abuses of power
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Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of a thing, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit. Abuse can come in many forms, such as: physical or verbal maltreatment, injury,
assault An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action. It is both a crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unl ...

assault
, violation,
rape Rape is a type of sexual assault Sexual assault is an act in which one intentionally sexually touches another person without that person's consent Consent occurs when one person voluntarily agrees to the proposal or desires of another. ...

rape
, unjust practices,
crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...

crime
s, or other types of
aggression Aggression is overt or covert, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other harm upon another individual. It may occur either reactively or without provocation. In humans, aggression can be caused by various ...
. To these descriptions, one can also add the Kantian notion of the wrongness of using another human being as means to an end rather than as ends in themselves. Some sources describe abuse as "socially constructed", which means there may be more or less recognition of the suffering of a victim at different times and societies.


Types and contexts of abuse


Abuse of authority

Abuse of authority, in the form of political corruption, is the use of legislated or otherwise authorised powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general
police brutality Police brutality is the excessive and unwarranted use of force by law enforcement File:CBP female officers going aboard a ship.jpg, upU.S. Customs and Border Protection officers boarding a ship 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some memb ...

police brutality
, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by private persons or corporations not directly involved with the government. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties. Abuse of authority is separated from
abuse of power Abuse of power or abuse of authority, in the form of "malfeasance in office" or "official misconduct", is the commission of an Crime, unlawful act, done in an official capacity, which affects the performance of official duties. Malfeasance in off ...
in that the act is originally condoned, but is extended beyond that initially conceived and is in not all cases


Abuse of corpse

:''See:
Necrophilia Necrophilia, also known as necrophilism, necrolagnia, necrocoitus, necrochlesis, and thanatophilia, is sexual attraction Sexual attraction is attraction on the basis of sexual desire or the quality of arousing such interest. Sexual attracti ...

Necrophilia
''


Abuse of discretion

An abuse of discretion is a failure to take into proper consideration, the facts and laws relating to a particular matter; an arbitrary or unreasonable departure from precedent and settled judicial custom.


Abuse of dominance

Market dominance by companies is regulated by public and private enforcement of competition law, also known as antitrust or anti-monopoly law.


Abuse of indulgences

In the Catholic Church, an indulgence is a way to reduce punishment for sin, often by prayer, pilgrimage or good works. In the Middle Ages, some Church officials demanded money in exchange both for forgiveness of sins and for other rewards such as future salvation.


Abuse of information

Abuse of information typically involves a breach of confidence or plagiarism, or extending the confidence of information beyond those authorised. In the financial world,
Insider trading Insider trading is the trading of a public company A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a company whose ownership is organized via shares of stock which are int ...
can also be considered a misuse of internal information that gives an unfair advantage in investment.


Abuse of power

Abuse of power, in the form of "malfeasance in office" or "official misconduct," is the commission of an
unlawful
unlawful
act, done in an official capacity, which affects the performance of official duties. Malfeasance in office is often grounds for a
for cause Just cause is a common standard in United States labor law arbitration that is used in Trade union, labor union contracts in the United States as a form of job security. Labor union contracts The standard of just cause provides important protect ...
removal of an elected official by
statute A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislature, legislative authority that governs the legal entities of a city, State (polity), state, or country by way of consent. Typically, statutes command or prohibit something, or declare Public po ...

statute
or
recall election A recall election (also called a recall referendum, recall petition or representative recall) is a procedure by which, in certain polities, voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before that official's term has end ...
.


Abuse of process

A cause of action in
tort A tort, in jurisdiction, is a (other than ) that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm, resulting in for the person who commits the tortious act. It can include intentional infliction of emotional distress, negligence, financial losses, ...

tort
arising from one party making a malicious and deliberate misuse or perversion of regularly issued court process (civil or criminal) not justified by the underlying legal action.


Abuse of rank

Rankism (also called abuse of rank) is treating people of a lower rank in an abusive, discriminatory, or exploitative way. Robert W. Fuller claims that rankism includes the abuse of the power inherent in superior rank, with the view that rank-based abuse underlies many other phenomena such as
bullying upright=1.3, Banner in a campaign against bullying at Cefet-MG Bullying is the use of force, coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a ''communicated'' intent to inflict ...

bullying
, racism,
sexism Sexism is prejudice Prejudice can be an affective feeling towards a person based on their perceived group membership. The word is often used to refer to a preconceived (usually unfavourable) evaluation or classification of another per ...
, and
homophobia Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian A lesbian is a Homosexuality, homosexual woman.Zimmerman, p. 453. The word ''lesbian'' i ...

homophobia
.


Abuse of statistics

:''See:
Abuse of statistics Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of a thing, often to Distributive justice, unfairly or improperly gain benefit. Abuse can come in many forms, such as: physical or verbal maltreatment, injury, assault, violation, rape, unjust practice ...
''


Abuse of the system

:''See: Abuse#Gaming the system''


Abuse of trust

:''See:
Position of trust A position of trust is any position that requires its holder to enjoy the trust of those who elected or chose the holder. It is often used in a more restricted sense defined by an organization or by legislation. One possible legal summary of a Posi ...
''


Abusive supervision

Abusive
supervision Supervision is an act or instance of directing, managing, or oversight. Etymology The English noun "supervision" derives from the two Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-E ...
is most commonly studied in the context of the workplace, although can arise in other areas such as in the household and at school. "Abusive supervision has been investigated as an antecedent to negative subordinate workplace outcome". "
Workplace violence File:USMC-100910-M-9161A-001.jpg, Deborah R. Collins, a survivor of workplace violence in the 1988 shooting at Electromagnetic System Labs, discusses the consequences of workplace violence. Workplace violence (WPV), violence in the workplace (VIW), ...
has combination of situational and personal factors". The study that was conducted looked at the link between abusive supervision and different workplace events.


Academic abuse

Academic abuse is a form of workplace bullying which takes places in the institutions of higher education, such as colleges and universities. Academia is highly competitive and has a well defined hierarchy, with junior staff being particularly vulnerable.


Ad hominem abuse

Ad hominem abuse (also called personal abuse or personal attacks) usually involves
insulting An insult is an expression or statement (or sometimes behavior) which is disrespectful or scornful. Insults may be intentional or accidental. An insult may be fact A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement ...
or belittling one's opponent to invalidate his or her argument, but can also involve pointing out factual but ostensible character flaws or actions which are irrelevant to the opponent's argument.


Adolescent abuse

:''See:
Anti-social behaviour Anti-social behaviours are actions that harm or lack consideration for the well-being of others. It has also been defined as any type of conduct that violates the basic rights of another person and any behaviour that is considered to be disrupti ...
,
Juvenile delinquency Juvenile delinquency, also known as "juvenile offending", is the act of participating in unlawful behavior as a minor Minor may refer to: * Minor (law), a person under the age of certain legal activities. ** A person who has not reached the a ...
,
Parental abuse by adolescents Abuse of parents by their children, also known as child-to-parent violence (CPV), is a form of domestic violence, and is one of the most under-reported and under-researched subject areas in the field of psychology. Parents are quite often subject t ...
,
Parental abuse of adolescents Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John son ...
''


Adult abuse

Adult abuse refers to the abuse of
vulnerable Vulnerable may refer to: General *Vulnerability *Vulnerability (computing) *Vulnerable adult *Vulnerable species Music Albums *Vulnerable (Marvin Gaye album), ''Vulnerable'' (Marvin Gaye album), 1997 *Vulnerable (Tricky album), ''Vulnerable'' (T ...
adults.


Alcohol use disorder

Alcohol use disorder, as described in the
DSM-IV The ''Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders'' (DSM; latest edition: DSM-5, publ. 2013) is a publication by the American Psychiatric Association The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization ...
, is a psychiatric diagnosis describing the recurring use of
alcoholic beverage An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid f ...
s despite its negative consequences.National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
"Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Abuse and Dependence"
''Alcohol Alert,'' No. 30 PH 359, October 1995.
Alcohol use disorder is sometimes referred to by the less specific term
alcoholism Alcoholism is, broadly, any drinking of alcohol In , alcohol is an that carries at least one (−OH) bound to a atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol (ethyl alcohol), which is and is the main alcoho ...
. There are two types of people with alcohol use disorder: those who have anti-social and pleasure-seeking tendencies, and those who are anxiety-ridden- people who are able to go without drinking for long periods of time but are unable to control themselves once they start.
Binge drinking Binge drinking, or heavy episodic drinking, is a modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverage An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by Ethanol fermentation, fermentation of grains, fruits, or other s ...
is another form of alcohol use disorder. Frequent binge drinking or getting severely drunk more than twice is classed as alcohol misuse. According to research done through international surveys, the heaviest drinkers happen to be the United Kingdom's adolescent generation.


Animal abuse

Animal abuse is the infliction of
suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering is the basic element that makes up the negative valence of affective ...

suffering
or
harm Harm is a moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the ...
upon animals, other than
human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...

human
s, for purposes other than self-defense. More narrowly, it can be harm for specific gain, such as killing animals for fur. Diverging viewpoints are held by jurisdictions throughout the world.


Anti-social behavior

Anti-social behavior is often seen as public
behavior Behavior (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English ...
that lacks judgement and consideration for others and may damage them or their property. It may be intentional, as with
vandalism Vandalism is the action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property. The term includes , such as and directed towards any property without permission of the owner. The term finds its roots in an view that ...

vandalism
or
graffiti Graffiti (both singular and plural; the singular ''graffito'' is rarely used except in archeology) is a type of art genre that means writing or drawings made on a wall or other surface, usually without permission and within public view. Graf ...

graffiti
, or the result of
negligence Negligence (Lat. ''negligentia'') is a failure to exercise appropriate and/or ethical ruled care expected to be exercised amongst specified circumstances. The area of tort A tort, in common law jurisdiction, is a civil wrong (other than br ...

negligence
. Persistent anti-social behavior may be a manifestation of an
antisocial personality disorder Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD or infrequently APD) is a personality disorder Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorder A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral ...
. The counterpart of anti-social behavior is
pro-social behavior Prosocial behavior, or intent to benefit others, is a social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an interac ...
, namely any behavior intended to help or benefit another person, group or society.


Bullying

Bullying is repeated acts over time that involves a real or perceived imbalance of power with the more powerful individual or group attacking those who are less powerful. Bullying may consist of three basic types of abuse –
verbal Verbal may refer to: People *Verbal (rapper) Verbal (born August 21, 1975) is a Japanese hip hop musician, recording artist, music video director and record producer who debuted in 1998 as a member of the hip hop group M-Flo. He is a third gener ...
,
physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physical" (Olivia Newton-John song) *Physical ( ...
and
emotional Emotions are psychological state A mental state is a state of mind that an agent is in. Most simplistically, a mental state is a mental condition. It is a relation that connects the agent with a proposition. Several of these states are a combi ...
. It typically involves subtle methods of
coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a communication of intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimidation is widely observed in animal behavior (particularly in a ritualiz ...
such as
intimidationIntimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that "would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" to fear injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage Damage is any change in a thing, often a physical object, that degr ...

intimidation
. Bullying can be defined in many different ways. Although the UK currently has no legal definition of bullying, some US states have laws against it. Bullying is usually done to coerce others by
fear Fear is an intensely unpleasant emotion in response to perception, perceiving or recognizing a danger or threat. Fear causes physiological changes that may produce behavioral reactions such as mounting an aggressive response or fleeing the threa ...

fear
or
threat A threat is a communication of intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimidation is widely observed in animal behavior (particularly in a ritualized form) chiefly in order to avoid the unnecessary physical violence that can lead to ph ...
.


Character assassination

Character assassination is an attempt to tarnish a person's
reputation The reputation of a social entity (a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic by Logical consequence, drawing conclusio ...

reputation
. It may involve
exaggeration Exaggeration is the representation of something as more extreme or dramatic than it really is. Exaggeration may occur intentionally or unintentionally. Exaggeration can be a rhetorical device or figure of speech. It may be used to evoke stron ...
or
manipulation Manipulation may refer to: As underhand influence *Psychological manipulation **Crowd manipulation *Data manipulation *Media manipulation *Internet manipulation *Market manipulation In a physical context *Card manipulation *Coin manipulation *Hat ...
of facts to present an untrue picture of the targeted person. It is a form of
defamation Defamation (also known as calumny, vilification, libel, slander, or traducement) is the oral or written communication of a false statement about another that unjustly harms their reputation and usually constitutes a tort A tort, in commo ...
and can be a form of an
ad hominem ''Ad hominem'' (), short for ''argumentum ad hominem'', refers to several types of arguments, some but not all of which are fallacious A fallacy is the use of Validity (logic), invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning, or "wrong moves" in the cons ...
(to the person) argument.


Child abuse

Child abuse is the physical or psychological/emotional mistreatment of children. In the United States, the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the of the United States. It is a , under the , and is headquartered in , . The agency's main goal is the protection of and safety through the control and prevention of disease, injur ...
(CDC) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child. Most child abuse occurs in a child's home, with a smaller amount occurring in the organisations, schools or communities the child interacts with. There are four major categories of child abuse:
neglect In the context of caregiving A caregiver is a paid or unpaid member of a person's social network A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and othe ...
,
physical abuse Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or Physical trauma, trauma to another person or animal abuse, animal by way of bodily contact. In most cases, children are the victims of physical abuse, but adults can also be victims, as in cas ...
, psychological/emotional abuse, and
sexual abuse Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is abusive sexual behavior Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their Human sexuality, sexuality. Peopl ...
.


Parental abuse of children

:''See:
Abuse#Child abuse
Abuse#Child abuse
''


Child sexual abuse

Child sexual abuse is a form of
child abuse Child abuse or child maltreatment is , , and/or maltreatment or of a child or children, especially by a parent or a caregiver. Child abuse may include any act or by a parent or a caregiver that results in actual or potential harm to a chil ...

child abuse
in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation. Different forms of this include: asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), some types of
indecent exposure Indecent exposure is an expression that describes the deliberate public exposure by a person of a portion of their body in a manner contrary to local standards of appropriate behavior. Laws and social attitudes regarding indecent exposure vary s ...
of genitalia to a child, displaying pornography to a child, actual
sexual contact Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves Human sexual activity, sexual ...
against a child, viewing or engaging in physical contact with the child's genitals for sexual purposes, or using a child to produce
child pornography Child pornography (also called CP, child sexual abuse material, CSAM, child porn, or kiddie porn) is pornography Pornography (often shortened to porn) is the portrayal of Human sexual activity, sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpos ...
.


=Child-on-child sexual abuse

= Child-on-child sexual abuse refers to a form of
child sexual abuse Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include engaging in Human sexual activity, sexual activities with a ...
in which a prepubescent child is sexually abused by one or more other children or adolescent youths, and in which no adult is directly involved. This includes sexual activity between children that occurs without consent, without equality, or as a result of
coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a communication of intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimidation is widely observed in animal behavior (particularly in a ritualiz ...
; particularly when physical force, threats, trickery, or
emotional manipulation Emotions are biological states associated with all of the nerve systems brought on by neurophysiological changes variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or suffering, displeasure. There is cu ...
are used to elicit co-operation.


Church abuse

:''See: Abuse#Spiritual abuse''


Civil rights abuse


Clandestine abuse

Clandestine abuse is sexual assault, sexual, psychological abuse, psychological, or Assault (tort), physical abuse "that is kept secret for a purpose, concealed, or underhanded."


Clerical abuse

:''See: Catholic sex abuse cases''


Cyber abuse or cyber bullying

Cyberbullying "involves the use of information and communication technologies to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behavior by an individual or group, that is intended to harm others." -Bill Belsey


Dating abuse or dating violence

Dating abuse is a pattern of abusive behaviour exhibited by one or both partners in a dating (activity), dating relationship. The behaviour may include, but is not limited to;
physical abuse Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or Physical trauma, trauma to another person or animal abuse, animal by way of bodily contact. In most cases, children are the victims of physical abuse, but adults can also be victims, as in cas ...
; psychological abuse; and
sexual abuse Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is abusive sexual behavior Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their Human sexuality, sexuality. Peopl ...
.


Defamation

Defamation is the communication of a statement that makes a claim, expressly stated or implied to be factual, that may give an individual, business, Product (business), product, Social group, group, government or nation a negative image. It is usually—but not always,e.g., in the case the offense of defamatory libel under the common law of England and Wales, where prior to the enactment of section 6 of the Libel Act 1843 (Excuse (legal), defense of justification for the public benefit), the truth of the defamatory statement was irrelevant, and it continues to be sufficient that it is published to the defamed person alone. a requirement that this claim be false and that the publication be communicated to someone other than the person defamed (termed the claimant).


Detainee abuse

:''See: Abuse#Prison abuse or prisoner abuse''


Disability abuse

It has been noted that disabled people are disproportionately affected by disability abuse and
bullying upright=1.3, Banner in a campaign against bullying at Cefet-MG Bullying is the use of force, coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a ''communicated'' intent to inflict ...

bullying
, and such activity has been cited as a hate crime. The bullying is not limited to those who are visibly disabled – such as wheelchair-users or individuals with physical deformities (e.g., cleft lip) – but also those with learning disabilities such as autism and developmental coordination disorder. In the latter case, this is linked to a poor ability in physical education, and this behaviour can be encouraged by an ignorant physical education teacher. Abuse of the disabled is not limited to schools; there are many known cases in which the disabled have been abused by staff of a "care institution", such as the case revealed in a BBC Panorama (TV series), Panorama programme on a Castlebeck care home (Winterbourne View) near Bristol, England, Bristol, leading to its closure and suspension or firing of staff members. Consequences of the BBC undercover report


Discriminatory abuse

Discriminatory abuse involves picking on or treating someone unfairly because something about them is different; for example concerning: Discriminatory laws such as redlining have existed in many countries. In some countries, controversial attempts such as racial quotas have been used to redress negative effects of discrimination. Other acts of discrimination include political libel,
defamation Defamation (also known as calumny, vilification, libel, slander, or traducement) is the oral or written communication of a false statement about another that unjustly harms their reputation and usually constitutes a tort A tort, in commo ...
of groups and stereotypes based on
exaggeration Exaggeration is the representation of something as more extreme or dramatic than it really is. Exaggeration may occur intentionally or unintentionally. Exaggeration can be a rhetorical device or figure of speech. It may be used to evoke stron ...
s.


Doctor abuse

:''See: Abuse#Medical abuse, Bullying in medicine, Patient abuse''


Domestic abuse or domestic violence

Domestic abuse can be broadly defined as any form of abusive behaviours by one or both partners in an intimate relationship, such as marriage, cohabitation, family, dating, or even friends. It is important to remember that abuse is always intentional, and can not happen by accident. Domestic violence has many forms, including: * physical aggression (hitting, kicking, biting, shoving, restraining, throwing objects), or threats thereof *
sexual abuse Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is abusive sexual behavior Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their Human sexuality, sexuality. Peopl ...
* Psychological abuse, emotional abuse * financial abuse (withholding money or controlling all money, including that of other family members) * social abuse (restricting access to friends and/or family, insulting or threatening friends and/or family), controlling or domineering *
intimidationIntimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that "would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" to fear injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage Damage is any change in a thing, often a physical object, that degr ...

intimidation
* stalking * passive/covert abuse (e.g.,
neglect In the context of caregiving A caregiver is a paid or unpaid member of a person's social network A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and othe ...
) * #Economic abuse, economic deprivation Depending on local statues, the domestic violence may or may not constitute a crime, also depending on the severity and duration of specific acts, and other variables. Alcohol consumption and mental illness have frequently been associated with abuse.


Drug abuse

:''See: Abuse#Substance abuse''


Economic abuse

Economic abuse is a form of abuse when one intimate partner has control over the other partner's access to economic resources, which diminishes the victim's capacity to support him/herself and forces him/her to depend on the perpetrator financially.


Elder abuse

Elder abuse is a type of harm to older adults involving abuse by trusted individuals in a manner that "causes harm or distress to an older person." This definition has been adopted by the World Health Organization from a definition put forward by Action on Elder Abuse in the UK. The abuse includes violence,
neglect In the context of caregiving A caregiver is a paid or unpaid member of a person's social network A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and othe ...
, and other crimes committed against an elderly person and their forms include physical, mental, and financial abuses as well as passive and active neglect.


Emotional abuse

:''See: Psychological abuse'' While there is an absence of consensus as to the precise definition of emotional abuse, it is classified by the U.S. federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act as a form of mental injury. The typical legal definition, particularly in the area of child welfare, accepted by the majority of U.S. states describes it as injury to the psychological capacity or emotional stability as evidenced by an observable or substantial change in behavior, emotional response or cognition.


Employee abuse

:''See: Abuse#Workplace abuse or workplace bullying, Workplace abuse or workplace bullying''


False accusations

False accusations (or false allegations) can be in any of the following contexts: * informally in everyday life; * quasi-judicially; * judicially.


Financial abuse

Examples of financial (or material) abuse include: illegal or unauthorised use of a person's property, money, pension book or other valuables (including changing the person's will (law), will to name the abuser as heir); and often fraudulently obtaining power of attorney, followed by deprivation of money or other property, by eviction from their own home; or by elder financial abuse, taking advantage of their age or disability. Further reading * Baumhoefner, Arlen (2006). ''Financial Abuse of the Deaf And Hard of Hearing Exposed.'' * Bechthold, Henry L (2003). ''Blowing the Whistle on the Christian Church in America: The Political Hypocrisy, Double Standards and Financial Abuse Exposed.'' * Carnot, Edward J (2003). ''Is Your Parent in Good Hands?: Protecting Your Aging Parent from Financial Abuse and Neglect (Capital Cares)''. * Roubicek, Joe (2008). ''Financial Abuse of the Elderly; A Detective's Case Files of Exploitation Crimes.''


Flag abuse

Flag abuse (or flag desecration) is a term applied to various acts that intentionally destroy, damage or mutilate a flag in public, most often a national flag. Often, such action is intended to make a political point against a country or its policies. Some countries have laws forbidding methods of destruction (such as burning in public) or forbidding particular uses (such as for commercial purposes); such laws may distinguish between desecration of the country's own national flag and flags of other countries. Countries may have laws protecting the right to burn a flag as free speech.


Gaming the system

Gaming the system (also called bending the rules, gaming the rules, playing the system, abusing the system, milking the system, or working the system) can be defined as using the rules and procedures meant to protect a system to instead Psychological manipulation, manipulate the system for a desired outcome.


Gaslighting

Gaslighting is psychological manipulation, manipulation through persistent denial, misdirection, contradiction, and lie, lying in an attempt to Destabilisation, destabilize and delegitimize a target. Its intent is to sow seeds of doubt in the targets, hoping to make them question their own memory, perception, and sanity. Instances may range from the denial by an abuser that previous abusive incidents ever occurred up to the staging of bizarre events by the abuser with the intention of disorienting the victim. The term owes its origin to ''Gaslight (play), Gaslight'', a 1938 play and 1944 film, and has been used in clinical and research literature.


Gay abuse or gay bashing

Gay bashing and gay bullying are
verbal Verbal may refer to: People *Verbal (rapper) Verbal (born August 21, 1975) is a Japanese hip hop musician, recording artist, music video director and record producer who debuted in 1998 as a member of the hip hop group M-Flo. He is a third gener ...
or
physical abuse Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or Physical trauma, trauma to another person or animal abuse, animal by way of bodily contact. In most cases, children are the victims of physical abuse, but adults can also be victims, as in cas ...
against a person perceived by the aggressor to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual, including people who are actually heterosexual, or of non-specific or unknown sexual orientation.


Group psychological abuse

Group psychological abuse refers to groups where methods of psychological abuse are frequently or systematically used on their members. Such abuse would be practices that treat the members as objects one is free to Psychological manipulation, manipulate instead of respecting their autonomy, human rights, identity and dignity. In a group they may also play mind games with another person that can make the victim seem like they are accepted, but in actuality are backstabbing the person when his/her back is turned. When the victim requests assistance from the abusing group it is not given.


Harassment

Harassment covers a wide range of offensive behaviour. It is commonly understood as behaviour intended to disturb or upset. In the legal sense, it is behaviour which ''is found'' threatening or disturbing. Power harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a political nature, often occurring in the environment of a workplace. Sexual harassment refers to persistent and unwanted sexual advances, typically in the workplace, where the consequences of refusing sexual requests are potentially very disadvantageous to the victim.


Hate crimes

Hate crimes occur when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her perceived membership in a certain social group; usually defined by race (classification of human beings), racial group, religion, sexual orientation, disability, ethnicity, nationality, ageing, age, gender, gender identity, or political affiliation. "Hate crime" generally refers to crime, criminal acts which are seen to have been motivated by hatred of one or more of the listed conditions. Incidents may involve assault, physical assault, damage to property,
bullying upright=1.3, Banner in a campaign against bullying at Cefet-MG Bullying is the use of force, coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a ''communicated'' intent to inflict ...

bullying
, harassment, verbal abuse or insults, or offensive graffiti or inflammatory letters (hate mail).


Hazing

Hazing is considered any activity involving harassment, abuse, or humiliation as a way of initiation, initiating a person into a Social group, group. Hazing is seen in many different types of groups; including within gangs, clubs, team sport, sports teams, military units, and wiktionary:Workplace, workplaces. In the United States and Canada, hazing is often Hazing in Greek letter organizations, associated with Greek-letter organisations (fraternities and sororities). Hazing is often prohibited by law and may be either physical (possibly violence, violent) or mental (possibly wikt:Degrading, degrading) practices. It may also include nudity or sexually oriented activities.


Human rights abuse

Human rights are "basic rights and freedom (political), freedoms to which all humans are entitled." Examples of rights and freedoms which have come to be commonly thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and liberty, freedom of speech, freedom of expression, and equality before the law; and economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to participate in culture, the right to be treated with respect and dignity, the right to food, the right to work, and—in certain countries—the right to education.


Humiliation

Humiliation is the abasement of pride, which creates mortification or leads to a state of being Humility, humbled or reduced to lowliness or Submission (emotion), submission. It can be brought about through
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bullying
,
intimidationIntimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that "would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" to fear injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage Damage is any change in a thing, often a physical object, that degr ...

intimidation
, physical or mental mistreatment or trickery, or by embarrassment if a person is revealed to have committed a socially or legally unacceptable act.


Incivility

Incivility is a general term for social behaviour lacking in civility or good manners, ranging from rudeness or lack of respect towards elders;
vandalism Vandalism is the action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property. The term includes , such as and directed towards any property without permission of the owner. The term finds its roots in an view that ...

vandalism
and hooliganism; or public drunkenness and threatening behaviour.


Institutional abuse

Institutional abuse can typically occur in a care home, nursing home, acute hospital or in-patient setting and can be any of the following: Further reading * Barter, Christine (1998). ''Investigating Institutional Abuse of Children (Policy, Practice, Research).'' National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC). * Beker, Jerome (1982). ''Institutional Abuse of Children and Youth (Child & Youth Services)''. Routledge. * Manthorpe J, Penhale B, Stanley N (1999). ''Institutional Abuse: Perspectives Across the Life Course.'' Routledge. * Westcott, Helen L (1991). ''Institutional Abuse of Children – From Research to Policy: A Review (Policy, Practice, Research S.) ''National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC).


Insult

An insult is an expression, statement or behaviour considered to be degrading and offensive.


Intimidation

Intimidation is intentional behaviour "which would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" fear of injury or
harm Harm is a moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the ...
. It is not necessary to prove that the behaviour was so violent as to cause wikt:terror, terror or that the victim was actually frightened. "The calculated use of violence or the threat of violence to attain goals political, religious, or ideological in nature...through intimidation,
coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a communication of intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimidation is widely observed in animal behavior (particularly in a ritualiz ...
, or instilling
fear Fear is an intensely unpleasant emotion in response to perception, perceiving or recognizing a danger or threat. Fear causes physiological changes that may produce behavioral reactions such as mounting an aggressive response or fleeing the threa ...

fear
" can be defined as terrorism.


Legal abuse

Legal abuse refers to abuses associated with both Civil law (common law), civil and Criminal law, criminal legal action. Abuse can originate from nearly any part of the legal system, including frivolous litigation, frivolous and vexatious litigation, vexatious litigants, police misconduct, abuses by law enforcement, legal malpractice, incompetent, careless or corrupt attorneys and judicial misconduct, misconduct from the judiciary itself. Legal abuse is responsible not only for injustice, but also harm to Health, physical, mental health, psychological and societal health.


Lesbian abuse

:''See: Abuse#Gay abuse or gay bashing, Gay abuse or gay bashing''


Malpractice

:''See: Abuse#Negligence, Negligence''


Market abuse

Market abuse may arise in circumstances where financial investors have been unreasonably disadvantaged, directly or indirectly, by others who: * have used information which is not publicly available (insider dealing) * have distorted the price-setting mechanism of financial instruments * have disseminated false or misleading information.


Material abuse

:''See: Financial abuse''


Medical abuse


Mental abuse

:''See: Abuse#Psychological abuse, Psychological abuse''


Military abuse

''War crimes'' are "violations of the laws or customs of war", including "murder, the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied territory to slave labor camps", "the murder or ill-treatment of prisoner of war, prisoners of war", the killing of hostages, "the wanton destruction of cities, towns and villages, and any devastation not justified by military, or civilian necessity". (see also: ''The Black Book of Communism'') ''War rape'' is rape committed by soldiers, other combatants or civilians during armed conflict or war. During war and armed conflict rape is frequently used as means of psychological warfare to humiliate the enemy and undermine their morale. ''Military sexual trauma'' is assaul, sexual assault and rape experienced by military personnel. It is often accompanied by posttraumatic stress disorder.


Mind abuse or mind control

Mind abuse or mind control refers to a process in which a group or individual "systematically uses unethically psychological manipulation, manipulative methods to persuade others to conform to the wishes of the manipulator(s), often to the detriment of the person being manipulated". The term has been applied to any tactic, psychological or otherwise, which can be seen as subverting an individual's sense of control over their own thinking, behaviour, emotions or decision making.


Misconduct

Misconduct means a wrongful, improper, or unlawful conduct motivated by premeditated or intentional purpose or by obstinate indifference to the consequences of one's acts. Three categories of misconduct are ''official misconduct'', ''professional misconduct ''and ''sexual misconduct''.


Mobbing

Mobbing means
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bullying
of an individual by a group in any context. Identified as emotional abuse in the workplace (such as "ganging up" on someone by co-workers, subordinates or superiors) to force someone out of the workplace through rumour, innuendo,
intimidationIntimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that "would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" to fear injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage Damage is any change in a thing, often a physical object, that degr ...

intimidation
, humiliation, discrediting, and Isolation to facilitate abuse, isolation, it is also referred to as malicious, nonsexual, nonracial, general harassment. Mobbing can take place in any group environment such as a workplace, neighbourhood or family.


Narcissistic abuse

Narcissistic abuse is a term that emerged in the late 20th century, and became more prominent in the 2000s (decade), 2000s decade. It originally referred specifically to abuse by narcissistic parents of their children, but more recently has come to mean any abuse by a narcissist (egotistical person or someone with arrogant pride).


Neglect

Neglect is a passive form of abuse in which a caregiver responsible for providing care for a victim (a child, a physically or mentally disabled adult, an animal, a plant, or an inanimate object) fails to provide adequate care for the victim's needs, to the detriment of the victim. It is typically seen as a form of laziness or apathy on the form of the caregiver, rather than ignorance due to inability; accordingly, neglect of a child by and adult with mental disorders or who is overworked is not considered abuse, although this may constitute child neglect nonetheless. Examples of neglect include failing to provide sufficient Childcare, supervision, nourishment, medical care or other needs for which the victim is helpless to provide for themselves.


Negligence

Negligence is behavior, conduct that is Culpability, culpable (to blame) because it falls short of what a reasonable person would do to protect another individual from foreseeable risks of harm.


Nurse abuse or nursing abuse


Online abuse

:''See: Abuse#Cyber abuse or cyber bullying''


Parental abuse by children

Abuse of parents by their children is a common but under-reported and under-researched subject. Parents are quite often subject to levels of childhood aggression, typically in the form of
verbal Verbal may refer to: People *Verbal (rapper) Verbal (born August 21, 1975) is a Japanese hip hop musician, recording artist, music video director and record producer who debuted in 1998 as a member of the hip hop group M-Flo. He is a third gener ...
or
physical abuse Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or Physical trauma, trauma to another person or animal abuse, animal by way of bodily contact. In most cases, children are the victims of physical abuse, but adults can also be victims, as in cas ...
, in excess of normal childhood aggressive outbursts. Parents feel a sense of shame and humiliation to have that problem, so they rarely seek help; nor is much help available today.


Passive–aggressive behaviour

Passive–aggressive behaviour is a form of covert abuse. It is passive, sometimes obstructionist resistance to following through with expectations in interpersonal or occupational situations. It can manifest itself as learned helplessness, procrastination, stubbornness, resentment, :wikt:sullen, sullenness, or deliberate and repeated failures in accomplishing tasks for which one is (often explicitly) expected to do.


Patient abuse

Patient abuse or
neglect In the context of caregiving A caregiver is a paid or unpaid member of a person's social network A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and othe ...
is any action or failure to act which causes unreasonable suffering, misery or harm to the patient. It includes physical abuse, physically striking or sexual assault, sexually assaulting a patient. It also includes withholding of necessary food, physical care, and medical attention. It applies to various contexts such as hospitals, nursing homes, clinics and home visits.


Peer abuse

"Peer abuse" is an expression popularised by author Elizabeth Bennett in 2006 to reinforce the idea that it is as valid to identify
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bullying
as a form of abuse just as one would identify any other form of abuse. The term conveys similar connotations to the term ''peer victimisation''.


Persecution

Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another group. The most common forms are religious persecution, ethnic persecution, and political persecution; though there is naturally some overlap between these terms.


Personal abuse or personal attacks

:''See: Abuse#Ad hominem abuse''


Physical abuse

Physical abuse is abuse involving contact intended to cause feelings of intimidation, pain, injury, or other physical
suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering is the basic element that makes up the negative valence of affective ...

suffering
or bodily harm.


Torture

Torture is any act by which severe suffering, pain, whether physical or psychological, is intentionally inflicted.


Police abuse

''Police brutality'' is the intentional use of excessive force by a police officer. Though usually physical it has the potential to arise in the form of verbal abuse, verbal attacks or psychological abuse, psychological intimidation. It is in some instances triggered by "contempt of cop", i.e., perceived disrespect towards police officers. ''Police corruption'' is a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits and/or career advancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest. ''Police misconduct'' refers to inappropriate actions taken by police officers in connection with their official duties. Police misconduct can lead to a miscarriage of justice and sometimes involves discrimination.


Political abuse

Further reading * Behera, Navnita Chadha ''Perpetuating the divide: Political abuse of history in South Asia journal Contemporary South Asia'', Volume 5, Issue 2 July 1996, Pages 191–205 * Birley, J. ''Political abuse of psychiatry'' Psychiatry, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 22–25 * Bonnie, Richard J. ''Political Abuse of Psychiatry in the Soviet Union and in China: Complexities and Controversies'' J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 30:136–44, 2002 * Zwi, AB. ''The political abuse of medicine and the challenge of opposing it.'' Soc Sci Med. 1987;25(6):649-57.


Prejudice

A prejudice is a preconceived belief, opinion, or judgment toward a group of people or a single person because of race (classification of human beings), race, social class, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, ageing, age, disability, political beliefs, religion, line of work or other personal characteristics. It also means A priori and a posteriori, a priori beliefs (without knowledge of the facts) and includes "any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence." Although positive and negative prejudice both exist, when used negatively, "prejudice" implies fear and antipathy toward such a group or person.


Prison abuse or prisoner abuse

Prisoner abuse is the mistreatment of persons while they are under arrest or incarcerated. Abuse falling into this category includes: * Physical abuse: hitting, beating, or other unauthorised corporal punishment. * Psychological abuse: taunting, sleep deprivation, or other forms of psychological abuse, occasionally white noise * Sexual abuse: forced intercourse, genital mutilation, or other forms of sexual abuse. * Other abuse: refusal of essential medication, humiliation, etc. * Enhanced interrogation: methods implemented in the War on Terror purportedly needed to extract information since other techniques would not yield results. * Torture: any act by which severe suffering, pain, whether physical or psychological, is intentionally inflicted


Professional abuse

Professional abusers: * take advantage of their client or patient's trust * exploit their vulnerability * do not act in their best interests * fail to keep professional boundaries Abuse may be: * discriminatory * #Financial abuse, financial *
physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physical" (Olivia Newton-John song) *Physical ( ...
/
neglect In the context of caregiving A caregiver is a paid or unpaid member of a person's social network A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and othe ...
ful * psychological abuse, psychological/emotional * sexual abuse, sexual Professional abuse always involves: * Abuse of trust, betrayal of trust * wikt:exploitation, exploitation of vulnerability * violation of professional boundaries Further reading * Dorpat, Theodore L (1996). ''Gaslighting, the Double Whammy, Interrogation and Other Methods of Covert Control in Psychotherapy and Analysis. ''Jason Aronson, Incorporated. * Penfold, P. Susan (1998). ''Sexual Abuse by Health Professionals: A Personal Search for Meaning and Healing.'' University of Toronto Press.


Psychological abuse

Psychological abuse, also referred to as emotional abuse or mental abuse, is a form of abuse characterized by a person subjecting or exposing another to behavior that is psychologically harmful. Such abuse is often associated with situations of power imbalance, such as abusive relationships,
bullying upright=1.3, Banner in a campaign against bullying at Cefet-MG Bullying is the use of force, coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a ''communicated'' intent to inflict ...

bullying
,
child abuse Child abuse or child maltreatment is , , and/or maltreatment or of a child or children, especially by a parent or a caregiver. Child abuse may include any act or by a parent or a caregiver that results in actual or potential harm to a chil ...

child abuse
and in the workplace bullying, workplace.


Racial abuse

Racism is abusive attitudes or treatment of others based on the belief that race (classification of human beings), race is a essentialism, primary determinant of human traits and capacities. It is a form of pride that one's own race is superior and, as a result, has a right to "rule or dominate others," according to a ''Macquarie Dictionary'' definition. Racism is correlated with and can foster race-based prejudice, violence, dislike, discrimination, and oppression.


Ragging

Ragging is a form of abuse on newcomers to educational institutions in India, Sri Lanka, and Australia. It is similar to the American phenomenon known as hazing. Currently, Sri Lanka is said to be its worst affected country in the world.


Rape

Rape, a form of assault, sexual assault, is an assault by a person involving sexual intercourse (with or without sexual penetration) of another without the other's consent (this includes those who are considered unable to consent, e.g., if they were inebriated or asleep) The rate of reporting, prosecution and convictions for rape varies considerably in different jurisdictions. The US Bureau of Justice Statistics (1999) estimated that 91% of US rape victims are female and 9% are male, with 99% of the offenders being male. The study was conducted in Detroit, USA. In one survey of women, only two percent of respondents who stated they were sexually assaulted said that the assault was perpetrated by a stranger. For men, prison rape, male-male rape in prisons has been a significant problem.


Relational aggression

Relational aggression, also known as covert aggression or covert
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bullying
is a type of
aggression Aggression is overt or covert, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other harm upon another individual. It may occur either reactively or without provocation. In humans, aggression can be caused by various ...
in which harm is caused through damage to Interpersonal relationship, relationships or social status within a group rather than physical violence. Relational aggression is more common and has been studied more among girls than boys.


Religious abuse

Religious abuse refers to: * use of religious teachings in an abusive manner that causes psychological trauma, psychological harm * harassment or humiliation on the basis of the victim's religion, (see religious discrimination) * misuse of a religion for selfish, secular or ideological ends, see ** religion and politics ** abuse of a clerical position to perpetrate non-religiously motivated abuse, such as in the Catholic sex abuse cases * any form of religious violence, including: ** human sacrifice ** violent initiation rites


Resident abuse

:''See: Resident abuse''


Rudeness

Rudeness (also called impudence or effrontery) is the disrespect and failure to behave within the context of a society or a group of people's social laws or etiquette.


Satanic ritual abuse

Satanic ritual abuse (SRA, sometimes known as ritual abuse, ritualistic abuse, organised abuse, sadistic ritual abuse and other variants) was a moral panic that originated in the United States in the 1980s, spreading throughout the country and eventually to many parts of the world, before subsiding in the late 1990s.


School bullying

School bullying is a type of
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bullying
that occurs in connection with education, either inside or outside of school. Bullying can be physical, verbal, or emotional and is usually repeated over a period of time.


Sectarian abuse


Self-abuse

Self-destructive behaviour is a broad set of extreme actions and emotions including self-harm and drug abuse. It can take a variety of forms, and may be undertaken for a variety of reasons. It tends to be most visible in young adults and adolescents, but may affect people of any age.


Sexual abuse

Sexual abuse is the forcing of undesired sexual behaviour by one person upon another, when that force falls short of being considered a assault, sexual assault. The offender is referred to as a "sexual abuser''"'' or – more pejoratively – "molester''"''. The term also covers ''any'' behaviour by ''any'' adult towards a child to stimulate either the adult or child sexually. When the victim is younger than the age of consent, it is referred to as
child sexual abuse Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include engaging in Human sexual activity, sexual activities with a ...
.


Sexual bullying

Sexual bullying is "any bullying behaviour, whether physical or non-physical, that is based on a person's sexuality or gender. It is when sexuality or gender is used as a weapon by boys or girls towards other boys or girls – although it is more commonly directed at girls. It can be carried out to a person's face, behind their back or through the use of technology."


Sibling abuse

Sibling abuse is the
physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physical" (Olivia Newton-John song) *Physical ( ...
, emotional abuse, emotional, and/or
sexual abuse Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is abusive sexual behavior Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their Human sexuality, sexuality. Peopl ...
of one sibling by another. It is estimated that as many as 3% of children are dangerously abusive towards a sibling, making sibling abuse more common than either
child abuse Child abuse or child maltreatment is , , and/or maltreatment or of a child or children, especially by a parent or a caregiver. Child abuse may include any act or by a parent or a caregiver that results in actual or potential harm to a chil ...

child abuse
by parents or spousal abuse.


Smear campaign

A "smear campaign", "smear tactic" or simply "smear" is a metaphor for activity that can harm an individual or group's reputation by Conflate#Logic, conflation with a Social stigma, stigmatised group. Sometimes smear is used more generally to include any reputation-damaging activity, including such colloquialisms as mud slinging.


Societal abuse

:''See: Abuse#Structural abuse''


Spiritual abuse

Spiritual abuse occurs when a person in religious authority or a person with a unique spiritual practice misleads and maltreats another person in the name of God or or in the mystery of any spiritual concept. Spiritual abuse often refers to an abuser using spiritual or religious rank in taking advantage of the victim's spirituality (mentality and passion on spiritual matters) by putting the victim in a state of unquestioning obedience to an abusive authority.


Spousal abuse

:''See: Abuse#Domestic abuse or domestic violence''


Stalking

Stalking is unwanted attention towards others by individuals (and sometimes groups of people). Stalking behaviours are related to harassment and
intimidationIntimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that "would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" to fear injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage Damage is any change in a thing, often a physical object, that degr ...

intimidation
. The word "stalking" is a term that has different meanings in different contexts in psychology and psychiatry; and some legal jurisdictions use it to refer to a certain type of criminal offence. It may also to refer to criminal offences or civil wrongs that include conduct which some people consider to be stalking, such as those described in law as "harassment" or similar terms.


Structural abuse

Structural abuse is sexual abuse, sexual, emotional abuse, emotional or
physical abuse Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or Physical trauma, trauma to another person or animal abuse, animal by way of bodily contact. In most cases, children are the victims of physical abuse, but adults can also be victims, as in cas ...
that is imposed on an individual or group by a social or cultural system or authority. Structural abuse is indirect, and exploits the victim on an emotional, mental or psychological level.


Substance use disorder

A substance use disorder is a patterned use of a drug in which the person consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder. Widely differing definitions of substance use disorder are used in public health, medical and criminal justice contexts. In some cases criminal or anti-social behavior occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long term personality changes in individuals may occur as well. In addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm, use of some drugs may also lead to criminal penalties, although these vary widely depending on the local jurisdiction.(2002). ''Mosby's Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary''. Sixth Edition. Drug abuse definition, p. 552. Nursing diagnoses, p. 2109. .


Surveillance abuse

Surveillance abuse is the use of surveillance methods or technology to monitor the activity of an individual or group of individuals in a way which violates the social norms or laws of a society. Mass surveillance by the state may constitute surveillance abuse if not appropriately regulated. Surveillance abuse often falls outside the scope of lawful interception. It is illegal because it violates peoples' right to privacy.


Taunting

A taunt is a battle cry, a method in hand-to-hand combat, sarcastic remark, or insult intended to demoralise the recipient, or to anger them and encourage reactionary behaviours without thinking. Taunting can exist as a form of social competition to gain control of the target's cultural capital (i.e. social status, status). In sociological theory, the control of the three social capitals is used to produce an advantage in the social hierarchy as to enforce one's own position in relation to others. Taunting is committed by either directly
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bullying
, or indirectly encouraging others to bully the target. It is also possible to give a response of the same kind, to ensure one's own status. It can be compared to fighting words and trash-talk.


Teacher abuse

:''See: Teacher abuse''


Teasing

Teasing is a word with many meanings. In human interactions, teasing comes in two major forms, ''playful'' and ''hurtful''. In mild cases, and especially when it is reciprocal, teasing can be viewed as playful and friendly. However, teasing is often unwelcome and then it takes the form of harassment. In extreme cases, teasing may escalate to actual violence, and may even result in abuse. Children are commonly teased on such matters as their Human physical appearance, appearance, weight, behaviour, Skill, abilities, and clothing. This kind of teasing is often hurtful, even when the teaser believes he or she is being playful. One may also tease an animal. Some animals, such as dogs and cats, may recognise this as play; but in humans, teasing can become hurtful and take the form of
bullying upright=1.3, Banner in a campaign against bullying at Cefet-MG Bullying is the use of force, coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a ''communicated'' intent to inflict ...

bullying
and abuse.


Telephone abuse

:''See: Nuisance call''


Terrorism

Terrorism is the systematic use of fear, terror especially as a means of
coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a communication of intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimidation is widely observed in animal behavior (particularly in a ritualiz ...
. At present, there is no internationally agreed definition of terrorism. Common definitions of terrorism refer only to those violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror), are perpetrated for an ideological goal (as opposed to a Lone wolf (terrorism), lone attack), and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants (e.g., Neutrality (international relations), neutral military personnel or civilians). It is sometimes sponsored by state policies when a country is not able to prove itself militarily to another enemy country.


Transgender abuse or trans bashing

Trans bashing is the act of victimising a person physically, sexually, or verbally because they are transgender or Transsexualism, transsexual. Unlike gay bashing, it is committed because of the target's actual or perceived gender identity, not sexual orientation.


Umpire abuse

Umpire abuse refers to the act of abuse towards an umpire, referee, or other official in sport. The abuse can be verbal abuse (such as namecalling), or
physical abuse Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or Physical trauma, trauma to another person or animal abuse, animal by way of bodily contact. In most cases, children are the victims of physical abuse, but adults can also be victims, as in cas ...
(such as punching).


Verbal abuse or verbal attacks

Verbal abuse is a form of abusive behaviour involving the use of language. It is a form of profanity that can occur with or without the use of Expletive attributive, expletives. While oral communication is the most common form of verbal abuse, it also includes abusive words in written form. Verbal abuse is a pattern of behaviour that can seriously interfere with one's positive emotional development and can lead to significant detriment to one's self-esteem, emotional Quality of life, well-being, and physical state. It has been further described as an ongoing emotional environment organised by the abuser for the purposes of control.


Whispering campaign

A whispering campaign is a method of persuasion in which damaging rumours or innuendo are spread about the target, while the source of the rumours seeks to avoid being detected while spreading them (for example, a political campaign might distribute anonymous flyers attacking the other candidate).


Workplace abuse or workplace bullying

Workplace bullying, like childhood
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bullying
, is the tendency of individuals or groups to use persistent aggressive or unreasonable behaviour against a co-worker. Workplace bullying can include such tactics as
verbal Verbal may refer to: People *Verbal (rapper) Verbal (born August 21, 1975) is a Japanese hip hop musician, recording artist, music video director and record producer who debuted in 1998 as a member of the hip hop group M-Flo. He is a third gener ...
, nonverbal, psychological abuse, psychological,
physical abuse Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or Physical trauma, trauma to another person or animal abuse, animal by way of bodily contact. In most cases, children are the victims of physical abuse, but adults can also be victims, as in cas ...
and humiliation. This type of
aggression Aggression is overt or covert, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other harm upon another individual. It may occur either reactively or without provocation. In humans, aggression can be caused by various ...
is particularly difficult because unlike the typical forms of school bullying, workplace bullies often operate within the established rules and policies of their organisation and their society. Bullying in the workplace is in the majority of cases reported as having been perpetrated by a manager and takes a wide variety of forms.


Characteristics and styles of abuse

Some important characteristics and styles of abuse are: * overt abuse * covert (or control freak, controlling) abuse * unpredictability * disproportional (exaggerated) reactions * dehumanisation and objectification * breach of confidence, abuse of information * impossible situations (setting up to fail) * proxy abuse, control by proxy * ambient abuse (gaslighting)


Telltale signs of abuse

Telltale signs may include: # Isolation to facilitate abuse, isolation # irrational jealousy # subtle presence of physical abuse, physical violence # discounting, Minimisation (psychology), minimising, and trivialising # criticism, criticising # withholding # blaming.


Abusive power and control

Abusive power and control (or controlling behaviour or coercive control) is the way that abusers gain and maintain Power (social and political), power and control over a victim for an abusive purpose such as psychological abuse, psychological,
physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physical" (Olivia Newton-John song) *Physical ( ...
, sexual abuse, sexual, or financial abuse. The abuse can be for various reasons such as personal gain, personal gratification, psychological projection, Idealization and devaluation, devaluation, envy, or just for the sake of it as the abuser may simply enjoy exercising power and control. Controlling abusers may use multiple tactics to exert power and control over their victims. The tactics themselves are psychologically and sometimes physically abusive. Control may be helped through Economic abuse#Controlling mechanism, economic abuse thus limiting the victim's actions as they may then lack the necessary resources to resist the abuse.''Economic abuse wheel''
Women's Domestic Abuse Helpline. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
The goal of the abuser is to control and intimidate the victim or to Social influence, influence them to feel that they do not have an equal voice in the relationship.Jill Cory; Karen McAndless-Davis.
When Love Hurts: A Woman's Guide to Understanding Abuse in Relationships
'. WomanKind Press; 1 January 2000. . p. 30.
Psychological manipulation, Manipulators and abusers control their victims with a range of tactics, including positive reinforcement (such as praise, superficial charm, flattery, ingratiation, love bombing, smiling, gifts, attention), negative reinforcement, intermittent or partial reinforcement, Punishment (psychology), psychological punishment (such as nagging, silent treatment, profanity, swearing, threats,
intimidationIntimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that "would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" to fear injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage Damage is any change in a thing, often a physical object, that degr ...

intimidation
, emotional blackmail, guilt trips, inattention) and traumatic tactics (such as verbal abuse or explosive anger). The Vulnerabilities exploited by manipulators, vulnerabilities of the victim are exploited with those who are particularly vulnerable being most often selected as targets. Traumatic bonding can occur between the abuser and victim as the result of ongoing cycle of abuse, cycles of abuse in which the intermittent reinforcement of Reward system, reward and punishment creates powerful emotional bonds that are resistant to change and a climate of fear.Chrissie Sanderson.
Counselling Survivors of Domestic Abuse
'. Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 15 June 2008.
An attempt may be made to Normalization (sociology), normalise, legitimise, Rationalization (psychology), rationalise, Denial, deny, or Minimisation (psychology), minimise the abusive behaviour, or blame the victim for it. Isolation to facilitate abuse, Isolation, gaslighting, mind games, lie, lying, disinformation, propaganda, destabilisation, brainwashing and divide and rule are other strategies that are often used. The victim may be plied with alcohol or drugs or deprived of sleep to help disorientate them. Certain personality types feel particularly compelled to control other people.


Psychological characteristics of abusers

In their review of data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (a longitudinal birth cohort study; n = 941) Moffitt et al. report that while men exhibit more aggression overall, gender is not a reliable predictor of interpersonal aggression, including psychological aggression. The study found that whether male or female, aggressive people share a cluster of traits, including high rates of suspicion and jealousy; sudden and drastic mood swings; poor self-control; and higher than average rates of approval of violence and aggression (in American society, females are, on average, excused when violent against males). Moffitt et al. also argue that antisocial personality disorder, antisocial men exhibit two distinct types of interpersonal aggression (one against strangers, the other against intimate female partners), while antisocial women are rarely aggressive against anyone other than intimate male partners. Male and female perpetrators of emotional and physical abuse exhibit high rates of personality disorders. Rates of personality disorder in the general population are roughly 15%–20%, while roughly 80% of abusive men in court-ordered treatment programmes have personality disorders. There are no similar statistics on female perpetrators of family violence due to bias in the data gathering procedure. The only statistics available are the reports on child maltreatment, which show that mothers use physical discipline on children more often than fathers, while severe injury and sexual abuse are more often perpetrated by men. Abusers may aim to avoid household chores or exercise total control of family finances. Abusers can be very Psychological manipulation, manipulative, often recruiting friends, law officers and court officials, even the victim's family to their side, while victim blaming, shifting blame to the victim.


Effects of abuse on victims

English et al. report that children whose families are characterised by interpersonal violence, including psychological aggression and verbal aggression, may exhibit a range of serious disorders, including chronic depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, dissociation (psychology), dissociation and anger. Additionally, English et al. report that the impact of emotional abuse "did not differ significantly" from that of physical abuse. Johnson et al. report that, in a survey of female patients (n = 825), 24% suffered emotional abuse, and this group experienced higher rates of gynaecological problems. In their study of men emotionally abused by a wife/partner (n = 116), Hines and Malley-Morrison report that victims exhibit high rates of post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism. Namie's studyNamie, G. (October 2000). ''U.S. Hostile Workplace Survey 2000''. Paper presented at the New England Conference on Workplace Bullying, Suffolk University Law School, Boston. of workplace bullying found that 31% of women and 21% of men who reported workplace bullying exhibited three key symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (hypervigilance, intrusive imagery, and avoidance behaviours). A 1998 study of male college students (n = 70) by Simonelli & Ingram found that men who were emotionally abused by their female partners exhibited higher rates of chronic depression than the general population. A study of college students (n = 80) by Goldsmith and Freyd report that many who have experienced emotional abuse do not characterise the mistreatment as abusive. Additionally, Goldsmith and Freyd show that these people also tend to exhibit higher than average rates of alexithymia (difficulty identifying and processing their own emotions). Jacobson et al. found that women report markedly higher rates of fear during marital conflicts. However, a rejoinder argued that Jacobson's results were invalid due to men and women's drastically differing interpretations of questionnaires. Coker et al. found that the effects of mental abuse were similar whether the victim was male or female. Pimlott-Kubiak and Cortina found that severity and duration of abuse were the only accurate predictors of aftereffects of abuse; sex of perpetrator or victim were not reliable predictors. Analysis of a large survey (n = 25,876) by LaRoche found that women abused by men were slightly more likely to seek psychological help than were men abused by women (63% vs. 62%). In a 2007 study, Laurent, et al., report that psychological aggression in young couples (n = 47) is associated with decreased satisfaction for both partners: "psychological aggression may serve as an impediment to couples development because it reflects less mature coercive tactics and an inability to balance self/other needs effectively." A 2008 study by Walsh and Shulman reports that psychological aggression by females is more likely to be associated with relationship dissatisfaction for both partners, while withdrawal by men is more likely to be associated with relationship dissatisfaction for both partners.


See also


Notes


References


Further reading

* Macpherson, Michael Colin ''The psychology of abuse'' (1985) Search for this book:


External links

* {{Authority control Abuse, Human rights abuses Military prisoner abuse scandals Catholic Church sexual abuse scandals in the United States