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The Zulu (Zulu: amaZulu) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa and the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with an estimated 10–12 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Small numbers also live in Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania
Tanzania
and Mozambique.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Kingdom

2.1 Conflict with the British 2.2 Absorption into Natal

3 Apartheid
Apartheid
years

3.1 KwaZulu
KwaZulu
homeland 3.2 Inkatha YeSizwe

4 Modern Zulu population 5 Language 6 Clothing 7 Religion and beliefs 8 Notable Zulus 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Origins[edit] The Zulu were originally a major clan in what is today Northern KwaZulu-Natal, founded ca. 1709 by Zulu kaMalandela. In the Nguni languages, iZulu means heaven, or weather.[3] At that time, the area was occupied by many large Nguni communities and clans (also called isizwe=nation, people or isibongo=clan or family name). Nguni communities had migrated down Africa's east coast over centuries, as part of the Bantu migrations probably arriving in what is now South Africa in about the 9th century.[citation needed]

Shaka, king of the Zulu. After a sketch by Lt. James King, a Port Natal merchant

Kingdom[edit]

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Main article: Zulu Kingdom The Zulu formed a powerful state in 1818[4] under the leader Shaka. Shaka, as the Zulu King, gained a large amount of power over the tribe. As commander in the army of the powerful Mthethwa Empire, he became leader of his mentor Dingiswayo's paramouncy and united what was once a confederation of tribes into an imposing empire under Zulu hegemony. Conflict with the British[edit] Main article: Anglo-Zulu War On 19th December 1878, agents of the British delivered an ultimatum to 11 chiefs representing Cetshwayo. The terms forced upon Cetshwayo required him to disband his army and accept British authority. Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
refused, and war followed January 12, 1879. During the war, the Zulus defeated the British at the Battle of Isandlwana
Battle of Isandlwana
on 22 January. The British managed to get the upper hand after the Battle at Rorke's Drift, and subsequently win the war with the Zulu being defeated at the Battle of Ulundi
Battle of Ulundi
on 4 July. Absorption into Natal[edit]

Zulu warriors, late nineteenth century (Europeans in background)

After Cetshwayo's capture a month following his defeat, the British divided the Zulu Empire into 13 "kinglets". The sub-kingdoms fought amongst each other until 1883 when Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
was reinstated as king over Zululand. This still did not stop the fighting and the Zulu monarch was forced to flee his realm by Zibhebhu, one of the 13 kinglets, supported by Boer
Boer
mercenaries. Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
died in February 1884, killed by Zibhebhu's regime, leaving his son, the 15-year-old Dinuzulu, to inherit the throne. In-fighting between the Zulu continued for years, until Zululand was absorbed fully into the British colony of Natal. Apartheid
Apartheid
years[edit] KwaZulu
KwaZulu
homeland[edit] Main article: KwaZulu

Zulu man performing traditional warrior dance

Under apartheid, the homeland of KwaZulu
KwaZulu
(Kwa meaning place of) was created for Zulu people. In 1970, the Bantu Homeland Citizenship Act provided that all Zulus would become citizens of KwaZulu, losing their South African citizenship. KwaZulu
KwaZulu
consisted of a large number of disconnected pieces of land, in what is now KwaZulu-Natal. Hundreds of thousands of Zulu people
Zulu people
living on privately owned "black spots" outside of KwaZulu
KwaZulu
were dispossessed and forcibly moved to bantustans – worse land previously reserved for whites contiguous to existing areas of KwaZulu. By 1993, approximately 5.2 million Zulu people
Zulu people
lived in KwaZulu, and approximately 2 million lived in the rest of South Africa. The Chief Minister of KwaZulu, from its creation in 1970 (as Zululand) was Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi. In 1994, KwaZulu
KwaZulu
was joined with the province of Natal, to form modern KwaZulu-Natal. Inkatha YeSizwe[edit] Main article: Inkatha Freedom Party Inkatha YeSizwe means "the crown of the nation". In 1975, Buthelezi revived the Inkatha YaKwaZulu, predecessor of the Inkatha Freedom Party. This organization was nominally a protest movement against apartheid, but held more conservative views than the ANC. For example, Inkatha was opposed to the armed struggle, and to sanctions against South Africa. Inkatha was initially on good terms with the ANC, but the two organizations came into increasing conflict beginning in 1976 in the aftermath of the Soweto Uprising. Modern Zulu population[edit]

Zulu mother and child

The modern Zulu population is fairly evenly distributed in both urban and rural areas. Although KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
is still their heartland, large numbers have been attracted to the relative economic prosperity of Gauteng
Gauteng
province. Indeed, Zulu is the most widely spoken home language in the province, followed by Sotho. Language[edit]

Map of South Africa
South Africa
showing the primary Zulu language
Zulu language
speech area in green

Main article: Zulu language The language of the Zulu people
Zulu people
is "isiZulu", a Bantu language; more specifically, part of the Nguni subgroup. Zulu is the most widely spoken language in South Africa, where it is an official language. More than half of the South African population are able to understand it, with over 9 million first-language and over 15 million second-language speakers.[5] Many Zulu people
Zulu people
also speak Afrikaans, English, Portuguese, Xitsonga, Sesotho
Sesotho
and others from among South Africa's 11 official languages. Clothing[edit] See also: Swenkas

Zulu village women in traditional clothing.

Interior space of a traditional beehive hut, or iQhugwane

Zulus wear a variety of attire, both traditional for ceremonial or culturally celebratory occasions, and modern westernized clothing for everyday use. The women dress differently depending on whether they are single, engaged, or married. The men wore a leather belt with two strips of hide hanging down front and back. Religion and beliefs[edit] See also: Zulu mythology

Zulu worshippers at a United African Apostolic Church, near Oribi Gorge

Most Zulu people
Zulu people
state their beliefs to be Christian. Some of the most common churches to which they belong are African Initiated Churches, especially the Zion Christian Church, [Nazareth Baptist Church] and United African Apostolic Church, although membership of major European Churches, such as the Dutch Reformed, Anglican and Catholic Churches are also common. Nevertheless, many lZulus retain their traditional pre-Christian belief system of ancestor worship in parallel with their Christianity. Zulu religion includes belief in a creator God (uNkulunkulu) who is above interacting in day-to-day human life, although this belief appears to have originated from efforts by early Christian missionaries to frame the idea of the Christian God in Zulu terms.[6] Traditionally, the more strongly held Zulu belief was in ancestor spirits (amaThongo or amaDlozi), who had the power to intervene in people's lives, for good or ill.[7] This belief continues to be widespread among the modern Zulu population.[8] Traditionally, the Zulu recognize several elements to be present in a human being: the physical body (inyama yomzimba or umzimba); the breath or life force (umoya womphefumulo or umoya); and the "shadow," prestige, or personality (isithunzi). Once the umoya leaves the body, the isithunzi may live on as an ancestral spirit (idlozi) only if certain conditions were met in life.[9][10] Behaving with ubuntu, or showing respect and generosity towards others, enhances one's moral standing or prestige in the community, one's isithunzi.[11] By contrast, acting in a negative way towards others can reduce the isithunzi, and it is possible for the isithunzi to fade away completely.[12]

Zulu sangomas (diviners)

In order to appeal to the spirit world, a diviner (sangoma) must invoke the ancestors through divination processes to determine the problem. Then, a herbalist (inyanga) prepares a mixture (muthi) to be consumed in order to influence the ancestors. As such, diviners and herbalists play an important part in the daily lives of the Zulu people. However, a distinction is made between white muthi (umuthi omhlope), which has positive effects, such as healing or the prevention or reversal of misfortune, and black muthi (umuthi omnyama), which can bring illness or death to others, or ill-gotten wealth to the user.[8] Users of black muthi are considered witches, and shunned by the society. Christianity
Christianity
had difficulty gaining a foothold among the Zulu people, and when it did it was in a syncretic fashion. Isaiah Shembe, considered the Zulu Messiah, presented a form of Christianity
Christianity
(the Nazareth Baptist Church) which incorporated traditional customs.[13]

Traditional Zulu dance

Notable Zulus[edit] Main article: List of Zulu people See also[edit]

Gumboot dance Inkatha Freedom Party List of Zulu kings List of Zulus Nguni Shaka
Shaka
Zulu Ukusoma Zulu language

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h "The Zulu people
Zulu people
group are reported in 7 countries". Retrieved 29 November 2016.  ^ International Marketing Council of South Africa
South Africa
(9 July 2003). " South Africa
South Africa
grows to 44.8 million". www.southafrica.info. Archived from the original on 22 May 2005. Retrieved 4 March 2005.  ^ "izulu in English isiZulu to English Translation - Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Global Languages. Retrieved 2017-01-26.  ^ Bulliet (2008). The Earth and Its Peoples. USA: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 708. ISBN 978-0-618-77148-6.  ^ "Ethnologue report for language code ZUL". www.ethnologue.com.  ^ Irving Hexham (1979). "Lord of the Sky-King of the Earth: Zulu traditional religion and belief in the sky god". Studies in Religion. University of Waterloo. Retrieved 26 October 2008.  External link in journal= (help) ^ Henry Callaway (1870). "Part I:uNkulunkulu". The Religious System of the Amazulu. Springvale.  ^ a b Adam Ashforth (2005). "Muthi, Medicine and Witchcraft: Regulating 'African Science' in Post- Apartheid
Apartheid
South Africa?". 31:2.  ^ Molefi K. Asante, Ama Mazama (2009). Encyclopedia of African religion, Volume 1. Sage.  ^ Axel-Ivar Berglund (1976). Zulu thought-patterns and symbolism. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers.  ^ Abraham Modisa Mkhondo Mzondi (2009). Two Souls Leadership: Dynamic Interplay of Ubuntu, Western and New Testament Leadership Values (PDF) (Thesis). submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctorate in Theology, University of Johannesburg.  ^ Nwamilorho Joseph Tshawane (2009). The Rainbow Nation: A Critical Analysis of the Notions of Community in the Thinking of Desmond Tutu (PDF) (Thesis). submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctorate in Theology, University of South Africa.  ^ "Art & Life in Africa Online - Zulu". University of Iowa. Retrieved 6 June 2007. 

External links[edit] Media related to Zulu people
Zulu people
at Wikimedia Commons

History section of the official page for the Zululand region, Zululand.kzn.org Izithakazelo, wakahina.co.za

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