A zoo (short for zoological garden or zoological park and also called
an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animals are housed
within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also
The term "zoological garden" refers to zoology, the study of animals,
a term deriving from the Greek zōon (ζῷον, 'animal') and lógos
(λóγος, 'study'). The abbreviation "zoo" was first used of the
London Zoological Gardens, which was opened for scientific study in
1828 and to the public in 1857. The number of major animal
collections open to the public around the world now exceeds to 1,000,
around 80 percent of them are in cities. In the United States of
America alone, zoos are visited by over 180 million people
2.1 Royal menageries
2.2 Enlightenment Era
2.3 The modern zoo
2.4 Human exhibits
3.1 Safari park
3.3 Roadside zoos
3.4 Petting zoos
Animal theme parks
4 Sources of animals
5.1 Conservation and research
6 Roadside zoos
Animal welfare concerns
7.1 Moral concerns
7.2 Behavioural restriction
7.3 Abnormal behaviour
7.4 Shortened longevity
7.5 Climate concerns
8 Surplus animals
9 Live feeding and "baiting"
10.1 United States
11 See also
14 External links
London Zoo, which opened in 1826, was initially known as the "Gardens
Menagerie of the Zoological Society of London", and it described
itself as a menagerie or "zoological forest". The abbreviation
"zoo" first appeared in print in the United Kingdom around 1847, when
it was used for the Clifton Zoo, but it was not until some 20 years
later that the shortened form became popular in the song "Walking in
the Zoo" by music-hall artist Alfred Vance. The term "zoological
park" was used for more expansive facilities in Halifax, Nova Scotia,
Washington, D.C., and the Bronx in New York, which opened in 1847,
1891 and 1899 respectively.
Relatively new terms for zoos coined in the late 20th century are
"conservation park" or "biopark". Adopting a new name is a strategy
used by some zoo professionals to distance their institutions from the
stereotypical and nowadays criticized zoo concept of the 19th
century. The term "biopark" was first coined and developed by the
Zoo in Washington D.C. in the late 1980s. In 1993, the New
York Zoological Society changed its name to the Wildlife Conservation
Society and rebranded the zoos under its jurisdiction as "wildlife
Further information: Menagerie
Tower of London
Tower of London housed England's royal menagerie for several
centuries (Picture from the 15th century, British Library).
The predecessor of the zoological garden is the menagerie, which has a
long history from the ancient world to modern times. The oldest known
zoological collection was revealed during excavations at
Egypt in 2009, of a ca. 3500 BCE menagerie. The exotic
animals included hippopotami, hartebeest, elephants, baboons and
Ashur-bel-kala of the
Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire created
zoological and botanical gardens in the 11th century BCE. In the 2nd
century BCE, the Chinese Empress Tanki had a "house of deer" built,
King Wen of Zhou
King Wen of Zhou kept a 1,500-acre (6.1 km2) zoo called
Ling-Yu, or the Garden of Intelligence. Other well-known collectors of
King Solomon of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah,
Semiramis and King
Ashurbanipal of Assyria, and King
Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia. By the 4th century BCE, zoos existed
in most of the Greek city states;
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great is known to have
sent animals that he found on his military expeditions back to Greece.
The Roman emperors kept private collections of animals for study or
for use in the arena, the latter faring notoriously poorly. The
19th-century historian W. E. H. Lecky wrote of the Roman games, first
held in 366 BCE:
At one time, a bear and a bull, chained together, rolled in fierce
combat across the sand ... Four hundred bears were killed in a single
Caligula ... Under Nero, four hundred tigers fought with
bulls and elephants. In a single day, at the dedication of the
Colosseum by Titus, five thousand animals perished. Under
lions, tigers, elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotami, giraffes, bulls,
stags, even crocodiles and serpents were employed to give novelty to
Charlemagne had an elephant named
Abul-Abbas that was given to him by
the Abbasid Caliph. Henry I of
England kept a collection of animals at
his palace in Woodstock, which reportedly included lions, leopards,
and camels. The most prominent collection in medieval
in the Tower of London, created as early as 1204 by King John I.
Henry III received a wedding gift in 1235 of three leopards from
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, and in 1264, the animals were moved
to the Bulwark, renamed the
Lion Tower, near the main western entrance
of the Tower. It was opened to the public during the reign of
Elizabeth I in the 16th century. During the 18th century, the
price of admission was three half-pence, or the supply of a cat or dog
for feeding to the lions. The animals were moved to the
when it opened.
Aztec emperor Moctezuma had in his capital city of
"house of animals" with a large collection of birds, mammals and
reptiles in a garden tended by more than 600 employees. The garden was
described by several Spanish conquerors, including
Hernán Cortés in
1520. After the
Aztec revolt against the Spanish rule, and during the
subsequent battle for the city, Cortés reluctantly ordered the zoo to
The Versailles menagerie during the reign of
Louis XIV in the 17th
Further information: List of zoos
The oldest zoo in the world still in existence is the Tiergarten
Schönbrunn in Vienna, Austria. It was constructed by Adrian van
Stekhoven in 1752 at the order of the
Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor Francis I,
husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, to serve as an imperial menagerie
as part of Schönbrunn Palace. The menagerie was initially reserved
for the viewing pleasure of the imperial family and the court, but was
made accessible to the public in 1765.
In 1775, a zoo was founded in Madrid, and in 1795, the zoo inside the
Jardin des Plantes
Jardin des Plantes in
Paris was founded by Jacques-Henri Bernardin,
with animals from the royal menagerie at Versailles, primarily for
scientific research and education. The Kazan Zoo, the first zoo in
Russia was founded in 1806 by the Professor of Kazan State University
The modern zoo
London Zoo, 1835
Until the early 19th century, the function of the zoo was often to
symbolize royal power, like King Louis XIV's menagerie at Versailles.
The modern zoo that emerged in the early 19th century at Halifax,
Paris and Dublin, was focused on providing educational
exhibits to the public for entertainment and inspiration.
A growing fascination for natural history and zoology, coupled with
the tremendous expansion in the urbanization of London, led to a
heightened demand for a greater variety of public forms of
entertainment to be made available. The need for public entertainment,
as well as the requirements of scholarly research, came together in
the founding of the first modern zoos.
The Zoological Society of
London was founded in 1826 by Stamford
Raffles and established the
London Zoo in
Regent's Park two years
later in 1828. At its founding, it was the world's first
scientific zoo. Originally intended to be used as a collection
for scientific study, it was eventually opened to the public in
Zoo was located in
Regent's Park - then undergoing
development at the hands of the architect John Nash. What set the
London zoo apart from its predecessors was its focus on society at
large. The zoo was established in the middle of a city for the public,
and its layout was designed to cater for the large
London zoo was widely copied as the archetype of the public city
zoo. In 1853, the
Zoo opened the world's first public aquarium.
Downs' Zoological Gardens
Downs' Zoological Gardens Created by Andrew Downs and opened to the
Nova Scotia public in 1847. Was originally intended to be used as a
collection for scientific study. By the early 1860s, the zoo grounds
covered 40 hectares with many fine flowers & ornamental trees,
picnic areas, statues, walking paths, The Glass House (which contained
a greenhouse with an aviary, aquarium, & museum of stuffed animals
& birds), a pond, a bridge over a waterfall, an artificial lake
with a fountain, a wood-ornamented greenhouse, a forest area, and
enclosures & buildings.
Zoo was opened in 1831 by members of the medical profession
interested in studying animals while they were alive and more
particularly getting hold of them when they were dead. The first
zoological garden in
Melbourne Zoo in 1860. In the same
year, Central Park Zoo, the first public zoo in the United States,
opened in New York, although in 1859, the Philadelphia Zoological
Society had made an effort to establish a zoo, but delayed opening it
until 1874 because of the American Civil War.
In 1907, the German entrepreneur
Carl Hagenbeck founded the Tierpark
Hagenbeck in Stellingen, now a quarter of Hamburg. His zoo was a
radical departure from the layout of the zoo that had been established
in 1828. It was the first zoo to use open enclosures surrounded by
moats, rather than barred cages, to better approximate animals'
natural environments. He also set up mixed-species exhibits and
based the layout on the different organizing principle of geography,
as opposed to taxonomy.
When ecology emerged as a matter of public interest in the 1970s, a
few zoos began to consider making conservation their central role,
Gerald Durrell of the Jersey Zoo, George Rabb of Brookfield Zoo,
and William Conway of the
Bronx Zoo (Wildlife Conservation Society)
leading the discussion. From then on, zoo professionals became
increasingly aware of the need to engage themselves in conservation
programs, and the American
Zoo Association soon said that conservation
was its highest priority. Because they wanted to stress
conservation issues, many large zoos stopped the practice of having
animals perform tricks for visitors. The Detroit Zoo, for example,
stopped its elephant show in 1969, and its chimpanzee show in 1983,
acknowledging that the trainers had probably abused the animals to get
them to perform.
Whipsnade Park in Bedfordshire, England, was opened in 1931 as the
first safari park. It allowed visitors to drive through the enclosures
and come into close proximity to the animals.
Mass destruction of wildlife habitat has yet to cease all over the
world and many species such as elephants, big cats, penguins, tropical
birds, primates, rhinos, exotic reptiles, and many others are in
danger of dying out. Many of today's zoos hope to stop or slow the
decline of many endangered species. Many zoos see their primary
purpose as breeding endangered species in captivity and reintroducing
them into the wild. Modern zoos also aim to help teach visitors the
importance on animal conservation, often through letting visitors
witness the animals firsthand. Some critics and the majority of
animal rights activists say that zoos, no matter what their intentions
are, or how noble they are, are immoral and serve as nothing but to
fulfill human leisure at the expense of the animals (which is an
opinion that has spread over the years). However, zoo advocates argue
that their efforts make a difference in wildlife conservation and
Ota Benga, a human exhibit in New York, 1906
Further information: Human zoo, Scientific racism, and Social
Human beings were sometimes displayed in cages along with non-human
animals, to illustrate the differences between people of European and
non-European origin. In September 1906, William Hornaday, director of
Bronx Zoo in New York—with the agreement of Madison Grant, head
of the New York Zoological Society—had Ota Benga, a Congolese pygmy,
displayed in a cage with the chimpanzees, then with an orangutan named
Dohong, and a parrot. The exhibit was intended as an example of the
"missing link" between the orangutan and white man. It triggered
protests from the city's clergymen, but the public reportedly flocked
to see it.
Human beings were also displayed in cages during the 1931 Paris
Colonial Exposition, and as late as 1958 in a "Congolese village"
Expo '58 in Brussels.
List of zoos and Immersion exhibit
Monkey islands, São Paulo Zoo
Zoo animals live in enclosures that often attempt to replicate their
natural habitats or behavioral patterns, for the benefit of both the
animals and visitors.
Nocturnal animals are often housed in buildings
with a reversed light-dark cycle, i.e. only dim white or red lights
are on during the day so the animals are active during visitor hours,
and brighter lights on at night when the animals sleep. Special
climate conditions may be created for animals living in extreme
environments, such as penguins.
Special enclosures for birds, mammals,
insects, reptiles, fish, and other aquatic life forms have also been
developed. Some zoos have walk-through exhibits where visitors enter
enclosures of non-aggressive species, such as lemurs, marmosets,
birds, lizards, and turtles. Visitors are asked to keep to paths and
avoid showing or eating foods that the animals might snatch.
Main article: Safari park
Giraffes in the West Midland Safari Park
Some zoos keep animals in larger, outdoor enclosures, confining them
with moats and fences, rather than in cages. Safari parks, also known
as zoo parks and lion farms, allow visitors to drive through them and
come in close proximity to the animals. Sometimes, visitors are
able to feed animals through the car windows. The first safari park
Whipsnade Park in Bedfordshire, England, opened by the Zoological
London in 1931 which today (2014) covers 600 acres
(2.4 km²). Since the early 1970s, a 1,800 acre (7 km²)
park in the San Pasqual Valley near San Diego has featured the San
Zoo Safari Park, run by the Zoological Society of San Diego. One
of two state-supported zoo parks in North Carolina is the 2,000-acre
North Carolina Zoo
North Carolina Zoo in Asheboro. The 500-acre
Werribee Open Range Zoo
Werribee Open Range Zoo in Melbourne, Australia,
displays animals living in an artificial savannah.
Further information: Public aquarium
Sea lions at the Melbourne Zoo
The first public aquarium was opened in
London Zoo in 1853. This was
followed by the opening of public aquaria in continental
Paris in 1859,
Hamburg in 1864, Berlin in 1869, and Brighton in 1872)
and the United States (e.g. Boston in 1859, Washington in 1873, San
Francisco Woodward's Garden in 1873, and the New York Aquarium at
Battery Park in 1896).
Roadside zoos are found throughout North America, particularly in
remote locations. They are often small, for-profit zoos, often
intended to attract visitors to some other facility, such as a gas
station. The animals may be trained to perform tricks, and visitors
are able to get closer to them than in larger zoos. Since they are
sometimes less regulated, roadside zoos are often subject to
accusations of neglect and cruelty.
In June 2014 the
Animal Legal Defense Fund filed a lawsuit against the
Iowa-based roadside Cricket Hollow
Zoo for violating the Endangered
Species Act by failing to provide proper care for its animals.
Since filing the lawsuit, ALDF has obtained records from
investigations conducted by the USDA's
Animal and Plant Health
Inspection Services; these records show that the zoo is also violating
Animal Welfare Act.
Main article: Petting zoo
A petting zoo, also called petting farms or children's zoos, features
a combination of domestic animals and wild species that are docile
enough to touch and feed. To ensure the animals' health, the food is
supplied by the zoo, either from vending machines or a kiosk nearby.
Animal theme parks
Animal theme park
An animal theme park is a combination of an amusement park and a zoo,
mainly for entertaining and commercial purposes. Marine mammal parks
such as Sea World and Marineland are more elaborate dolphinariums
keeping whales, and containing additional entertainment attractions.
Another kind of animal theme park contains more entertainment and
amusement elements than the classical zoo, such as a stage shows,
roller coasters, and mythical creatures. Some examples are Busch
Gardens Tampa Bay in Tampa, Florida, Disney's
Animal Kingdom and
Gatorland in Orlando, Florida,
Flamingo Land in North Yorkshire,
Six Flags Discovery Kingdom
Six Flags Discovery Kingdom in Vallejo, California.
Sources of animals
By the year 2000 most animals being displayed in zoos were the
offspring of other zoo animals. This trend, however was and still is
somewhat species-specific. When animals are transferred between zoos,
they usually spend time in quarantine, and are given time to
acclimatize to their new enclosures which are often designed to mimic
their natural environment. For example, some species of penguins may
require refrigerated enclosures. Guidelines on necessary care for such
animals is published in the International
Conservation and research
The African plains exhibit at
North Carolina Zoo
North Carolina Zoo illustrates the
dimension of an open-range zoo.
The position of most modern zoos in Australasia, Asia, Europe, and
North America, particularly those with scientific societies, is that
they display wild animals primarily for the conservation of endangered
species, as well as for research purposes and education, and
secondarily for the entertainment of visitors, an argument
disputed by critics. The Zoological Society of
London states in its
charter that its aim is "the advancement of
Zoology and Animal
Physiology and the introduction of new and curious subjects of the
Animal Kingdom." It maintains two research institutes, the Nuffield
Institute of Comparative Medicine and the Wellcome Institute of
Comparative Physiology. In the U.S., the Penrose Research Laboratory
Philadelphia Zoo focuses on the study of comparative
pathology. The World
Association of Zoos and Aquariums
Association of Zoos and Aquariums produced its
first conservation strategy in 1993, and in November 2004, it adopted
a new strategy that sets out the aims and mission of zoological
gardens of the 21st century.
The breeding of endangered species is coordinated by cooperative
breeding programmes containing international studbooks and
coordinators, who evaluate the roles of individual animals and
institutions from a global or regional perspective, and there are
regional programmes all over the world for the conservation of
Besides conservation of captive species, large zoos may form a
suitable environment for wild native animals such as herons to live in
or visit. A colony of black-crowned night herons has regularly
summered at the National
Washington, D.C. for more than a
century. Some zoos may provide information to visitors on wild
animals visiting or living in the zoo, or encourage them by directing
them to specific feeding or breeding platforms.
In modern, well-regulated zoos, breeding is controlled to maintain a
self-sustaining, global captive population. This is not the case in
some less well-regulated zoos, often based in poorer regions. Overall
"stock turnover" of animals during a year in a select group of poor
zoos was reported as 20%-25% with 75% of wild caught apes dying in
captivity within the first 20 months. The authors of the report
stated that before successful breeding programs, the high mortality
rate was the reason for the "massive scale of importations."
One 2-year study indicated that of 19,361 mammals that left accredited
zoos in the U.S. between 1992 and 1998, 7,420 (38%) went to dealers,
auctions, hunting ranches, unaccredited zoos and individuals, and game
Animal welfare concerns
Captivity (animal) and Behavioral enrichment
Bear cages, one square meter in size, in Dalian zoo, Port Arthur,
Liaoning Province, China, in 1997
The welfare of zoo animals varies widely. Many zoos work to improve
their animal enclosures and make it fit the animals' needs, although
constraints such as size and expense make it difficult to create ideal
captive environments for many species.
A study examining data collected over four decades found that polar
bears, lions, tigers and cheetahs show evidence of stress in
captivity. Zoos can be internment camps for animals, but also a
place of refuge. A zoo can be considered an internment camp due to the
insufficient enclosures that the animals have to live in. When an
elephant is placed in a pen that is flat, has no tree, no other
elephants and only a few plastic toys to play with; it can lead to
boredom and foot problems (Lemonic, McDowel, and Bjerklie 50). Also,
animals can have a shorter life span when they are in these types of
enclosures. Causes can be human diseases, materials in the cages, and
possible escape attempts (Bendow 382). When zoos take time to think
about the animal's welfare, zoos can become a place of refuge. There
are animals that are injured in the wild and are unable to survive on
their own, but in the zoos they can live out the rest of their lives
healthy and happy (McGaffin). In recent years, some zoos have chosen
to stop showing their larger animals because they are simply unable to
provide an adequate enclosure for them (Lemonic, McDowell, and
Some critics and many animal rights activists argue that zoo animals
are treated as voyeuristic objects, rather than living creatures, and
often suffer due to the transition from being free and wild to
captivity. In the last 2 decades, European and North-American
zoos, strongly depend on breeding within zoos, while decreasing the
number of wild caught animals.[clarification needed]
Many modern zoos attempt to improve animal welfare by providing more
space and behavioural enrichments. This often involves housing the
animals in naturalistic enclosures that allow the animals to express
some of their natural behaviours, such as roaming and foraging.
However, many animals remain in barren concrete enclosures or other
minimally enriched cages.
Animals which naturally range over many km each day, or make seasonal
migrations, are unable to perform these behaviours in zoo enclosures.
For example, elephants usually travel approximately 45 km
(28 mi) each day.
Further information: List of abnormal behaviours in animals
Animals in zoos often exhibit behaviors that are abnormal in their
frequency, intensity, or would not normally be part of their
behavioural repertoire. These are usually indicative of stress.
For example, elephants sometimes perform head-bobbing, bears sometimes
pace repeatedly around the limits of their enclosure, wild cats
sometimes groom themselves obsessively, and birds pluck out their own
feathers. Some critics of zoos claim that the animals are always
under physical and mental stress, regardless of the quality of care
towards the animals. Elephants have been recorded displaying
stereotypical behaviours in the form of swaying back and forth, trunk
swaying or route tracing. This has been observed in 54% of individuals
in UK zoos.
Elephants in Japanese zoos have shorter lifespans than their wild
counterparts at only 17 years, although other studies suggest that zoo
elephants live as long as those in the wild. Although, most other
animals, such as reptiles, and others, can live much longer than they
would in the wild.
Climatic conditions can make it difficult to keep some animals in zoos
in some locations. For example,
Alaska Zoo had an elephant named
Maggie. She was housed in a small, indoor enclosure because the
outdoor temperature was too low.
Especially in large animals, a limited number of spaces are available
in zoos. As a consequence, various management tools are used to
preserve the space for the most "valuable" individuals and reduce the
risk of inbreeding. Management of animal populations is typically
through international organizations such as AZA and EAZA. Zoos
have several different ways of managing the animal populations, such
as moves between zoos, contraception, sale of excess animals and
Contraception can be effective, but may also have health repercussions
and can be difficult (or even impossible) to reverse in some
animals. Additionally, some species may lose their reproductive
capability entirely if prevented from breeding for a period (whether
through contraceptives or isolation), but further study is needed on
the subject. Sale of surplus animals from zoos was once common and
in some cases animals have ended up in substandard facilities. In
recent decades the practice of selling animals from certified zoos has
declined. A large number of animals are culled each year in zoos,
but this is controversial. A highly publicized culling as part of
population management was that of a healthy giraffe at Copenhagen Zoo
in 2014. The zoo argued that its genes already were well-represented
in captivity, making the giraffe unsuitable for future breeding. There
were offers to adopt it and an online petition to save it had many
thousand signatories, but the culling proceeded. Although zoos in
some countries have been open about culling, the controversy of the
subject and pressure from the public has resulted in others being
closed. This stands in contrast to most zoos publicly announcing
animal births. Furthermore, while many zoos are willing to cull
smaller and/or low-profile animals, fewer are willing to do it with
larger high-profile species.
Live feeding and "baiting"
In many countries, feeding live vertebrates to zoo animals is illegal,
except in exceptional circumstances. For example,
some snakes refuse to eat dead prey. However, in the Badaltearing
Safari Park in China, visitors can throw live goats into the lion
enclosure and watch them being eaten, or can purchase live chickens
tied to bamboo rods for the equivalent of 2 dollars/euros to dangle
into lion pens. Visitors can drive through the lion compound in buses
with specially designed chutes which they can use to push live
chickens into the enclosure. In the Xiongsen
Village near Guilin in south-east China, live cows and pigs are thrown
to tigers to amuse visitors.
In Qingdao zoo (Eastern China), visitors can engage in "tortoise
baiting", where tortoises are kept inside small rooms with elastic
bands around their necks so that they are unable to retract their
heads. Visitors are allowed to throw coins at them. The marketing
claim is that if a person hits one of the tortoises on the head and
makes a wish, it will be fulfilled.
WPA 1937 poster promoting visits to American zoos
In the United States, any public animal exhibit must be licensed and
inspected by the Department of Agriculture, the Environmental
Protection Agency, and the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration. Depending on the animals they exhibit, the activities
of zoos are regulated by laws including the Endangered
Animal Welfare Act, the Migratory
Bird Treaty Act of 1918 and
others. Additionally, zoos in
North America may choose to pursue
accreditation by the
Association of Zoos and Aquariums
Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). To
achieve accreditation, a zoo must pass an application and inspection
process and meet or exceed the AZA's standards for animal health and
welfare, fundraising, zoo staffing, and involvement in global
conservation efforts. Inspection is performed by three experts
(typically one veterinarian, one expert in animal care, and one expert
in zoo management and operations) and then reviewed by a panel of
twelve experts before accreditation is awarded. This accreditation
process is repeated once every five years. The AZA estimates that
there are approximately 2,400 animal exhibits operating under USDA
license as of February 2007; fewer than 10% are accredited.
In April 1999, the
European Union introduced a directive to strengthen
the conservation role of zoos, making it a statutory requirement that
they participate in conservation and education, and requiring all
member states to set up systems for their licensing and
inspection. Zoos are regulated in the UK by the
Zoo Licensing Act
of 1981, which came into force in 1984. A zoo is defined as any
"establishment where wild animals are kept for exhibition ... to which
members of the public have access, with or without charge for
admission, seven or more days in any period of twelve consecutive
months", excluding circuses and pet shops. The Act requires that all
zoos be inspected and licensed, and that animals kept in enclosures
are provided with a suitable environment in which they can express
most normal behavior.
List of zoos
List of zoo associations
Animals in captivity
Index of conservation articles
Zoo emergency response team
Zoology (includes a list of prominent zoologists)
^ "ZSL's history" Archived February 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.,
Zoological Society of London.
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^ Hyson 2000, p. 29; Hyson 2003, pp. 1356-1357.
^ Maple 1995, p. 25.
^ Robinson 1987a, pp. 10-17; Robinson 1987b, pp. 678-682.
^ Conway 1995, pp. 259-276.
^ World's First
Zoo - Hierakonpolis, Egypt, Archaeology Magazine,
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^ a b Blunt, Wilfred. The Ark in the Park: The
Zoo in the Nineteenth
Century. Hamish Hamilton, 1976, pp. 15-17.
^ "Big cats prowled London's tower", BBC News, October 24, 2005.
^ Martín del Campo y Sánchez, Rafael. "El parque zoológico de
Moctezuma en Tenochtitlán" (PDF). Retrieved 9 August 2017.
^ "Introducing the Modern Zoo". Retrieved 2012-12-17.
^ "April 27". Today in
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^ "Did you know the first zoo in Canada and the U.S. was in
^ Noble, Scott. "
Zoo Diary - Saltscapes Magazine". Saltscapes
^ Costello, John (June 9, 2011). "The great zoo's who". Irish
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^ See Kisling, Vernon N. (ed.):
Zoo and Aquarium History, Boca Raton
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(ed.): New Worlds, New Animals, Washington 1996.
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Princeton 2002. ISBN 0-691-05992-6; and Hancocks, David. A
Different Nature, Berkeley 2001. ISBN 0-520-21879-5
^ Donahue, Jesse and Trump, Erik. Political Animals: Public Art in
American Zoos and Aquariums. Lexington Books, 2007, p. 79.
^ a b Masci, David. "Zoos in the 21st Century." CQ Researcher 28 Apr.
2000: 353-76. Web. 26 Jan. 2014.
^ Bradford, Phillips Verner and Blume, Harvey. Ota Benga: The
the Zoo. St. Martins Press, 1992.
^ "Man and Monkey Show Disapproved by Clergy", The New York Times,
September 10, 1906.
^ Blanchard, Pascal; Bancel, Nicolas; and Lemaire, Sandrine. "From
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Media related to Zoos at Wikimedia Commons
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