by means of "rectification" (i.e. repeated distillation). The term ''neutral'' refers to the spirit's lack of flavor that would have been present if the mash ingredients had been distilled to a lower level of alcoholic purity. Rectified spirit also lacks any flavoring added to it after distillation (as is done, for example, with
gin Gin () is a distilled alcoholic drink that derives its flavour from juniper berries A juniper berry is the female seed cone produced by the various species of junipers. It is not a true berry, but a Galbulus, cone with unusually fleshy and ...
). Other kinds of spirits, such as
whiskey Whisky or whiskey is a type of liquor, distilled alcoholic beverage made from Fermentation in food processing, fermented grain mashing, mash. Various grains (which may be Malting, malted) are used for different varieties, including barley, Maize ...
, are distilled to a lower alcohol percentage to preserve the flavor of the mash. Rectified spirit is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid that may contain as much as 95%
ABV Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol Ethanol (abbr. EtOH; also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic compound. It is ...
. It is often used for medicinal purposes. It may be a grain spirit or it may be made from other plants. It is used in
mixed drinks A mixed drink is a beverage in which two or more ingredients are mixed. Types * List of non-alcoholic mixed drinks -- A non-alcoholic mixed drink (also known as virgin cocktail, boneless cocktail, temperance drink, or mocktail) is a cocktail- ...
,
liqueurs Liqueurs are alcoholic beverages that are bottled with added sugar and have added flavours that are usually derived from fruits, herbs, or nuts. Liqueurs are distinct from Eau de vie, eaux-de-vie, fruit brandy, and flavored liquors, which cont ...
, and
tincture A tincture is typically an extract of plant or animal material dissolution (chemistry), dissolved in ethanol (ethyl alcohol). Solvent concentrations of 25–60% are common, but may run as high as 90%.Groot Handboek Geneeskrachtige Planten by Ge ...
s, and also as a household
solvent A solvent (s) (from the Latin language, Latin ''wikt:solvo#Latin, solvō'', "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute, resulting in a Solution (chemistry), solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a ...
.


Congeners

In the alcoholic drinks industry, congeners are substances produced during
fermentation Fermentation is a metabolism, metabolic process that produces chemical changes in organic Substrate (chemistry), substrates through the action of enzymes. In biochemistry, it is narrowly defined as the extraction of energy from carbohydrates in ...
. These substances include small amounts of chemicals such as occasionally desired other alcohols, like
propanol There are two isomers of propanol. *1-Propanol, ''n''-propanol, or propan-1-ol : CH3CH2CH2OH, the most common meaning *2-Propanol, Isopropyl alcohol, isopropanol, or propan-2-ol : (CH3)2CHOH See also * Propanal