anti-German sentiment
   HOME

TheInfoList



OR:

Anti-German sentiment (also known as Anti-Germanism, Germanophobia or Teutophobia) is opposition to or fear of
Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated between ...

Germany
, its inhabitants, its
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior, institutions, and Social norm, norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the ...
, or its
language
language
. Its opposite is Germanophilia. Anti-German sentiment largely began with the mid-19th-century
unification of Germany The unification of Germany (, ) was the process of building the modern German nation state with federalism, federal features based on the concept of Lesser Germany (one without multinational Austria), which commenced on 18 August 1866 with ad ...
, which made the new nation a rival to the
great powers
great powers
of Europe on economic, cultural, geopolitical, and military grounds. However, the German atrocities during
World War I World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...

World War I
and
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
greatly strengthened anti-German sentiment.


Before 1914


United States

In the 19th century, the mass influx of German immigrants made them the largest group of Americans by ancestry today. This migration resulted in nativist reactionary movements not unlike those of the contemporary Western world. These would eventually culminate in 1844 with the establishment of the American Party, which had an openly xenophobic stance. One of many incidents described in a 19th century account included the blocking of a funeral procession in New York by a group who proceeded to hurl insults at the pallbearers. Incidents such as these led to more meetings of Germans who would eventually establish fraternal groups such as the
Sons of Hermann
Sons of Hermann
in 1840, having been founded as a means to "improve and foster German customs and the spread of benevolence among Germans in the United States".


Russia

In the 1860s, Russia experienced an outbreak of Germanophobia, mainly restricted to a small group of writers in
St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
who had united around a left-wing newspaper. It began in 1864 with the publication of an article by a writer (using the pseudonym "Shedoferotti") who proposed that
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces called Voivodeships of Poland, voivodeships, covering an area of . Poland has a population of over 38 million and is ...

Poland
be given autonomy and that the privileges of the Baltic German nobility in the Baltic governorates and
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia Russia (, , ), or the Ru ...

Finland
be preserved. Mikhail Katkov published a harsh criticism of the article in the '' Moscow News'', which in turn caused a flood of angry articles in which Russian writers expressed their irritation with Europeans, some of which featured direct attacks on Germans. The following year, 1865, the 100th anniversary of the death of
Mikhail Lomonosov
Mikhail Lomonosov
was marked throughout the Russian Empire. Articles were published mentioning the difficulties Lomonosov had encountered from the foreign members of the Russian Academy of Sciences, most of whom had been of German descent. The authors then criticized contemporary German scholars for their neglect of the Russian language and for printing articles in foreign languages while receiving funds from the Russian people. It was further suggested by some writers that Russian citizens of German origin who did not speak Russian and follow the Orthodox faith should be considered foreigners. It was also proposed that people of German descent be forbidden from holding diplomatic posts as they might not have "solidarity with respect to Russia". Despite the press campaign against Germans, Germanophobic feelings did not develop in Russia to any widespread extent, and died out, due to the Imperial family's German roots and the presence of many German names in the Russian political elite.


Great Britain

Negative comments about Germany had begun to appear in Britain in the 1870s, following the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870–71. The British war planners considered how to stop a possible invasion.


Fiction

Britain the island nation feared invasion, leading to the popularity of the invasion novel. According to Alfred Vagts " The Battle of Dorking":
appeared first in ''Blackwood's Magazine'' in the summer of 1871, at a time when the German Crown Prince and his English wife he daughter of Queen Victoriawere visiting England. Impressed by the late German victories, the author, a Colonel Chesney, who remained anonymous for some time, told the story of how England, in 1875, would be induced by an insurrection of the natives in India, disturbances in Ireland, and a conflict with the United States threatening Canadian security, to employ her navy and standing army far from her own shores; in spite of this dangerous position England, on account of a quarrel with Germany over Denmark, would declare war on Germany. The latter would land an army in England which would conquer the remaining parts of the British army and the Volunteers, who would join it at Dorking, and would force upon England a disastrous peace.
Newspaper publisher Lord
Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe
Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe
in 1894 commissioned author William Le Queux to write the serial novel '' The Great War in England in 1897'', which featured France and Russia combining forces to crush Britain. Happily German intervention on Britain's side turned back France and Russia. Twelve years later, however, Harmsworth asked him to reverse enemies, making Germany the villain. The result was the bestselling '' The Invasion of 1910'', which originally appeared in serial form in the '' Daily Mail'' in 1906. Harmsworth now used his newspapers like "Daily Mail" or "The Times" to attack Berlin, inducing an atmosphere of paranoia, mass hysteria and Germanophobia that would climax in the Naval Scare of 1908–09.


"Made in Germany" as a warning label

German food such as the sausage was deprecated by Germanophobes. In the late 19th century, the label '' Made in Germany'' was introduced. The label was originally introduced in Britain by the '' Merchandise Marks Act 1887'', to mark foreign produce more obviously, as foreign manufactures had been falsely marking inferior goods with the marks of renowned British manufacturing companies and importing them into the United Kingdom. Most of these were found to be originating from Germany, whose government had introduced a protectionist policy to legally prohibit the import of goods in order to build up domestic industry (Merchandise Marks Act - Oxford University Press).


German immigrants

In the 1890s, German immigrants in Britain were the target of "some hostility". Joseph Bannister believed that German residents in Britain were mostly "gambling-house keepers, hotel-porters, barbers, 'bullies', runaway conscripts, bath-attendants, street musicians, criminals, bakers, socialists, cheap clerks, etc". Interviewees for the Royal Commission on Alien Immigration believed that Germans were involved in prostitution and burglary, and many people also viewed Germans working in Britain as threatening the livelihood of Britons by being willing to work for longer hours.


=South Africa

= Anti-German hostility deepened since early 1896 after the Kruger telegram of
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Kaiser Wilhelm II
, in which he congratulated
President Kruger
President Kruger
of the Transvaal on repelling the British Jameson Raid. Attacks on Germans in London were reported in the German press at the time but do not appear to have actually occurred. The '' Saturday Review'' suggested "be ready to fight Germany, as ''Germania delenda est''" ("Germany is to be destroyed"), a reference to the coda against the Carthaginians used by Cato the Elder during the Roman Republic. The Kaiser's reputation was further degraded by his angry tirade and the Daily Telegraph Affair.


1900-1914

Following the signing of the Entente Cordiale alliance in 1904 between Britain and France, official relationships cooled as did popular attitudes towards Germany and German residents in Britain. A fear of German militarism replaced a previous admiration for German culture and literature. At the same time, journalists produced a stream of articles on the threat posed by Germany. In the Daily Telegraph Affair of 1908–1909, the Kaiser--although he was a grandson of Queen Victoria-- humiliated himself and further soured relations by his intemperate attacks on Britain. Articles in Harmsworth's ''Daily Mail'' regularly advocated anti-German sentiments throughout the 20th century, telling their readers to refuse service at restaurants by Austrian or German waiters on the claim that they were spies and told them that if a German-sounding waiter claimed to be Swiss that they should demand to see the waiter's passport. In 1903, Erskine Childers published ''The Riddle of the Sands: A Record of Secret Service'' a novel in which two Englishmen uncover a plot by Germany to Invade England; it was later made into a 1979 film The Riddle of the Sands. At the same time, conspiracy theories were concocted combining Germanophobia with antisemitism, concerning the supposed foreign control of Britain, some of which blamed Britain's entry into the Second Boer War on international financiers "chiefly German in origin and Jewish in race". Most of these ideas about German-Jewish conspiracies originated from right-wing figures such as Arnold White,
Hilaire Belloc
Hilaire Belloc
, and Leo Maxse, the latter using his publication the '' National Review'' to spread them.


First World War

In 1914, when Germany invaded neutral Belgium and northern France, its army officers accused many thousands of Belgian and French civilians of being
francs-tireurs
francs-tireurs
and executed 6,500 of them. These acts were used to encourage anti-German sentiments and the Allied Powers produced propaganda depicting Germans as ''
Huns The Huns were a Nomad, nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that wa ...
'' capable of infinite cruelty and violence.


Great Britain

In Great Britain, anti-German feeling led to infrequent rioting, assaults on suspected Germans and the looting of stores owned by people with German-sounding names, occasionally even taking on an
antisemitic Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice towards, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is considered to be a form of racism. Antis ...
tone. Increasing anti-German hysteria even threw suspicion upon the British royal family.
King George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until Death and state funeral of George V, his death in 1936. Born duri ...
was persuaded to change his German name of
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (german: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha), or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (german: Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha, links=no ), was an Ernestine duchies, Ernestine, Thuringian states, Thuringian duchy ruled by a branch of the House of Wettin, consi ...
to Windsor and relinquish all German titles and styles on behalf of his relatives who were British subjects.
Prince Louis of Battenberg Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy), Admiral of the Fleet Louis Alexander Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Milford Haven, (24 May 185411 September 1921), formerly Prince Louis Alexander of Battenberg, was a British naval officer and German prince re ...
was not only forced to change his name to Mountbatten, he was forced to resign as First Sea Lord, the most senior position in the Royal Navy. The
German Shepherd The German Shepherd or Alsatian is a German dog breed, breed of working dog of medium to large size. The breed was developed by Max von Stephanitz using various Old German herding dogs, traditional German herding dogs from 1899. It was origi ...
breed of dog was renamed to the euphemistic "Alsatian"; the English Kennel Club only re-authorised the use of 'German Shepherd' as an official name in 1977. The German biscuit was re-named the Empire biscuit. Several streets in London which had been named after places in Germany or notable Germans had their names changed. For instance, ''Berlin Road'' in
Catford Catford is a district in south east London London is the capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million. It stands on the River Thames i ...
was renamed ''Canadian Avenue'', and ''Bismarck Road'' in
Islington Islington () is a district in the north of Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington. It is a mainly residential district of Inner London, extending from Islington's Islington#Islington High Street, High Street to Hig ...
was renamed ''Waterlow Road''. Attitudes to Germany were not entirely negative among British troops fighting on the Western Front; the British writer Nicholas Shakespeare quotes this statement from a letter written by his grandfather during the First World War in which he says he would rather fight the French and describes German bravery:
Robert Graves Captain Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was a British poet, historical novels, historical novelist and critic. His father was Alfred Perceval Graves, a celebrated Irish poet and figure in the Gaelic revival; they ...
who, like the King, also had German relatives, wrote shortly after the war during his time at
Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2020, its population was estimated at 151,584. It is north-west of London, south-east of Birmingham and north-east of Bristol. The city is home to the Un ...
as an undergraduate that:


Canada

In Canada, there was some anti-German sentiment in Germanic communities, including Berlin, Ontario (
Kitchener, Ontario ) , image_flag = Flag of Kitchener, Ontario.svg , image_seal = Seal of Kitchener, Canada.svg , image_shield=Coat of arms of Kitchener, Canada.svg , image_blank_emblem = Logo of Kitchener, Ontario.svg , blank_emblem_type = ...
) in
Waterloo County, Ontario Waterloo County was a List of counties in Ontario, county in the Canadian province of Ontario from 1853 until 1973. It was the direct predecessor of the Regional Municipality of Waterloo. Situated on a subset of land within the Haldimand Tract, ...
, before and the
First World War World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
and some cultural sanctions. There were anti-German riots in
Victoria, British Columbia Victoria is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of British Columbia, on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific Ocean, Pacific coast. The city has a population of 91,867, and the Gre ...
, and
Calgary Calgary ( ) is the largest city in the western provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Alberta and the largest metro area of the three Canadian Prairies, Prairie Provinces. As of 2021, the city proper had a population of 1,30 ...
,
Alberta Alberta ( ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada, provinces and territories of Canada. It is part of Western Canada and is one of the three Canadian Prairies, prairie provinces. Alberta is bordered by British Columbia to t ...
, in the first years of the war. It was this anti-German sentiment that precipitated the
Berlin to Kitchener name change The city of Berlin, Ontario, changed its name to Kitchener, Ontario, Kitchener by referendum in May and June 1916. Named in 1833 after the Berlin, capital of Prussia and later the German Empire, the name Berlin became unsavoury for residents a ...
in 1916. The city was named after Lord Kitchener, famously pictured on the " Lord Kitchener Wants You" recruiting posters. Several streets in Toronto that had previously been named for Liszt, Humboldt, Schiller, Bismarck, etc., were changed to names with strong British associations, such as Balmoral. The Governor General of Canada, the Duke of Connaught, while visiting Berlin, Ontario, in May 1914, had discussed the importance of Canadians of German ethnicity (regardless of their origin) in a speech: "It is of great interest to me that many of the citizens of Berlin are of German descent. I well know the admirable qualities – the thoroughness, the tenacity, and the loyalty of the great Teutonic Race, to which I am so closely related. I am sure that these inherited qualities will go far in the making of good Canadians and loyal citizens of the British Empire". Some immigrants from Germany who considered themselves Canadians but were not yet citizens, were detained in internment camps during the War. In fact, by 1919 most of the population of Kitchener, Waterloo, and Elmira in
Waterloo County, Ontario Waterloo County was a List of counties in Ontario, county in the Canadian province of Ontario from 1853 until 1973. It was the direct predecessor of the Regional Municipality of Waterloo. Situated on a subset of land within the Haldimand Tract, ...
, were Canadian. The German-speaking Mennonites were pacifist so they could not enlist and the few who had immigrated from Germany (not born in Canada) could not morally fight against a country that was a significant part of their heritage. News reports during the war years indicate that "A Lutheran minister was pulled out of his house ... he was dragged through the streets. German clubs were ransacked through the course of the war. It was just a really nasty time period." Someone stole the bust of Kaiser
Wilhelm II Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (german: Kaiser) and List of monarchs of Prussia, King of Prussia, reigning from 15 June 1888 until Abdication of Wilhelm II, his abdication on 9 ...
from Victoria Park and dumped it into a lake; soldiers vandalized German stores. History professor Mark Humphries summarized the situation: A document in the Archives of Canada makes the following comment: "Although ludicrous to modern eyes, the whole issue of a name for Berlin highlights the effects that fear, hatred and nationalism can have upon a society in the face of war." Internment camps across Canada opened in 1915 and 8,579 "enemy aliens" were held there until the end of the war; many were German speaking immigrants from Austria, Hungary, Germany, and Ukraine. Only 3,138 were classed as prisoners of war; the rest were civilians. Built in 1926, the Waterloo Pioneer Memorial Tower in rural Kitchener, Ontario, commemorates the settlement by the
Pennsylvania Dutch The Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsylvania Dutch language, Pennsylvania Dutch: ), also known as Pennsylvania Germans, are a cultural group formed by Germans, German immigrants who settled in Pennsylvania during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. They ...
(actually ''Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch'' or ''German'') of the Grand River area in the 1800s in what later became
Waterloo County, Ontario Waterloo County was a List of counties in Ontario, county in the Canadian province of Ontario from 1853 until 1973. It was the direct predecessor of the Regional Municipality of Waterloo. Situated on a subset of land within the Haldimand Tract, ...
.


Australia

In Australia, an official proclamation of 10 August 1914 required all German citizens to register their domiciles at the nearest police station and to notify authorities of any change of address. Under the later Aliens Restriction Order of 27 May 1915, enemy aliens who had not been interned had to report to the police once a week and could only change address with official permission. An amendment to the Restriction Order in July 1915 prohibited enemy aliens and naturalized subjects from changing their name or the name of any business they ran. Under the War Precautions Act of 1914 (which survived the First World War), publication of German language material was prohibited and schools attached to
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism, identifying primarily with the theology of Martin Luther, the 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Cathol ...
churches were forced to abandon German as the language of teaching or were closed by the authorities. German clubs and associations were also closed. The original German names of settlements and streets were officially changed. In
South Australia South Australia (commonly abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest o ...
, ''Grunthal'' became ''
Verdun Verdun (, , , ; official name before 1970 ''Verdun-sur-Meuse'') is a large city in the Meuse (department), Meuse departments of France, department in Grand Est, northeastern France. It is an arrondissement of the department. Verdun is the b ...
'' and ''Krichauff'' became ''Beatty''. In
New South Wales ) , nickname = , image_map = New South Wales in Australia.svg , map_caption = Location of New South Wales in AustraliaCoordinates: , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = Australia , established_title = Before federation , es ...
''Germantown'' became '' Holbrook'' after the submarine commander
Norman Douglas Holbrook Commander Norman Douglas Holbrook Victoria Cross, VC (9 July 1888 – 3 July 1976) was a British naval recipient of the Victoria Cross (VC), the highest award of the British honours system. Holbrook was the first submariner to be awarded the VC an ...
. This pressure was strongest in
South Australia South Australia (commonly abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest o ...
where 69 towns changed their names, including Petersburg, South Australia, which became
Peterborough Peterborough () is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, east of England. It is the largest part of the City of Peterborough unitary authority district (which covers a larger area than Peterborough itself). It wa ...
(see
Australian place names changed from German names During World War I World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europ ...
). Most of the anti-German feeling was created by the press that tried to create the idea that all those of German birth or descent supported Germany uncritically. This is despite many Germans and offspring such as Gen.
John Monash General (Australia), General Sir John Monash, (; 27 June 1865 – 8 October 1931) was an Australian civil engineer and military commander of the First World War. He commanded the 13th Brigade (Australia), 13th Infantry Brigade before the war an ...
serving Australia capably and honorably. A booklet circulated widely in 1915 claimed that "there were over 3,000 German spies scattered throughout the states". Anti-German propaganda was also inspired by several local and foreign companies who were keen to take the opportunity to eliminate Germany as a competitor in the Australian market. Germans in Australia were increasingly portrayed as evil by the very nature of their origins.


United States

After the revelation of the Zimmermann Telegram partly sparked the American declaration of war against Imperial Germany in April 1917, German Americans were sometimes accused of being too sympathetic to Germany. Former president
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ( ; October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or by his initials, T. R., was an American politician, statesman, soldier, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26t ...
denounced " hyphenated Americanism", insisting that dual loyalties were impossible in wartime. A small minority of Americans, usually of
German-American German Americans (german: Deutschamerikaner, ) are Americans who have full or partial Germans, German ancestry. With an estimated size of approximately 43 million in 2019, German Americans are the largest of the self-reported ancestry groups by ...
descent, came out for Germany. Similarly, Harvard psychology professor Hugo Münsterberg dropped his efforts to mediate between America and Germany, and threw his efforts behind the German cause. The Justice Department attempted to prepare a list of all German aliens, counting approximately 480,000 of them, more than 4,000 of whom were imprisoned in 1917–18. The allegations included spying for Germany, or endorsing the German war effort. Thousands were forced to buy war bonds to show their loyalty. The
Red Cross The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is a Humanitarianism, humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million Volunteering, volunteers, members and staff worldwide. It was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure re ...
barred individuals with German last names from joining in fear of sabotage. One person was killed by a mob; in
Collinsville, Illinois Collinsville is a city located mainly in Madison County, Illinois, Madison County, and partially in St. Clair County, Illinois, St. Clair County, Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 25,579, an increase from 24,707 in 2000 ...
, German-born Robert Prager was dragged from jail as a suspected spy and lynched. When the United States entered the war in 1917, some German Americans were looked upon with suspicion and attacked regarding their loyalty. Some aliens were convicted and imprisoned on charges of sedition, for refusing to swear allegiance to the United States war effort. In
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive Map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = List of sovereign states, Count ...
, Frederick Stock was forced to step down as conductor of the
Chicago Symphony Orchestra The Chicago Symphony Orchestra (CSO) was founded by Theodore Thomas (conductor), Theodore Thomas in 1891. The ensemble makes its home at Symphony Center, Orchestra Hall in Chicago and plays a summer season at the Ravinia Festival. The music dir ...
until he finalized his naturalization papers. Orchestras replaced music by German composer
Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( ; ; 22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his mature works were later known, "music dramas"). Unlike most op ...
with French composer Berlioz. In
Nashville, Tennessee Nashville is the capital city of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the county seat, seat of Davidson County, Tennessee, Davidson County. With a population of 689,447 at the 2020 United States census, 2020 U.S. census, Nashville is the List of muni ...
, Luke Lea, the publisher of ''
The Tennessean ''The Tennessean'' (known until 1972 as ''The Nashville Tennessean'') is a daily newspaper in Nashville, Tennessee. Its circulation area covers 39 counties in Middle Tennessee and eight counties in southern Kentucky. It is owned by Gannett, w ...
'', together with "political associates", "conspired unsuccessfully to have the German-born Major Stahlman declared an "alien enemy" after
World War I World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...

World War I
began." Stahlman was the publisher of a competing newspaper, the ''
Nashville Banner The ''Nashville Banner'' is a defunct daily newspaper of Nashville, Tennessee, United States, which published from April 10, 1876 until February 20, 1998. The ''Banner'' was published each Monday through Friday afternoon (as well as Saturdays unti ...
''. The town, Berlin, Michigan, was renamed Marne, Michigan (in honor of those who fought in the Battle of the Marne). The town of Berlin, Shelby County Ohio changed its name to its original name of Fort Loramie, Ohio. The city of Germantown in Shelby County
Tennessee Tennessee ( , ), officially the State of Tennessee, is a landlocked state in the Southeastern region of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is ...
temporarily changed its name to Neshoba during the war. In
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Philadelphia, often called Philly, is the List of municipalities in Pennsylvania#Municipalities, largest city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the List of United States cities by population, sixth-largest city i ...
, the offices of a pro-German, Socialist newspaper, the Philadelphia Tageblatt, were visited by federal agents after war broke out to investigate the citizenship status of its staff and would later be raided by federal agents under the powers of the
Espionage Act of 1917 The Espionage Act of 1917 is a Law of the United States, United States federal law enacted on June 15, 1917, shortly after the United States entered World War I. It has been amended numerous times over the years. It was originally found in Title ...
, and six members of its organization would eventually be arrested for violations of the Espionage Act among other charges after publishing a number of pieces of pro-German propaganda. German street names in many cities were changed. German and Berlin streets in Cincinnati became English and Woodward.Kathleen Doane
"Anti-German hysteria swept Cincinnati in 1917"
. ''The Cincinnati Enquirer'', 6 June 2012. Accessed 15 February 2013.
In Chicago Lubeck, Frankfort, and Hamburg Streets were renamed Dickens, Charleston, and Shakespeare Streets.Jack Simpson
"German Street Name Changes in Bucktown, Part I"
Newberry Library.
In New Orleans, Berlin Street was renamed in honor of General Pershing, head of the American Expeditionary Force. In Indianapolis, Bismarck Avenue and
Germania Germania ( ; ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: ''Free Germania''), or Germanic Barbaricum to distinguish it from the Roman province of the same name, was a large historical region in nort ...
Street were renamed Pershing Avenue and Belleview Street, respectively in 1917, Brooklyn’s Hamburg Avenue was renamed Wilson Avenue. Many businesses changed their names. In Chicago, German Hospital became Grant Hospital; likewise the German Dispensary and the German Hospital in New York City were renamed
Lenox Hill Hospital Lenox Hill Hospital (LHH) is a nationally ranked 450-bed non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO) or non-profit organisation, also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity o ...
and Wyckoff Heights Hospital respectively. In New York, the giant Germania Life Insurance Company became
Guardian Guardian usually refers to: * Legal guardian, a person with the authority and duty to care for the interests of another * ''The Guardian'', a British daily newspaper (The) Guardian(s) may also refer to: Places * Guardian, West Virginia, Unite ...
. At the US Customs House in Lower Manhattan, the word "Germany" which was on a shield that one of the building’s many figures was holding was chiseled over. Many schools stopped teaching German-language classes. The City College of New York continued to teach German courses, but reduced the number of credits that students could receive for them. Books published in German were removed from libraries or even burned. In
Cincinnati Cincinnati ( ) is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Hamilton County, Ohio, Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking River (Kentucky), Licking and Ohio Rive ...
, the public library was asked to withdraw all German books from its shelves. In Iowa, in the 1918 Babel Proclamation, the governor of Iowa, William L. Harding, prohibited the use of all foreign languages in schools and public places. Nebraska banned instruction in any language except English, but the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the ban was illegal in 1923 ('' Meyer v. Nebraska''). Some words of German origin were changed, at least temporarily.
Sauerkraut Sauerkraut (; , "sour cabbage") is finely cut raw cabbage that has been Lactic acid fermentation, fermented by various lactic acid bacteria. It has a long shelf life and a distinctive Sourness, sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic ...
came to be called "liberty cabbage",
German measles Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection An infection is the invasion of tissue (biology), tissues by pathogens, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the infectious ag ...
became "liberty measles",
hamburger A hamburger, or simply burger, is a food consisting of fillings—usually a patty of ground meat, typically Ground beef, beef—placed inside a sliced bun or bread roll. Hamburgers are often served with cheese, lettuce, tomato, onion, pickles ...
s became "liberty sandwiches" and
dachshund The dachshund ( or ; German: "badger dog"), also known as the wiener dog, badger dog, and sausage dog, is a short-legged, long-bodied, hound-type dog breed. The dog may be smooth-haired, wire-haired, or long-haired, and comes in a variety of c ...
s became "liberty pups". In parallel with these changes, many
German Americans German Americans (german: Deutschamerikaner, ) are Americans who have full or partial Germans, German ancestry. With an estimated size of approximately 43 million in 2019, German Americans are the largest of the self-reported ancestry groups by ...
elected to anglicize their names (e.g. Schmidt to Smith, Müller to Miller) and limit the use of the German language in public places, especially in churches. Ethnic German Medal of Honor winners were American USAAS ace pilots Edward Rickenbacker and
Frank Luke Frank Luke Jr. (May 19, 1897 – September 29, 1918) was an American fighter ace credited with 19 aerial victories, ranking him second among United States Army Air Service pilots after Captain Eddie Rickenbacker during World War I. Luke was t ...
; German-ethnicity DSC winners who also served with the USAAS in Europe included Joseph Frank Wehner and Karl John Schoen.


Second World War


United Kingdom

In 1940, the Ministry of Information launched an "Anger Campaign" to instill "personal anger ... against the German people and Germany", because the British were "harbouring little sense of real personal animus against the average German". This was done to strengthen British resolve against the Germans. Sir Robert Vansittart, the
Foreign Office Foreign may refer to: Government * Foreign policy A State (polity), state's foreign policy or external policy (as opposed to internal or domestic policy) is its objectives and activities in relation to its interactions with other states, unio ...
's chief diplomatic advisor until 1941, gave a series of radio broadcasts in which he said that Germany was a nation raised on "envy, self-pity and cruelty" whose historical development had "prepared the ground for Nazism" and that it was
Nazism Nazism ( ; german: Nazismus), the common name in English for National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the far-right politics, far-right Totalitarianism, totalitarian political ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hit ...
that had "finally given expression to the blackness of the German soul". The British Institute of Public Opinion (BIPO) tracked the evolution of anti-German/anti-Nazi feeling in Britain, asking the public, via a series of opinion polls conducted from 1939 to 1943, whether "the chief enemy of Britain was the German people or the Nazi government". In 1939, only 6% of respondents held the German people responsible; however, following
the Blitz The Blitz was a German bombing campaign against the United Kingdom in 1940 and 1941, during the World War II, Second World War. The term was first used by the British press and originated from the term , the German word meaning 'lightning wa ...
and the "Anger Campaign" in 1940, this increased to 50%. This subsequently declined to 41% by 1943. It also was reported by Home Intelligence in 1942 that there was some criticism of the official attitude of hatred towards Germany on the grounds that such hatred might hinder the possibility of a reasonable settlement following the war. This attitude was expanded upon by J.R.R. Tolkien. In 1944, he wrote in a letter to his son Christopher:
is distressing to see the press grovelling in the gutter as low as Goebbels in his prime, shrieking that any German commander who holds out in a desperate situation (when, too, the military needs of his side clearly benefit) is a drunkard, and a besotted fanatic. ... There was a solemn article in the local paper seriously advocating systematic exterminating of the entire German nation as the only proper course after military victory: because, if you please, they are
rattlesnake Rattlesnakes are venomous snakes that form the genus, genera ''Crotalus'' and ''Sistrurus'' of the subfamily Crotalinae (the pit vipers). All rattlesnakes are vipers. Rattlesnakes are predators that live in a wide array of habitats, hunting smal ...
s, and don't know the difference between good and evil! (What of the writer?) The Germans have just as much right to declare the
Poles Poles,, ; singular masculine: ''Polak'', singular feminine: ''Polka'' or Polish people, are a West Slavs, West Slavic nation and ethnic group, who share a common History of Poland, history, Culture of Poland, culture, the Polish language and ...
and Jews exterminable vermin, subhuman, as we have to select the Germans: in other words, no right, whatever they have done.
In the same year Mass Observation asked its observers to analyse the British people's private opinions of the German people and it found that 54% of the British population was "pro-German", in that it expressed sympathy for the German people and stated that the war was "not their fault". This tolerance of the German people as opposed to the Nazi regime increased as the war progressed. In 1943, Mass Observation established the fact that up to 60% of the British people maintained a distinction between Germans and Nazis, with only 20% or so expressing any "hatred, vindictiveness, or need for retribution". The British film propaganda of the period similarly maintained the division between Nazi supporters and the German people.


United States in World War II

Between 1931 and 1940, 114,000 Germans and thousands of Austrians moved to the United States, many of whomincluding, e.g., Nobel prize winner
Albert Einstein Albert Einstein ( ; ; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born Theoretical physics, theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest and most influential physicists of all time. Einstein is best known for d ...
,
Lion Feuchtwanger Lion Feuchtwanger (; 7 July 1884 – 21 December 1958) was a German Jewish novelist and playwright. A prominent figure in the literary world of Weimar Germany, he influenced contemporaries including playwright Bertolt Brecht. Feuchtwanger's ...
,
Bertold Brecht Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht (10 February 1898 – 14 August 1956), known professionally as Bertolt Brecht, was a German theatre practitioner, playwright, and poet. Coming of age during the Weimar Republic, he had his first successes as a pl ...
,
Henry Kissinger Henry Alfred Kissinger (; ; born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, diplomat, and Geopolitics, geopolitical consultant who served as United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor (Unit ...
, Arnold Schönberg,
Hanns Eisler Hanns Eisler (6 July 1898 – 6 September 1962) was an Austrian composer (his father was Austrian, and Eisler fought in a Hungarian regiment in World War I). He is best known for composing the Auferstanden aus Ruinen, national anthem of East Germ ...
and
Thomas Mann Paul Thomas Mann ( , ; ; 6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate. His highly symbolic and ironic epic novels and novella ...
were either Jewish Germans or anti-Nazis who were fleeing Nazi oppression. About 25,000 people became paying members of the pro-Nazi German American Bund during the years before the war. The Alien Registration Act of 1940 required 300,000 German-born resident aliens who had German citizenship to register with the Federal government and restricted their travel and property ownership rights. Under the still active Alien Enemy Act of 1798, the United States government interned nearly 11,000 German citizens between 1940 and 1948. An unknown number of "voluntary internees" joined their spouses and parents in the camps and were not permitted to leave. With the war ongoing in Europe but the U.S. neutral, a massive defense buildup took place, requiring many new hires. Private companies sometimes refused to hire any non-citizen, or American citizens of German or Italian ancestry. This threatened the morale of loyal Americans. President Franklin Roosevelt considered this "stupid" and "unjust". In June 1941, he issued Executive Order 8802 and set up the Fair Employment Practice Committee, which also protected Black Americans. President Roosevelt sought out Americans of German ancestry for top war jobs, including General
Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (born David Dwight Eisenhower; ; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American military officer and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, ...
, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, and General Carl Andrew Spaatz. He appointed Republican
Wendell Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (born Lewis Wendell Willkie; February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was an American lawyer, corporate executive and the 1940 History of the United States Republican Party, Republican nominee for President of the United State ...
as a personal representative. German Americans who had fluent German language skills were an important asset to wartime intelligence, and they served as translators and as spies for the United States. The war evoked strong pro-American patriotic sentiments among German Americans, few of whom by then had contacts with distant relatives in the old country. The October 1939 seizure by the German
pocket battleship The ''Deutschland'' class was a series of three ''Panzerschiffe'' (armored ships), a form of heavily armed cruiser, built by the ''Reichsmarine'' officially in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. The ships of the cl ...
''
Deutschland Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the List of European countries by population, second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the Eur ...
'' of the US freighter SS ''City of Flint'', as it had 4000 tons of oil for Britain on board, provoked much anti-German sentiment in the US. Following its entry into the War against Nazi Germany on 11 December 1941, the US Government interned a number of German and Italian citizens as enemy aliens. The exact number of German and Italian internees is a subject of debate. In some cases their American-born family members volunteered to accompany them to internment camps in order to keep the family unit together. The last to be released remained in custody until 1948. In 1944, Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr. put forward the strongest proposal for punishing Germany to the
Second Quebec Conference image:Eleanor Roosevelt in Canada 1944.gif, Eleanor Roosevelt, Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, Princess Alice, and Clementine Churchill during the conference. The Second Quebec Conference (codenamed "OCTAGON") was a high-level military conf ...
. It became known as the
Morgenthau Plan The Morgenthau Plan was a proposal to eliminate Germany following World War II and eliminating its arms industry and removing or destroying other key industries basic to military strength. This included the removal or destruction of all industri ...
, and was intended to prevent Germany from having the industrial base to start another world war. However this plan was shelved quickly, the Western Allies did not seek reparations for war damage, and the United States implemented the
Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative enacted in 1948 to provide foreign aid to Western Europe. The United States transferred over $13 billion (equivalent of about $ in ) in economic re ...
that was intended to and did help West Germany's post war recovery to its former position as a pre-eminent industrial nation.


Brazil

After Brazil's entry into the war on the Allied side in 1942, anti-German riots broke out in nearly every city in Brazil in which Germans were not the majority population. German factories, including the Suerdieck cigar factory in
Bahia Bahia ( , , ; meaning "bay") is one of the 26 Federative units of Brazil, states of Brazil, located in the Northeast Region, Brazil, Northeast Region of the country. It is the fourth-largest Brazilian state by population (after São Paulo (sta ...
, shops, and hotels were destroyed by mobs. The largest demonstrations took place in
Porto Alegre Porto Alegre (, , Brazilian ; ) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Its population of 1,488,252 inhabitants (2020) makes it the List of largest cities in Brazil, twelfth most populous city in the country ...
in
Rio Grande do Sul Rio Grande do Sul (, , ; "Great River of the South") is a Federative units of Brazil, state in the South Region, Brazil, southern region of Brazil. It is the Federative_units_of_Brazil#List, fifth-most-populous state and the List of Brazilian st ...
. Brazilian police persecuted and interned "subjects of the Axis powers" in internment camps similar to those used by the US to intern Japanese-Americans. Following the war, German schools were not reopened, the German-language press disappeared completely, and use of the German language became restricted to the home and the older generation of immigrants.


Canada

There was also anti-German sentiment in Canada during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
. Under the
War Measures Act The ''War Measures Act'' (french: Loi sur les mesures de guerre; 5 George V, Chap. 2) was a statute of the Parliament of Canada that provided for the declaration of war, invasion, or insurrection, and the types of emergency measures that could t ...
, some 26 POW camps opened and were filled with those who had been born in Germany, Italy, and particularly in Japan, if they were deemed to be "enemy aliens". For Germans, this applied especially to single males who had some association with the Nazi Party of Canada. No compensation was paid to them after the war. In Ontario, the largest internment centre for German Canadians was at
Camp Petawawa Garrison Petawawa is located in Petawawa, Ontario. It is operated as an army base by the Canadian Army. Garrison facts The Garrison is located in the Ottawa Valley in Renfrew County, Ontario, Renfrew County, northwest of Ottawa along the we ...
, housing 750 who had been born in Germany and Austria. Although some residents of internment camps were Germans who had already immigrated to Canada, the majority of Germans in such camps were from Europe; most were prisoners of war.


Soviet Union

On 25 July 1937, NKVD Order No. 00439 led to the arrest of 55,005 German citizens and former citizens in the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a List of former transcontinental countries#Since 1700, transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. A flagship communist state, ...
, of whom 41,898 were sentenced to death."Foreigners in GULAG: Soviet Repressions of Foreign Citizens"
by
Pavel Polian Pavel Markovich Polian, pseudonym: Pavel Nerler (russian: Павел Маркович Полян; born 31 August 1952) is a Russian geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist or humanist whose area of study is geograph ...
*English language version (shortened): P.Polian. Soviet Repression of Foreigners: The Great Terror, the GULAG, Deportations, Annali. Anno Trentasttesimo, 2001. Feltrinelli Editore Milano, 2003. – P.61-104
Later during the war Germans were suggested to be used for forced labour. The Soviet Union began deporting ethnic Germans in their territories and using them for forced labour. Although by the end of 1955, they had been acquitted of criminal accusations, no rights to return to their former home regions were granted, nor were the former self-determination rights returned to them.


Postwar

In state-sponsored genocides, millions of people were murdered by Germans during World War II. That turned families and friends of the victims anti-German. American General George S. Patton complained that the US policy of
denazification Denazification (german: link=yes, Entnazifizierung) was an Allies of World War II, Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of the Nazism, Nazi ideology following the Second World W ...
following Germany's surrender harmed American interests and was motivated simply by hatred of the defeated German people. Even the speed of
West German West Germany is the colloquial term used to indicate the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; german: Bundesrepublik Deutschland , BRD) between its formation on 23 May 1949 and the German reunification through the accession of East Germany on 3 O ...
recovery following the war was seen as ominous by some, who suspected the Germans of planning for
World War III World War III or the Third World War, often abbreviated as WWIII or WW3, are names given to a hypothetical worldwide large-scale military conflict subsequent to World War I World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), of ...
. In reality, most Nazi criminals were unpunished, such as Heinz Reinefarth, who was responsible for the
Wola massacre The Wola massacre ( pl, Rzeź Woli, lit=Wola slaughter) was the systematic killing of between 40,000 and 50,000 Poles in the Wola neighbourhood of the Poland, Polish capital city, Warsaw, by the Nazi Germany, German Wehrmacht and fellow Axis po ...
. Many Nazis worked for the Americans as scientists (
Wernher von Braun Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun ( , ; 23 March 191216 June 1977) was a German and American aerospace engineering, aerospace engineer and space architecture, space architect. He was a member of the Nazi Party and Allgemeine SS, as ...
) or intelligence officers (
Reinhard Gehlen Reinhard Gehlen (3 April 1902 – 8 June 1979) was a German lieutenant-general Lieutenant general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star rank, three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origin ...
).


Nakam

Nakam was a group of about fifty Holocaust survivors that in 1945 sought to kill Germans and Nazis in revenge for the murder of six million Jews during the Holocaust.


Flight and expulsion of Germans

After WWII ended, about 11 million to 12 millionJürgen Weber, Germany, 1945–1990: A Parallel History, Central European University Press, 2004, p.2, Peter H. Schuck, Rainer Münz, Paths to Inclusion: The Integration of Migrants in the United States and Germany, Berghahn Books, 1997, p.156, Germans fled or were expelled from Germany's former eastern provinces or migrated from other countries to what remained of Germany, the largest transfer of a single European population in
modern history The term modern period or modern era (sometimes also called modern history or modern times) is the period of history that succeeds the Middle Ages (which ended approximately 1500 AD). This terminology is a historical periodization that is applie ...
.Arie Marcelo Kacowicz, Pawel Lutomski, Population resettlement in international conflicts: a comparative study, Lexington Books, 2007, p.100, : "... largest movement of European people in modern history

/ref> Estimates of the total number of dead range from 500,000 to 2,000,000, and the higher figures include "unsolved cases" of persons reported missing and presumed dead. Many German civilians were sent to internment and labor camps, where they died. Salomon Morel and Czesław Gęborski were the commanders of several camps for Germans, Poles and Ukrainians. The German-Czech Historians Commission, on the other hand, established a death toll for Czechoslovakia of 15,000–30,000. The events are usually classified as
population transfer Population transfer or resettlement is a type of mass migration, often imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity An ethnic group or an ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity ( ...
, or
ethnic cleansing Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic, racial, and religious groups from a given area, with the intent of making a region ethnically homogeneous. Along with direct removal, extermination, deportation or population transfer ...
.
Felix Ermacora Felix Ermacora (13 October 1923 – 24 February 1995) was a leading human rights expert of Austria and a member of the Austrian People's Party. Biography In his youth, Ermacora served in the army of Nazi Germany at the rank of private. He wa ...
was one a minority of legal scholars to equate ethnic cleansing with
genocide Genocide is the intentional destruction of a people—usually defined as an Ethnic group, ethnic, nationality, national, race (classification of humans), racial, or Religion, religious group—in whole or in part. Raphael Lemkin coined the term ...
, and stated that the expulsion of the
Sudeten Germans German Bohemians (german: Deutschböhmen und Deutschmährer, i.e. German Bohemians and German Moravians), later known as Sudeten Germans, were ethnic Germans living in the Czech lands of the Bohemian Crown, which later became an integral part of ...
was therefore genocide.


Forced labor of Germans

During the Allied occupation of Germany, Germans were used as forced laborers after 1945. Some of the laborers, depending on the country occupying, were prisoners of war or ethnic German civilians.


In Israel

In the 21st century, the long debate about whether the
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (abbreviation IPO; Hebrew Hebrew (; ; ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is one of the spoken lan ...
should play the works of
Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( ; ; 22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his mature works were later known, "music dramas"). Unlike most o ...
is mostly considered as a remnant of the past. In March 2008, German Chancellor
Angela Merkel Angela Dorothea Merkel (; ; born 17 July 1954) is a German former politician and scientist who served as Chancellor of Germany from 2005 to 2021. A member of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Democratic Union (CDU), she pr ...
became the first foreign head of government invited to deliver a speech in the Israeli parliament, which she gave in German. Several members of parliament left in protest during the speech and claimed the need to create a
collective memory Collective memory refers to the shared pool of memories, knowledge and information of a social group that is significantly associated with the group's identity. The English phrase "collective memory" and the equivalent French phrase "la mémoire c ...
that "will create a kind of electric wave when Jews will hear the sounds of the German language, they'll remember the Holocaust." In an October 2008 interview, the researcher Hanan Bar (חנן בר) summed up the ambiguous Israeli attitude to Germany: "If the average Israeli happens to see a football match between Germany and Holland ic he would automatically root for the Dutch. But the same person, when buying a washing machine, would prefer a German model, considering it to be the best."


Contemporary Europe

After the separation into two countries after World War II,
West Germany West Germany is the colloquial term used to indicate the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; german: Bundesrepublik Deutschland , BRD) between its formation on 23 May 1949 and the German reunification through the accession of East Germany on 3 O ...
generally had good relationships with its western neighboring states (such as France and the Netherlands), and
East Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a country that existed from its creation on 7 October 1949 until German reunification, its dissolution on 3 October 1990. In t ...
to some degree had similar relationships with its eastern neighbors (such as Poland). Many of the relationships continued after the end of the
Cold War The Cold War is a term commonly used to refer to a period of Geopolitics, geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc. The term ''Cold war (term), co ...
with the unified Germany. West Germany was a cofounder of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a supranational union, supranational political union, political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe, Europe. The union has a total area of ...
and the reunified Germany continues as a leading member. During the process of European unification, Germany and France forged a strong relationship, ending the longstanding
French–German enmity French–German (Franco-German) enmity (french: Rivalité franco-allemande, german: Deutsch–französische Erbfeindschaft) was the idea of unavoidably hostile relations and mutual revanchism between Germans (including Austrians) and French pe ...
, which had peaked during and after World War I. Much of today's anti-German sentiment is particularly strong in East European countries occupied by Germany during the war and those that were at war with Germany and the other European
Axis Powers The Axis powers, ; it, Potenze dell'Asse ; ja, 枢軸国 ''Sūjikukoku'', group=nb originally called the Rome–Berlin Axis, was a military coalition that initiated World War II and fought against the Allies of World War II, Allies. Its p ...
. Although views fluctuate somewhat in response to geopolitical issues such as Berlin's refusal to support the
invasion of Iraq The 2003 invasion of Iraq was a United States-led invasion of the Ba'athist Iraq, Republic of Iraq and the first stage of the Iraq War. The invasion phase began on 19 March 2003 (air) and 20 March 2003 (ground) and lasted just over one mont ...
, Washington regards modern Germany as an ally. Few Americans are strongly anti-German. Occasionally, Germans are stereotyped as being " ruthlessly efficient" and having no sense of humour in some parts of American media, as well as in the UK and other countries.
Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( ; ; 22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his mature works were later known, "music dramas"). Unlike most o ...
's music was not performed in
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, ; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, ), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated ...
until 1995 (radio) and 2001 (concert) and was for many years unpopular in Poland. That can be explained at least partially by Wagner's
anti-Semitism Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice towards, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is considered to be a form of racism. Antis ...
and the Nazi appropriation of Wagner's music based on Hitler's personal affection for his operas. In a poll carried out in 2008 for the
BBC World Service The BBC World Service is an international broadcasting, international broadcaster owned and operated by the BBC, with funding from the Government of the United Kingdom, British Government through the Foreign Secretary, Foreign Secretary's o ...
in which people in 34 countries were asked about the positive and negative influence of 13 countries, Germany was the most popular, ahead of Japan, France and Britain; only 18 percent across all countries surveyed thought Germany had a mainly negative influence. Mainly negative views were most widespread in Turkey (47 percent) and Egypt (43 percent). In 2014, the
BBC World Service The BBC World Service is an international broadcasting, international broadcaster owned and operated by the BBC, with funding from the Government of the United Kingdom, British Government through the Foreign Secretary, Foreign Secretary's o ...
published the "Country Rating Poll", which included surveyed opinion from 24 participating countries concerning the influence of 16 countries and the European Union; 12 of the influential countries participated. Results were released at the end of May. The table shows the "Views of Germany's Influence" overall (line 1) and by country. "Germany has kept its position of the most favourably viewed nation in 2014." That is, Germany is the one whose influence is most commonly (60%) viewed positively; among the 17 Germany stands second to Canada as the ones least commonly (18%) viewed negatively. In the first ten polls, annual from 2005, Germany had been the country with world influence most commonly viewed positively at least in 2008 as well as 2013 and 2014. An updated "Country Rating Poll" was published in 2017 by the BBC. Germany was the second-most positively-viewed country in the 2017 edition, with 59 per cent of respondents in the survey viewing Germany favourably. However, approximately 20 per cent of respondents had negative opinions about the country.


United Kingdom

In the modern British press, newspaper headlines and articles often express anti-German sentiment when reporting on German affairs, and frequently resort to references to World War II and
stereotypical In social psychology Social psychology is the scientific study of how thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people or by social norms. Social psychologists typically explain human be ...
associations of modern Germany with the violent actions of
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") (officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945) was ...
in the 1930s and 1940s. These headlines are frequently coupled with
Eurosceptic Euroscepticism, also spelled as Euroskepticism or EU-scepticism, is a political position involving criticism of the European Union (EU) and European integration. It ranges from those who oppose some EU institutions and policies, and seek reform ...
views which express fears of German dominance in Europe, mostly in publications whose editorial line favours
Brexit Brexit (; a portmanteau of "British exit") was the Withdrawal from the European Union, withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU) at 23:00 Greenwich Mean Time, GMT on 31 January 2020 (00:00 1 February 2020 Central Eur ...
. Anti-German sentiment is a common theme in football culture among supporters of the
England national football team The England national football team has represented England in international Association football, football since the first international match in 1872. It is controlled by The Football Association (FA), the governing body for football in Engl ...
. In fan gatherings around football matches between England and Germany, England fans will often sing anti-German football chants which associate football rivalry between England and Germany with historic military conflicts between the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the European mainland, continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotlan ...
and the
German Reich German ''Reich'' (lit. German Realm, German Empire, from german: Deutsches Reich, ) was the constitutional name for the German nation state that existed from 1871 to 1945. The ''Reich'' became understood as deriving its authority and sovereignty ...
; " Two World Wars and One World Cup" links the military defeat of Germany in 1918 and 1945 with the defeat of
West Germany West Germany is the colloquial term used to indicate the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; german: Bundesrepublik Deutschland , BRD) between its formation on 23 May 1949 and the German reunification through the accession of East Germany on 3 O ...
in the
1966 FIFA World Cup The 1966 FIFA World Cup was the eighth FIFA World Cup, a quadrennial Association football, football tournament for men's senior national teams. It was played in England from 11 July to 30 July 1966. The England national football team defeated W ...
, while " Ten German Bombers" makes reference to
Luftwaffe The ''Luftwaffe'' () was the aerial warfare, aerial-warfare branch of the German ''Wehrmacht'' before and during World War II. German Empire, Germany's military air arms during World War I, the ''Luftstreitkräfte'' of the German Army (Ge ...
operations against Britain during World War II. "Ten German Bombers" is now considered offensive and
UEFA Union of European Football Associations (UEFA ; french: Union des associations européennes de football; german: Union der europäischen Fußballverbände) is one of six continental bodies of governance in association football Associati ...
and the
Football Association The Football Association (also known as The FA) is the Sports governing body, governing body of association football in England and the Crown Dependencies of Jersey, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the ...
(FA) have banned England fans from singing the song. The sentiment of reconciliation in the Postwar Era was satirised in the popular BBC Television sitcom, '' Fawlty Towers''. In the 1975 episode, "
The Germans "The Germans" (named on some releases as "Fire Drill") is the sixth episode of the BBC Situation comedy, sitcom ''Fawlty Towers''. In the episode, while suffering the effects of concussion, Basil Fawlty repeatedly offends some Germans, German ...
", the central character
Basil Fawlty Basil Fawlty is the main character of the 1970s British sitcom ''Fawlty Towers'', played by John Cleese. The proprietor of the hotel Fawlty Towers, he is a Cynicism (contemporary), cynical and Misanthropy, misanthropic snob, desperate to belong ...
(
John Cleese John Marwood Cleese ( ; born 27 October 1939) is an English actor, comedian, screenwriter, and producer. Emerging from the Footlights, Cambridge Footlights in the 1960s, he first achieved success at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and as a scrip ...
) attempts to treat his German hotel guests carefully by avoiding any war references, but as the result of a head injury, loses his self-inhibition and offends them instead. Fawlty's panic-stricken
catchphrase A catchphrase (alternatively spelled catch phrase) is a phrase or expression recognized by its repeated utterance. Such phrases often originate in popular culture Popular culture (also called mass culture or pop culture) is generally recogni ...
, "Don't mention the war!", has entered into British culture as a humorous
symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different ...
of the discomfort of postwar detente among British people. Cleese has stated that his intention was "to make fun of English Basil Fawltys who are buried in the past". According to a 2008 poll, the British people have a rather positive image of Germany, with 62 percent believing that Germany has a mainly positive influence in the world and only 20 percent believing that Germany's influence is mainly negative, slightly better than Germans' views of Britain (60 percent and 27 percent, respectively).


Poland

Many Poles perceive Germans as their long-time oppressors. This notion is based on a long history of conflict with ethnic Poles, first by the German-language and culture Prussians then by the united German state, starting with three partitions of Poland,
Germanization Germanisation, or Germanization, is the spread of the German language, German people, people and German culture, culture. It was a central idea of German conservative thought in the 19th and the 20th centuries, when conservatism and ethnic nationa ...
in the 19th and 20th centuries, and culminating in the Nazi Germany's
invasion of Poland The invasion of Poland (1 September – 6 October 1939) was a joint attack on the Second Polish Republic, Republic of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union which marked the beginning of World War II. The German invasion began on 1 Septem ...
in 1939 and the brutal occupation that followed. Several issues have also strained recent Polish-German relations, although Poland and post-reunification Germany overall have had mostly positive relations. The proposed Russo-German pipeline through the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that is enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North European Plain, North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53°N to 66° ...
is seen by Poles as aimed at cutting off Poland's natural gas supplies from
Russia Russia (, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and North Asia, Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the ...
without damaging supply to Germany, and was even compared to the ignominious Molotov-Ribbentrop pact by Radosław Sikorski, Polish foreign minister. Polish elections have repeatedly featured anti-German campaigns by the
Law and Justice Law and Justice ( pl, Prawo i Sprawiedliwość , PiS) is a Right-wing populism, right-wing populist and National conservatism, national-conservative List of political parties in Poland, political party in Poland. Its chairman is Jarosław Kac ...
party, which is considered to use anti-German rhetoric as an effective tactic for winning votes.


France

Anti-German sentiment was already prevalent in France centuries before the
unification of Germany The unification of Germany (, ) was the process of building the modern German nation state with federalism, federal features based on the concept of Lesser Germany (one without multinational Austria), which commenced on 18 August 1866 with ad ...
and establishment of
imperial Germany The German Empire (),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people. The term literally denotes an empire – particularly a hereditary ...
, completed 1871.


Netherlands

Anti-German sentiment was already prevalent in the
Netherlands ) , anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = , map_caption = , subdivision_type = Sovereign state , subdivision_name = Kingdom of the Netherlands , established_title = Before independence , established_date = Spanish Neth ...
centuries before the
unification of Germany The unification of Germany (, ) was the process of building the modern German nation state with federalism, federal features based on the concept of Lesser Germany (one without multinational Austria), which commenced on 18 August 1866 with ad ...
and establishment of
imperial Germany The German Empire (),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people. The term literally denotes an empire – particularly a hereditary ...
, completed 1871. The Dutch are thought to have developed a low opinion of Germans during the 17th century, also known in the Netherlands as the ''Gouden Eeuw'' (literally: "Golden Century"), when the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, also known as the (Seven) United Provinces, officially as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (Dutch language, Dutch: ''Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden''), and commonly referred to in ...
was one of the world's most advanced and powerful countries while modern Germany was still a patchwork of warring fiefs."For Dutch it's OK to despise Germans"
''New York Times'', 8 February 1995.
In the first half of the 17th century, the Republic saw a major spike in German immigrants including common laborers (so-called hannekemaaiers), persecuted
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism, identifying primarily with the theology of Martin Luther, the 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Cathol ...
s and Jews, and all sorts of
war refugee A refugee, conventionally speaking, is a forced displacement, displaced person who has crossed national borders and who cannot or is unwilling to return home due to well-founded fear of persecution.
s fleeing the violence of the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was one of the longest and List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, most destructive conflicts in History of Europe, European history, lasting from 1618 to 1648. Fought primarily in Central Europe, an es ...
. A culture clash soon followed, and German immigrants were often discriminated against by the native Dutch. It was likely around this time that the earliest variations of the word mof were first used to refer to lower class German migrants. There are known joke books in which these Germans are featured prominently and stereotypically as dumb, arrogant and filthy. During the
Second Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, , 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire and the two Boer Republics (the South ...
anti-German sentiment waned, as both countries were known supporters of the
Boers Boers ( ; af, Boere ()) are the descendants of the Dutch-speaking Free Burghers Free Burghers (Dutch language, Dutch: ''Vrijburgher'', Afrikaans: ''Vryburger'') were early Europeans, European settlers at the Cape of Good Hope in the 18 ...
, and allowed their citizens to volunteer to fight alongside them. During WWI (in which the Netherlands was neutral), the so-called
Wire of Death The Wire of Death ( nl, Dodendraad, german: Todesdraht, french: Fil De La Mort) was a Death, lethal electric fence created by the German military to control the Belgium–Netherlands border, Dutch–Belgian frontier after the Belgium in World War ...
, a lethal 2000
volts The volt (symbol: V) is the unit of electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force in the International System of Units, International System of Units (SI). It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro ...
electric fence built along the southern Dutch border by the Germans occupying Belgium caused a large number of fatalities among the Dutch people, renewing anti-German sentiment in the Netherlands. This sentiment was reborn as hatred when, in 1940,
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") (officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945) was ...
launched its invasion of the Netherlands despite earlier promises from Germany to respect Dutch neutrality. More than 100,000
Dutch Jews The history of the Jews in the Netherlands began largely in the 16th century when they began to settle in Amsterdam and other cities. It has continued to the present. During the Netherlands in World War II, occupation of the Netherlands by Naz ...
were deported to their deaths during the subsequent Nazi occupation, and starvation afflicted much of the country during the "Hunger Winter" of 1944–45. Most elderly Dutch people remember these events including the
Rotterdam Blitz Rotterdam was subjected to heavy aerial bombing of cities, aerial bombardment by the ''Luftwaffe'' during the Battle of the Netherlands, German invasion of the Netherlands in World War II. The objective was to support the German troops fighting ...
bitterly, and some still refuse to set foot on German soil. A sociological study from 1998 showed that still two generations after it had ended, World War II remained influential, and "present-day parents and young people are negatively biased against Germany." Aspeslagh and Dekker reported in 1998 that "more than half of the cohort born after 1950 answered 'sometimes' or 'often' when asked whether they harbored anti-German feelings". Reviewing three large-scale academic studies from the 1990s, they concluded: :The emotional feelings regarding Germany and Germans revealed by these studies are defined by the Second World War. The annual commemorations of World War II, the way history lessons deal with Germany and the continual, casually negative remarks by adults reproduce the negative emotions about Germany and Germans, particularly among the young. Newer studies also consistently show that Dutch anti-German sentiment has been falling steadily for years, and that most Dutch people today show a positive view towards both Germany and the German people.


Switzerland

Rapid increase of German immigration to Switzerland since 2000 has given rise to "Germanophobia" in German-speaking Switzerland.


European debt crisis, Greece and Italy

During the
European debt crisis The European debt crisis, often also referred to as the eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis, is a multi-year debt crisis that took place in the European Union (EU) from 2009 until the mid to late 2010s. Several eurozone membe ...
, many countries embarked on, or were arguably pushed into, austerity programs. Germany was blamed for the resulting economical, social and political consequences. The ongoing
Greek government-debt crisis Greece faced a sovereign debt crisis in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–2008. Widely known in the country as The Crisis (Greek language, Greek: Η Κρίση), it reached the populace as a series of sudden reforms and austerity ...
and EU-driven austerity measures imposed on the country have revived anti-German sentiments. The Greek media have been making comments critical of the German policy, often mentioning, and drawing parallels with the Axis occupation of Greece, with some commentators emphasizing a genetic heritage from "
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi, grc-gre, Γότθοι, Gótthoi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of medieval Europe. ...
" or "
Huns The Huns were a Nomad, nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that wa ...
". A poll in 2012 by VPRC noted the existence of an anti-German sentiment in Greece, and that the majority of the respondents connected Germany with negative notions such as "Hitler", "Nazism" and "3rd Reich". A main argument has been that, despite its rhetoric, Germany has made profits during the Greek debt crisis (due to falling borrowing rates – as Germany, along with other strong Western economies, was seen as a safe haven by investors during the crisis – investment influx, and exports boost due to the Euro's depreciation, with estimates reaching 100bn Euros, as well as other profits through loans). Another key issue, has been the claim for still owed War reparations, with estimates reaching 279b Euros. In August 2012, Italian Prime Minister
Mario Monti Mario Monti, (born 19 March 1943) is an Italian economist and academic who served as the Prime Minister of Italy from 2011 to 2013, leading a Technocratic government (Italy), technocratic government in the wake of the European sovereign-debt c ...
warned that escalating arguments over how to resolve the Euro debt crisis are turning countries against each other and threatening to rip Europe apart. Resentment in Italy is growing against Germany, the European Union and chancellor Merkel, he said, adding that "the pressures already bear the traits of a psychological break-up of Europe". A survey took place in the summer of 2017 among ten members of the EU. Most expressed scepticism about German influence on European matters; the Greeks (89%) express most of the skepticism followed by the Italians (69%) and the Spanish (68%). Greeks also come with the most negative opinion (84%) about Angela Merkel, and with the least positive opinion about the German people (24%), among the questioned ten states.


See also

*
Anti-Germans (political current) Anti-German (german: Antideutsch, yi, אַנטי-דײַטש, Anti-Daytsh) is the generic name applied to a variety of theoretical and political tendencies within the Left-wing politics, left mainly in Germany and Austria. The Anti-Germans form ...
*
Antisemitism Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice towards, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is considered to be a form of racism. Antis ...
*
German Americans German Americans (german: Deutschamerikaner, ) are Americans who have full or partial Germans, German ancestry. With an estimated size of approximately 43 million in 2019, German Americans are the largest of the self-reported ancestry groups by ...
* Germanophilia * Internment of German Americans *
List of terms used for Germans There are many terms for the Germans , native_name_lang = de , region1 = , pop1 = 72,650,269 , region2 = , pop2 = 534,000 , region3 = , pop3 = 157,000 3,322,405 , r ...
* Nativism (politics) in the United States#Anti-German * Stereotypes of Germans * Operation Bolivar


Notes


References


Sources

* * *


Further reading

* Bailey, Charles E. "The British Protestant Theologians in the First World War: Germanophobia Unleashed." ''Harvard Theological Review'' 77.2 (1984): 195-221. * Caglioti, Daniela L. "Why and How Italy Invented an Enemy Aliens Problem in the First World War." ''War in History '' 21.2 (2014): 142-169. Re making the few enemy aliens born in Germany or Austria-Hungary into a big threat
online
* Dekker, Henk, and Lutsen B. Jansen. "Attitudes and stereotypes of young people in the Netherlands with respect to Germany." in ''The puzzle of Integration: European Yearbook on Youth Policy and Research'' 1 (1995): 49–61
excerpt
* DeWitt, Petra. ''Degrees of Allegiance: Harassment and Loyalty in Missouri's German-American Community during World War I'' (Ohio University Press, 2012)., on USA * Ellis, M. and P. Panayi. "German Minorities in World War I: A Comparative Study of Britain and the USA", ''
Ethnic and Racial Studies ''Ethnic and Racial Studies'' is a Peer review, peer-reviewed social sciences, social science academic journal that publishes scholarly articles and book reviews on anthropology, cultural studies, ethnicity and Race (classification of human beings ...
'' 17 (April 1994): 238–259. * Kennedy, Paul M. "Idealists and realists: British views of Germany, 1864–1939." ''Transactions of the Royal Historical Society'' 25 (1975): 137–156
online
* Kennedy, Paul M. ''The Rise of the Anglo-German Antagonism 1860-1914'' (1980); 604pp, major scholarly study. * Lipstadt, Deborah E. "America and the Memory of the Holocaust, 1950–1965." ''Modern Judaism'' (1996) 16#3 pp: 195–214
online
* Panayi, Panikos, ed. ''Germans as Minorities during the First World War: A Global Comparative Perspective'' (2014
excerpt
covers Britain, Belgium, Italy, Russia, Greece, USA, Africa, New Zealand * Panayi, Panikos. "Anti-German Riots in London during the First World War." ''German History'' 7.2 (1989): 184+. * Rüger, Jan. "Revisiting the Anglo-German Antagonism." ''Journal of Modern History'' 83.3 (2011): 579-617. in JSTOR * Scully, Richard. ''British Images of Germany: Admiration, Antagonism & Ambivalence, 1860–1914'' (2012) * Stafford, David A.T. "Spies and Gentlemen: The Birth of the British Spy Novel, 1893-1914." ''Victorian Studies'' (1981): 489-509
online
* Stephen, Alexander. ''Americanization and anti-Americanism : the German encounter with American culture after 1945'' (2007
online
* Tischauser, Leslie V. ''The Burden of Ethnicity: The German Question in Chicago, 1914–1941''. (1990). * Vagts, Alfred. "Hopes and Fears of an American-German War, 1870-1915 I" ''Political Science Quarterly'' 54#4 (1939), pp. 514-53
online
"Hopes and Fears of an American-German War, 1870-1915 II." ''Political Science Quarterly'' 55.1 (1940): 53-7
online
* Wingfield, Nancy M. "The Politics of Memory: Constructing National Identity in the Czech Lands, 1945 to 1948." ''East European Politics & Societies'' (2000) 14#2 pp: 246–267. Argues that anti-German attitudes were paramount * Yndigegn, Carsten. "Reviving Unfamiliarity—The Case of Public Resistance to the Establishment of the Danish–German Euroregion." European Planning Studies 21.1 (2013): 58–74
Abstract


External links


"Nobody Would Eat Kraut": Lola Gamble Clyde on Anti-German Sentiment in Idaho During World War I (Oral history courtesy of Latah County Historical Society)"Get the Rope!" Anti-German Violence in World War I-era Wisconsin (from History Matters, a project of the American Social History Project/Center for Media and Learning)"We Had to Be So Careful" A German Farmer's Recollections of Anti-German Sentiment in World War I (Oral history courtesy of Latah County Historical Society)Article from Allan Hall
in ''
The Scotsman ''The Scotsman'' is a Scottish compact (newspaper), compact newspaper and daily news website headquartered in Edinburgh. First established as a radical political paper in 1817, it began daily publication in 1855 and remained a broadsheet until ...
'' 11 July 2003: ''"Why do we still laugh at Germany?"''
Newspaper articles from 1918, describing the lynching of Robert Prager in Collinsville, Illinois
(Bloomington, Illinois, newspaper)

(Bloomington, Illinois, newspaper) {{DEFAULTSORT:Anti-German Sentiment 19th-century introductions German Articles containing video clips