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''Annus mirabilis'' (pl. ''anni mirabiles'') is a Latin phrase that means "marvellous year", "wonderful year", "miraculous year" or "amazing year". This term was originally used to refer to the year 1666 (of Isaac Newton), and today is used to refer to several years during which events of major importance are remembered. Prior to this, however, Thomas Dekker used the phrase ''mirabilis annus'' in his 1603 pamphlet ''The Wonderful Year''.

1543 – The year of science

The beginning of the Scientific Revolution when: * Andreas Vesalius published ''De humani corporis fabrica'' (''On the Fabric of the Human Body'') in Basel, which revolutionised the science of human anatomy and the practice of medicine. * Nicolaus Copernicus published ''De revolutionibus orbium coelestium'' (''On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres'') in Nuremberg, Germany, which eventually altered the science of astronomy forever.

1625 — Spanish Monarchy

A series of Spanish military victories on a global strategic scale obtained in 1625 during the Thirty Years' War, in important military theaters in Europe and America. These military victories were as follows: Siege of Breda, Relief of Genoa, Recapture of Bahia, Battle of San Juan and Defense of Cádiz. Those military actions were immortalized in a series of paintings in the Hall of Realms of the Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid. Thus, the “reputational” policy promoted by the Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares, favourite of Philip IV of Spain, was apparently confirmed by the initial success.

1644–1645 — Montrose

The military successes of James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose in Scotland in the War of the Three Kingdoms during 1644–1645 are sometimes called "annus mirabilis".

1666 – The year of wonders

In 1666 Isaac Newton, aged 23, made revolutionary inventions and discoveries in calculus, motion, optics and gravitation. It was in this year that Newton was alleged to have observed an apple falling from a tree, and in which he in any case hit upon the law of universal gravitation (Newton's apple). He was afforded the time to work on his theories due to the closure of Cambridge University by an outbreak of plague.

1706 - Marlborough

In 1706, Marlborough won several victories (most notably at Ramillies) after the previous year's resounding failures which has been termed by James Falkner a "Year of Miracles."

1759 – William Pitt

A series of victories by the British military in 1759 in North America, Europe, India, and in various naval engagements, is occasionally referred to as William Pitt's annus mirabilis, and was the decisive year of the Seven Years' War.

1905 – Albert Einstein

It was in this year that Albert Einstein, aged 26, published important discoveries concerning the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, the special theory of relativity, and the famous E = mc2 equation. His four articles, collectively known as his ''Annus Mirabilis'' papers, were published in ''Annalen der Physik'' in 1905.

See also

* Annus mirabilis (Norway) * Annus Mirabilis (poem) * ''Annus horribilis'' * List of Latin phrases

Notes



Bibliography

* Blanning, T.C.W.''The Culture of Power the Power of Culture: Old Regime Europe 1660–1789''. Oxford University Press, 2002. * Monod, Paul Kléber. ''Imperial Island: A History of Britain and Its Empire, 1660–1837''. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. {{DEFAULTSORT:Annus Mirabilis Category:Latin words and phrases Category:Physics papers