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The Kingdom of Zulu, sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
from the Tugela River
Tugela River
in the south to Pongola River
Pongola River
in the north. The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
and Southern Africa,[1][2] but when it came into conflict with the British Empire in the 1870s during the Anglo-Zulu War, it was defeated despite an early Zulu victory in the war. The area was subsequently absorbed into the Colony of Natal
Colony of Natal
and later became part of the Union of South Africa.

Contents

1 History

1.1 The rise of the Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
under Shaka 1.2 Dingane's reign

1.2.1 Clashes with Voortrekkers

1.3 Mpande's reign 1.4 Cetshwayo's reign

1.4.1 Anglo-Zulu War 1.4.2 Division and the death of Cetshwayo

1.5 Dinuzulu's reign and exile

2 Recent history

2.1 KwaZulu
KwaZulu
Bantustan 2.2 Modern Zululand

3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

History[edit] The rise of the Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
under Shaka[edit] Main article: Shaka Further information: Zulu royal family Shaka
Shaka
Zulu was the illegitimate son of Senzangakona, King of the Zulus. He was born c. 1787. He and his mother, Nandi, were exiled by Senzangakona, and found refuge with the Mthethwa. Shaka
Shaka
fought as a warrior under Jobe, and then under Jobe's successor, Dingiswayo, leader of the Mthethwa Paramountcy. When Senzangakona
Senzangakona
died, Dingiswayo helped Shaka
Shaka
become chief of the Zulu Kingdom. After Dingiswayo's death at the hands of Zwide, king of the Ndwandwe, around 1818, Shaka assumed leadership of the entire Mthethwa alliance. Shaka
Shaka
initiated many military, social, cultural and political reforms, forming a well-organized and centralised Zulu state. The most important reforms involved the transformation of the army, through the innovative tactics and weapons he conceived, and a showdown with the spiritual leadership, witchdoctors, effectively ensuring the subservience of the "Zulu church" to the state.

King Shaka Drawing (c.1824)

Another important reform integrated defeated clans into the Zulu, on a basis of full equality, with promotions in the army and civil service becoming a matter of merit rather than due to circumstances of birth. The alliance under his leadership survived Zwide's first assault at the Battle of Gqokli Hill
Battle of Gqokli Hill
(1818). Within two years, Shaka
Shaka
had defeated Zwide at the Battle of Mhlatuze River (1820) and broken up the Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
alliance, some of whom in turn began a murderous campaign against other Nguni tribes and clans, setting in motion what became known as Defecane or Mfecane, a mass-migration of tribes fleeing the remnants of the Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
fleeing the Zulu. The death toll has never been satisfactorily determined, but the whole region became nearly depopulated. Normal estimates for the death toll during this period range from 1 million to 2 million people. These numbers are however controversial.[3][4][5][6] By 1825, Shaka
Shaka
had conquered an empire covering an area of around 11,500 square miles (30,000 km2). An offshoot of the Zulu, the amaNdebele, better known to history as the Matabele created an even larger empire under their king Mzilikazi, including large parts of the highveld and modern-day Zimbabwe. Dingane's reign[edit]

Map illustrating the rise of the Zulu Empire under Shaka
Shaka
(1816–1828) in present-day South Africa. The rise of the Zulu Empire      forced other chiefdoms and clans to flee across a wide area of southern Africa. Clans fleeing the Zulu war zone      included the Soshangane, Zwangendaba, Ndebele, Hlubi, Ngwane, and the Mfengu. A number of clans were caught between the Zulu Empire and advancing Voortrekkers
Voortrekkers
and British Empire      such as the Xhosa     .

Shaka
Shaka
was succeeded by Dingane, his half-brother, who conspired with Mhlangana, another half-brother, and Mbopa, an InDuna, to murder him in 1828. Following this assassination, Dingane murdered Mhlangana, and took over the throne. One of his first royal acts was to execute all of his royal kin. In the years that followed, he also executed many past supporters of Shaka
Shaka
in order to secure his position. One exception to these purges was Mpande, another half-brother, who was considered too weak to be a threat at the time.[7] Clashes with Voortrekkers[edit]

Military innovations such as the assegai, the age-grade regimental system and encirclement tactics helped make the Zulu one of the most powerful nations in southern and south-eastern Africa.

Before encountering the British, the Zulus were first confronted with the Boers. In an attempt to form their own state as a protection against the British, the Boers
Boers
began moving across the Orange River northwards. While travelling they first collided with the Ndebele kingdom, and then with Dingane's Zulu kingdom.[8] In October 1837, the Voortrekker
Voortrekker
leader Piet Retief
Piet Retief
visited Dingane at his royal kraal to negotiate a land deal for the voortrekkers. In November, about 1,000 Voortrekker
Voortrekker
wagons began descending the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
mountains from the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
into what is now KwaZulu-Natal. Dingane asked that Retief and his party retrieve some cattle stolen from him by a local chief as part of the treaty for land for the Boers. This Retief and his men did, returning on 3 February 1838. The next day, a treaty was signed, wherein Dingane ceded all the land south of the Tugela River
Tugela River
to the Mzimvubu River
Mzimvubu River
to the Voortrekkers. Celebrations followed. On 6 February, at the end of the celebrations, Retief's party were invited to a dance, and asked to leave their weapons behind. At the peak of the dance, Dingane leapt to his feet and yelled "Bambani abathakathi!" (isiZulu for "Seize the wizards"). Retief and his men were overpowered, taken to the nearby hill kwaMatiwane, and executed. Some believe that they were killed for withholding some of the cattle they recovered, but it is likely that the deal was a plot to overpower the Voortrekkers. Dingane's army then attacked and massacred a group of 250 Voortrekker
Voortrekker
men, women and children camped nearby. The site of this massacre is today called Weenen, ( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
for "to weep"). The remaining Voortrekkers
Voortrekkers
elected a new leader, Andries Pretorius, and he led an attack. The Zulu forces and Dingane suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Blood River
Battle of Blood River
on 16 December 1838, when 15 000 Zulu impis (warriors) attacked a group of 470 Voortrekker
Voortrekker
settlers led by Pretorius. Mpande's reign[edit]

King Mpande (Artist: George French Angas)

Following his defeat, Dingane burned his royal household and fled north. Mpande, the half-brother who had been spared from Dingane's purges, defected with 17,000 followers, and, together with Pretorius and the Voortrekkers, went to war with Dingane. Dingane was assassinated near the modern Swaziland
Swaziland
border. Mpande
Mpande
then took over rulership of the Zulu nation. Following the campaign against Dingane, in 1839 the Voortrekkers, under Pretorius, formed the Boer
Boer
republic of Natalia, south of the Tugela, and west of the British settlement of Port Natal (now Durban). Mpande
Mpande
and Pretorius maintained peaceful relations. However, in 1842, war broke out between the British and the Boers, resulting in the British annexation of Natalia. Mpande
Mpande
shifted his allegiance to the British, and remained on good terms with them. In 1843, Mpande
Mpande
ordered a purge of perceived dissidents within his kingdom. This resulted in numerous deaths, and the fleeing of thousands of refugees into neighbouring areas (including the British-controlled Natal). Many of these refugees fled with cattle. Mpande
Mpande
began raiding the surrounding areas, culminating in the invasion of Swaziland
Swaziland
in 1852. However, the British pressured him into withdrawing, which he did shortly.[7] Cetshwayo's reign[edit]

King Cetshwayo Photograph (c. 1875)

At this time, a battle for the succession broke out between two of Mpande's sons, Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
and Mbuyazi. This culminated in 1856 with the Battle of Ndondakusuka, which left Mbuyazi dead. Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
then set about usurping his father's authority. When Mpande
Mpande
died of old age in 1872, Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
took over as ruler. Anglo-Zulu War[edit] Main article: Anglo-Zulu War

Battle of Isandlwana, 1879

On 11 December 1878, with the intent of instigating a war with the Zulu, Sir Henry Bartle Frere, on his own initiative and without the approval of the British government, presented an ultimatum to the Zulu king Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
in terms with which he could not possibly comply.[9] British forces crossed the Tugela river at the end of December 1878. Initially, the British suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 where the Zulu army killed more than 1,000 British soldiers in a single day. The Zulu deployment at Isandhlwana showed the well-organized tactical system that had made the Zulu kingdom successful for many decades. This constituted the worst defeat the British army had ever suffered at the hands of a native African fighting force. The defeat prompted a redirection of the war effort, and the British, though outnumbered, began winning victories, culminating in the Siege of Ulundi, the Zulus' capital city, and the subsequent defeat of the Zulu Kingdom. Division and the death of Cetshwayo[edit] Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
was captured a month after his defeat, and then exiled to Cape Town. The British passed rule of the Zulu kingdom onto 13 "kinglets", each with his own subkingdom. Conflict soon erupted between these subkingdoms, and in 1882, Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
was allowed to visit England. He had audiences with Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
and other famous personages before being allowed to return to Zululand to be reinstated as king.[7] In 1883, Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
was put in place as king over a buffer reserve territory, much reduced from his original kingdom. Later that year, however, Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
was attacked at Ulundi
Ulundi
by Zibhebhu, one of the 13 kinglets. Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
was wounded and fled. Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
died in February 1884, possibly poisoned. His son, Dinuzulu, then 15, inherited the throne.[7] The academic Roberto Breschi notes that Zululand had a flag from 1884 to 1897 but this is pure conjecture as A.P. Burgers notes in his book.[10] It consisted of three horizontal bands in equal width of gold, green and red. Dinuzulu's reign and exile[edit]

King Dinuzulu
Dinuzulu
kaCetshwayo, Photograph (c. 1883)

Dinuzulu
Dinuzulu
made a pact with the Boers
Boers
of his own, promising them land in return for their aid. The Boers
Boers
were led by Louis Botha. Dinuzulu
Dinuzulu
and the Boers
Boers
defeated Zibhebhu in 1884. They were granted about half of Zululand individually as farms, and formed the independent Republic of Vryheid. This alarmed the British who wanted to prevent the Boers access to a harbour. The British then annexed Zululand in 1887. Dinuzulu
Dinuzulu
became involved in later conflicts with rivals. In 1906 Dinuzulu
Dinuzulu
was accused of being behind the Bambatha Rebellion. He was arrested and put on trial by the British for "high treason and public violence". In 1909, he was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment on St Helena island. When the Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
was formed, Louis Botha became its first prime minister, and he arranged for his old ally Dinuzulu
Dinuzulu
to return to South Africa
South Africa
and live in exile on a farm in the Transvaal, where he died in 1913.[7] Dinuzulu's son Solomon ka Dinuzulu
Dinuzulu
was never recognised by South African authorities as the Zulu king, only as a local chief, but he was increasingly regarded as king by chiefs, by political intellectuals such as John Langalibalele Dube
John Langalibalele Dube
and by ordinary Zulu people. In 1923, Solomon founded the organisation Inkatha Ya KwaZulu
KwaZulu
to promote his royal claims, which became moribund and then was revived in the 1970s by Mangosuthu Buthelezi, chief minister of the KwaZulu bantustan. In December 1951, Solomon's son Cyprian Bhekuzulu kaSolomon was officially recognised as the Paramount Chief of the Zulu people, but real power over ordinary Zulu people
Zulu people
lay with South African government officials working through local chiefs who could be removed from office for failure to cooperate.[7] Recent history[edit] KwaZulu
KwaZulu
Bantustan[edit] KwaZulu
KwaZulu
was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Zulu people. The capital was moved from Nongoma
Nongoma
to Ulundi
Ulundi
in 1980. It was led until its abolition in 1994 by Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi of the Zulu royal family and head of the Inkatha Freedom Party
Inkatha Freedom Party
(IFP). It was merged with the surrounding South African province of Natal to form the new province of KwaZulu-Natal. The name kwaZulu translates roughly as Place of Zulus, or more formally Zululand. Modern Zululand[edit] Main articles: Zulu people
Zulu people
and KwaZulu-Natal The area is currently part of the Republic of South Africa
South Africa
as KwaZulu-Natal, one of the country's nine provinces, and a large portion of the territory is made up of wildlife reserves and a major contributing source of income is derived from tourism – the area is known for its beautiful savanna covered hills and stunning views. It is home to a WWF Black Rhinoceros
Black Rhinoceros
reintroduction project known as "The Black Rhino Range Expansion Project" within the Zululand Rhino Reserve (ZRR). The ZRR is a 20,000 hectare reserve consisting of 15 individually owned farms that have lowered their fences in order to further conservation. The Zulu royal family still fulfils many important ceremonial duties. See also[edit]

Historical states in present-day South Africa

before 1600

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(1050–1270) Kingdom of Mutapa
Kingdom of Mutapa
(1430–1760)

1600–1700

Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1795)

1700–1800

Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(ca. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
(ca. 1780–1817) Swellendam
Swellendam
(1795) Graaff-Reinet
Graaff-Reinet
(1795–96) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1802)

1800–1850

Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1802–06) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1806–1910) Waterboer's Land
Waterboer's Land
(1813–71) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1818–97) Adam Kok's Land
Adam Kok's Land
(1825–61) Winburg
Winburg
(1836–44) Potchefstroom
Potchefstroom
(1837–48) Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43)

1850–1875

South African Republic
South African Republic
(1852–1902) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) Republic of Utrecht
Republic of Utrecht
(1854–58) Lydenburg Republic
Lydenburg Republic
(1856–60) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–80) Diggers' Republic (1870-71)

1875–1900

Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Goshen (1882–83) Nieuw Republiek (1884–88) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91)

1900–present

Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1910) Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94) Republic of South Africa
South Africa
(1961–present)

South Africa
South Africa
portal

v t e

African military innovation and change Anglo-Zulu War List of Zulu kings Postage stamps and postal history of Zululand Shaka Zulu people Nguni stick fighting

References[edit]

This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (July 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

^ "South African History Online".  ^ "New History of South Africa".  ^ Walter, Eugene Victor (1969). Terror and Resistance: A Study of Political Violence, with Case Studies of Some Primitive African Communities.  ^ Charters, R. A. (Major, Royal Artillery) (1839). "Notices Of The Cape And Southern Africa, Since The Appointment, As Governor, Of Major-Gen. Sir Geo. Napier". United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine. London: Henry Colburn. 1839, Part III (September, October, November): 19–25, 171–179, 352–359, page 24. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition ^ Hanson, Victor Davis (2001). Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise to Western Power. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-307-42518-8.  ^ a b c d e f "Zulu Kingdom".  ^ Martin Meredith, Diamonds Gold and War, (New York: Public Affairs, 2007):5 ^ Knight, Ian (2004). Zulu War. Osprey. p. 11.  ^ Conjectural flag of Zululand (1884-1897) by Roberto Breschi taken from The South African Flag Book by A.P.Burgers

Further reading[edit]

Bryant, Alfred T. (1964). A History of the Zulu and Neighbouring Tribes. Cape Town: C. Struik. p. 157.  Morris, Donald R. (1965). The Washing of the Spears: the Rise of the Zulu Nation. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 655. 

External links[edit]

Afropop Worldwide's public radio program on Zulu Music, "The Zulu Factor" People of Africa, Zulu marriage explained An article on Piet Retief, including his interactions with Dingane History section of the official page for the Zululand region Human Rights Watch report on KwaZulu, just before the 1994 elections – This includes detailed, well-referenced, sections on recent Zulu history.

v t e

Other South African Governments

Kingdoms Colonies Boer
Boer
States Bantustans National

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97)

Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange River
Orange River
Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10)

Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91)

Gazankulu
Gazankulu
(1971–94) Lebowa
Lebowa
(1972–94) QwaQwa
QwaQwa
(1974–94) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94) KaNgwane
KaNgwane
(1981–94) KwaNdebele
KwaNdebele
(1981–94) KwaZulu
KwaZulu
(1981–94)

Cape Qualified Franchise
Cape Qualified Franchise
(1853–1910) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
(1910–61) Republic of South Africa
South Africa
(1961–Present)

Current Government

v t e

Monarchs of the Zulu Nation

Monarchs of Zululand

Mnguni Nkosinkulu Mdlani Luzumana Malandela kaLuzumana Ntombela kaMalandela Zulu kaNtombela Gumede kaZulu Phunga kaGumede Mageba kaGumede Ndaba kaMageba Jama kaNdaba Senzangakhona kaJama Sigujana kaSenzangakhona Shaka
Shaka
kaSenzangakhona Dingane kaSenzangakhona Mpande
Mpande
kaSenzangakhona Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
kaMpande

Under South African rule

Dinuzulu
Dinuzulu
kaCetshwayo Solomon kaDinuzulu Cyprian Bhekuzulu kaSolomon Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Territory (before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

v t e

Political history of South Africa

Defunct polities

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97) Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91) Orange River
Orange River
Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94)

Events

1652–1815

Dutch settlement French Huguenot settlement Khoikhoi–Dutch Wars Xhosa Wars Battle of Muizenberg Battle of Blaauwberg Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

1815–1910

Mfecane 1820 Settlers Great Trek Boer
Boer
Republics Transvaal Civil War Mineral Revolution Witwatersrand Gold Rush South African Wars South Africa
South Africa
Act 1909

1910–1948

Maritz Rebellion Rand Rebellion Great Depression 1946 African Mine Workers' Union strike Bantustans

Apartheid
Apartheid
era

1948 general election Apartheid
Apartheid
legislation

Pass laws

Internal resistance Coloured-vote constitutional crisis Defiance Campaign Congress of the People

Freedom Charter

Women's March 1956 1957 Alexandra bus boycott Sharpeville massacre 1960 republic referendum International isolation

Academic boycott Disinvestment Sporting boycott

Olympics Rugby union

Rivonia Trial Tar Baby Option Durban
Durban
Moment Border War Israeli alliance

Israel– South Africa
South Africa
Agreement

Soweto Uprising Weapons of mass destruction Project Coast Constructive engagement Church Street bombing 1983 constitutional reform referendum Langa massacre Rubicon speech Dakar Conference Third Force CODESA 1992 apartheid referendum Saint James Church massacre Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
crisis Shell House massacre

Post-apartheid

1994 general election Government of National Unity Reconstruction and Development Programme Truth and Reconciliation Commission Arms Deal Floor crossing Soweto bombings African Renaissance Xenophobia Marikana massacre 2012 Western Cape farm workers' strike Nkandlagate 2014 platinum strike #RhodesMustFall protests # FeesMustFall
FeesMustFall
student protests Tshwane riots

Political culture

African nationalism Afrikaner Calvinism Afrikaner nationalism Azania Baasskap Boerehaat Black Consciousness Movement Day of the Vow Greater South Africa Honorary whites Rooi gevaar Slavery Swart gevaar Uitlander Volkstaat

Defunct organisations

Civic and political organisations

Afrikaner Bond Afrikaner Broederbond Afrikaner Party AITUP APO AVF BPC Black Sash CDA CTEG COD Congress Alliance COSG CP Dominion
Dominion
Party DP (1973–1977) DP (1989–2000) DPP ECC FA FD Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners GNP Het Volk HNP IDASA ID IP ISL Jeugkrag Johannesburg Reform Committee Labour Party (1910–1958) Labour Party (1969–1994) Liberal Party (1953–1968) NA NCP Natal Indian Congress NLP NNP NP NPP NRP NUSAS PFP Progressive Party (Cape Colony) Progressive Party PRP Radio Freedom Reform Party SABP SADECO SAIC SASO SAYCO SAYRCO South African Party (Cape Colony) South African Party (1911–1934) South African Party (1977–1980) TNIP Torch Commando UFP United Party Unionist Party Volksparty Workers Party WOSA

Trade unions and social movements

APF BCM BLATU CNETU CTSWU FCWU FNETU FOSATU ICU IWW MUSA NEUM NURHS PAWE SAAPAWU SACTU SAIF SARHU SATUC Die Spoorbund UDF Umkosi Wezintaba

Paramilitary and terrorist organisations

APLA ARM BBB Boeremag Greyshirts MK Ossewabrandwag Orde van die Dood SANF

Histories of political parties

African National Congress Democratic Alliance Pan Africanist Congress of Azania

Category

v t e

History of Mozambique

Timeline

Pre-colonial Mozambique Portuguese Mozambique Independence movements

FRELIMO

Mozambican War of Independence

Lusaka Accord

People's Republic of Mozambique Mozambican Civil War

RENAMO

Recent history (1993–present)

Topics

Independence movements Jews Postal history Rail transport

Polities

Kingdom of Mutapa Kingdom of Tembi Zulu Kingdom Gaza Empire Angoche Sultanate Portuguese Mozambique People's Republic of Mozambique Republic of Mozambique

By province

Cabo Delgado Gaza Inhambane Manica Maputo Maputo City Nampula Niassa Sofala Tete Zambezia

By city or town

Beira (timeline) Chicualacuala Chimoio Chinde Cuamba Gurúè Inhambane Lichinga Maputo (timeline) Matola Maxixe Mocímboa da Praia Mozambique Island Mueda Nacala Nampula Pemba Quelimane Sofala Tete Xai-Xai

Mozambique portal

Coordinates: 28°17′51″S 31°25′18″E / 28.29750°S 31.42167°E / -

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