angiopathy
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Angiopathy is the generic term for a disease of the
blood vessel The blood vessels are the components of the circulatory system The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino ...
s (
arteries An artery (plural arteries) () is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to one or more parts of the body (tissues, lungs, brain etc.). Most arteries carry oxygenated blood; the two exceptions are the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary ...

arteries
,
vein Veins are blood vessels in humans, and most other animals that carry blood towards the heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart; exceptions are the pulmonary vein, pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which ca ...

vein
s, and
capillaries A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (μm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick. They are the smallest blood vessels in the body: they convey blood between the arterioles and venules. These microvessel ...

capillaries
). The best known and most prevalent angiopathy is
diabetic angiopathy Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a hyperglycemia, high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Symptoms often include frequent urination, Polydipsia, increased thirs ...
, a common complication of chronic
diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst and increased appeti ...

diabetes
.


Classification


By caliber

There are two types of angiopathy:
macroangiopathy Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the wall of the artery develops abnormalities, called lesions. These lesions may lead to narrowing due to the buildup of atheroma, atheromatous plaque. Initially, there are generally no symptoms. When severe, ...
and
microangiopathy Microangiopathy (or microvascular disease, or small vessel disease) is an angiopathy (i.e. disease of blood vessels) affecting small blood vessels in the body. It can be contrasted to macroangiopathy, or large vessel disease. Cerebral small vesse ...
. In macroangiopathy, atherosclerosis and a resultant blood clot forms on the large blood vessels, sticks to the vessel walls, and blocks the flow of blood. Macroangiopathy may cause other complications, such as ischemic heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease which contributes to the diabetic foot ulcers and the risk of amputation. In microangiopathy, the walls of the smaller blood vessels become so thick and weak that they hemorrhage, bleed, leak protein, and slow the flow of blood through the body. The decrease of blood flow through stenosis or clot formation impairs the flow of oxygen to cell (biology), cells and biological tissues (called ischemia) and leads to cellular death (necrosis and gangrene, which in turn may require amputation). Thus, tissues which are very sensitive to oxygen levels, such as the retina, develop microangiopathy and may cause blindness (so-called proliferative diabetic retinopathy). Damage to nerve cells may cause peripheral neuropathy, and to kidney cells, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease (Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome).


By condition

It is also possible to classify angiopathy by the associated condition: * Diabetic angiopathy *Cerebral amyloid angiopathy


References

{{Vascular diseases Vascular diseases