HOME
The Info List - Zimbabwe


--- Advertisement ---



Coordinates: 20°S 30°E / 20°S 30°E / -20; 30

Republic of Zimbabwe

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: "Unity, Freedom, Work"[1]

Anthem:  "Blessed be the land of Zimbabwe"[2]

Location of  Zimbabwe  (dark blue) in the African Union  (light blue)

Capital and largest city Harare 17°50′S 31°3′E / 17.833°S 31.050°E / -17.833; 31.050

Official languages

16 languages[3]

Chewa Chibarwe English Kalanga "Koisan" (presumably Tsoa) Nambya Ndau Ndebele Shangani Shona "sign language" Sotho Tonga Tswana Venda Xhosa

Ethnic groups (2012)

99.4% Black African (over 80% Shona; Ndebele are largest minority) 0.2% White African 0.4% others, including Coloured
Coloured
and Indian

Demonym Zimbabwean Zimbo[4] (colloquial)

Government

Unitary dominant-party presidential republic (de jure) Military dictatorship
Military dictatorship
under a presidential republic (de facto)

• President

Emmerson Mnangagwa

• 1st Vice President

Constantino Chiwenga

• 2nd Vice President

Kembo Mohadi

Legislature Parliament

• Upper house

Senate

• Lower house

House of Assembly

Independence
Independence
from the United Kingdom

• Declared

11 November 1965

• Republic

2 March 1970

•  Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Rhodesia

1 June 1979

• Republic of Zimbabwe

18 April 1980

• Current constitution

15 May 2013

Area

• Total

390,757 km2 (150,872 sq mi) (60th)

• Water (%)

1

Population

• 2016 estimate

16,150,362[5] (73rd)

• 2012 census

12,973,808[6]

• Density

26/km2 (67.3/sq mi) (170th)

GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate

• Total

$33.872 billion[7]

• Per capita

$2,276[7]

GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate

• Total

$17.105 billion[7]

• Per capita

$1,149[7]

Gini (1995) 50.1[8] high

HDI (2015)  0.516[9] low · 154th

Currency United States dollar
United States dollar
(official for government), South African rand, and many other currenciesa, e.g. Botswana
Botswana
pula, euro, Indian rupees, pound sterling, Australian dollars. Zimbabwean bond coins
Zimbabwean bond coins
are used as a proxy for US dollar and cent coins. Zimbabwean bond notes
Zimbabwean bond notes
for 2 and 5 dollars were introduced in 2016 at par value of the US dollar

Time zone CAT[10] (UTC+2)

Drives on the left

Calling code +263

ISO 3166 code ZW

Internet TLD .zw

The Zimbabwean dollar
Zimbabwean dollar
is no longer in active use after it was officially suspended by the government due to hyperinflation. The United States dollar
United States dollar
(US$), Euro
Euro
(€), South African rand
South African rand
(R), Botswana pula
Botswana pula
(P), Pound sterling
Pound sterling
(£), Indian rupees (₹), Australian dollars (A$), Chinese Renminbi
Renminbi
(元/¥), and Japanese yen (¥)[11] are legal tender.[12] The United States dollar
United States dollar
has been adopted as the official currency for all government transactions.

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(/zɪmˈbɑːbweɪ/), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe,[13] is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi
Zambezi
and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia
Zambia
and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly 16 million[5] people, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has 16 official languages,[3] with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa
South Africa
Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
in April 1980. Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community
Southern African Development Community
(SADC), the African Union
African Union
(AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Southern Africa
(COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity.[14][15][16] Robert Mugabe
Robert Mugabe
became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe
Prime Minister of Zimbabwe
in 1980, when his ZANU-PF
ZANU-PF
party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe
President of Zimbabwe
from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations.[17] Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War
Cold War
era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries.[18] Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu
Desmond Tutu
called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator".[19] The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way.[20] On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état.[21][22] On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF
ZANU-PF
sacked Robert Mugabe
Robert Mugabe
as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa
Emmerson Mnangagwa
in his place.[23] On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.[24]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Pre-colonial era (1000–1887) 2.2 Colonial era and Rhodesia
Rhodesia
(1888–1964) 2.3 UDI and civil war (1965–1980) 2.4 Independence
Independence
era (1980–present)

3 Geography and environment

3.1 Climate 3.2 Flora and fauna 3.3 Environmental issues

4 Government and politics

4.1 Human rights 4.2 Armed forces 4.3 Administrative divisions

5 Economy

5.1 Agriculture 5.2 Tourism 5.3 Water supply
Water supply
and sanitation

6 Science and technology 7 Demographics

7.1 Largest cities 7.2 Language 7.3 Refugee crisis 7.4 Religion

8 Culture

8.1 Arts 8.2 Cuisine 8.3 Sports 8.4 Media 8.5 Scouting 8.6 National symbols

9 Health 10 Education 11 See also 12 Source 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 Further reading 16 External links

Etymology[edit] Further information: Great Zimbabwe
Great Zimbabwe
and Rhodesia
Rhodesia
(name) The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "large houses of stone" (dzimba = plural of imba, "house"; mabwe = plural of bwe, "stone").[25][26][27] The Karanga-speaking Shona people
Shona people
live around Great Zimbabwe
Great Zimbabwe
in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and usually references chiefs' houses or graves.[28] Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
was formerly known as Southern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
(1898), Rhodesia (1965), and Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Rhodesia
Rhodesia
(1979). The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema,[29] whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to officially use the name in 1961.[30] The term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations.[29] According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed.[31] A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo.[30] It was initially unclear how the chosen term was to be used — a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland"[30] — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the generally preferred term of the black nationalist movement.[29] In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and that was that".[29] The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga
Chimurenga
campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War
Rhodesian Bush War
of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
African National Union (led by Robert Mugabe
Robert Mugabe
from 1975), and the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
African People's Union (led by Joshua Nkomo
Joshua Nkomo
from its founding in the early 1960s).[citation needed] History[edit] Main article: History of Zimbabwe Pre-colonial era (1000–1887)[edit] Further information: Bantu expansion

Towers of Great Zimbabwe

Proto-Shona-speaking societies first emerged in the middle Limpopo valley in the 9th century before moving on to the Zimbabwean highlands. The Zimbabwean plateau eventually became the centre of subsequent Shona states, beginning around the 10th century. Around the early 10th century, trade developed with Arab merchants on the Indian Ocean coast, helping to develop the Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
in the 11th century. This was the precursor to the more impressive Shona civilisations that would dominate the region during the 13th to 15th centuries, evidenced by ruins at Great Zimbabwe, near Masvingo, and other smaller sites. The main archaeological site uses a unique dry stone architecture. The Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
was the first in a series of sophisticated trade states developed in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
by the time of the first European explorers from Portugal. They traded in gold, ivory, and copper for cloth and glass.[32] From about 1300 until 1600, Mapungubwe was eclipsed by the Kingdom of Zimbabwe. This Shona state further refined and expanded upon Mapungubwe's stone architecture, which survives to this day at the ruins of the kingdom's capital of Great Zimbabwe. From c. 1450–1760, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
gave way to the Kingdom of Mutapa. This Shona state ruled much of the area that is known as Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
today, and parts of central Mozambique. It is known by many names including the Mutapa Empire, also known as Mwene Mutapa or Monomotapa
Monomotapa
as well as "Munhumutapa," and was renowned for its strategic trade routes with the Arabs
Arabs
and Portugal. The Portuguese sought to monopolise this influence and began a series of wars which left the empire in near collapse in the early 17th century.[32] As a direct response to increased European presence in the interior, and especially due to the increasing amount of Carnegie family farmers, a new Shona state emerged, known as the Rozwi Empire. Relying on centuries of military, political and religious development, the Rozwi (meaning "destroyers") expelled the Portuguese from the Zimbabwean plateau by force of arms. They continued the stone building traditions of the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
and Mapungubwe kingdoms while adding muskets to their arsenal and recruiting a professional army to defend recent conquests.[citation needed] Around 1821, the Zulu general Mzilikazi
Mzilikazi
of the Khumalo clan successfully rebelled against King Shaka
Shaka
and created his own clan, the Ndebele. The Ndebele fought their way northwards into the Transvaal, leaving a trail of destruction in their wake and beginning an era of widespread devastation known as the Mfecane. When Dutch trekboers converged on the Transvaal in 1836, they drove the tribe even further northward. By 1838, the Rozwi Empire, along with the other smaller Shona states were conquered by the Ndebele and reduced to vassaldom.[33] After losing their remaining South African lands in 1840, Mzilikazi and his tribe permanently settled in the southwest of present-day Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
in what became known as Matabeleland, establishing Bulawayo as their capital. Mzilikazi
Mzilikazi
then organised his society into a military system with regimental kraals, similar to those of Shaka, which was stable enough to repel further Boer incursions. Mzilikazi
Mzilikazi
died in 1868 and, following a violent power struggle, was succeeded by his son, Lobengula. Colonial era and Rhodesia
Rhodesia
(1888–1964)[edit] Main articles: Company rule in Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, and Federation of Rhodesia
Rhodesia
and Nyasaland

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Matabeleland
Matabeleland
in the 19th century.

In the 1880s, white colonists arrived with Cecil Rhodes's British South Africa
South Africa
Company (BSAC).[34] In 1888, Rhodes obtained a concession for mining rights from King Lobengula
Lobengula
of the Ndebele peoples.[35] He presented this concession to persuade the government of the United Kingdom to grant a royal charter to the company over Matabeleland, and its subject states such as Mashonaland
Mashonaland
as well.[36] Rhodes used this document in 1890 to justify sending the Pioneer Column, a group of Europeans protected by well-armed British South Africa
Africa
Police (BSAP) through Matabeleland
Matabeleland
and into Shona territory to establish Fort Salisbury (now Harare), and thereby establish company rule over the area. In 1893 and 1894, with the help of their new Maxim guns, the BSAP would go on to defeat the Ndebele in the First Matabele War. Rhodes additionally sought permission to negotiate similar concessions covering all territory between the Limpopo River
Limpopo River
and Lake Tanganyika, then known as "Zambesia".[36] In accordance with the terms of aforementioned concessions and treaties,[36] mass settlement was encouraged, with the British maintaining control over labour as well as precious metals and other mineral resources.[37] In 1895, the BSAC adopted the name "Rhodesia" for the territory, in honour of Rhodes. In 1898 "Southern Rhodesia" became the official name for the region south of the Zambezi,[38][39] which later became Zimbabwe. The region to the north was administered separately and later termed Northern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
(now Zambia). Shortly after Rhodes' disastrous Jameson Raid
Jameson Raid
on the South African Republic, the Ndebele rebelled against white rule, led by their charismatic religious leader, Mlimo. The Second Matabele War
Second Matabele War
lasted in Matabeleland
Matabeleland
until 1896, when Mlimo was assassinated. Shona agitators staged unsuccessful revolts (known as Chimurenga) against company rule during 1896 and 1897.[citation needed] Following these failed insurrections, the Ndebele and Shona groups were finally subdued by the Rhodes administration, which organised the land with a disproportionate bias favouring Europeans, thus displacing many indigenous peoples.[citation needed]

The opening of the railway to Umtali
Umtali
in 1899.

Southern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
was annexed by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on 12 September 1923.[40][41][42][43] Shortly after annexation, on 1 October 1923, the first constitution for the new Colony of Southern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
came into force.[42][44] Under the new constitution, Southern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
became a self-governing British colony, subsequent to a 1922 referendum. Rhodesians of all races served on behalf of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
during the two World Wars. Proportional to the white population, Southern Rhodesia contributed more per capita to both the First and Second World Wars than any other part of the Empire, including Britain itself.[45] In 1953, in the face of African opposition,[46] Britain consolidated the two Rhodesias with Nyasaland
Nyasaland
(Malawi) in the ill-fated Central African Federation, which was essentially dominated by Southern Rhodesia. Growing African nationalism
African nationalism
and general dissent, particularly in Nyasaland, persuaded Britain to dissolve the Union in 1963, forming three separate divisions. While multiracial democracy was finally introduced to Northern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
and Nyasaland, however, Southern Rhodesians of European ancestry continued to enjoy minority rule.[citation needed] With Zambian independence, Ian Smith's Rhodesian Front
Rhodesian Front
(RF) dropped the designation "Southern" in 1964 and issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence
Independence
(commonly abbreviated to "UDI") from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965, intent on effectively repudiating the recently adopted British policy of "no independence before majority rule". It was the first such course taken by a British colony since the American declaration of 1776, which Smith and others indeed claimed provided a suitable precedent to their own actions.[45] UDI and civil war (1965–1980)[edit] Main articles: Rhodesia, Rhodesian Bush War, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Rhodesia, and Lancaster House
Lancaster House
Agreement

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Ian Smith
Ian Smith
signing the Unilateral Declaration of Independence
Independence
on 11 November 1965 with his cabinet in audience.

After the Unilateral Declaration of Independence
Independence
(UDI), the British government petitioned the United Nations
United Nations
for sanctions against Rhodesia
Rhodesia
pending unsuccessful talks with Smith's administration in 1966 and 1968. In December 1966, the organisation complied, imposing the first mandatory trade embargo on an autonomous state.[47] These sanctions were expanded again in 1968.[47] The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
deemed the Rhodesian declaration an act of rebellion, but did not re-establish control by force. A guerrilla war subsequently ensued when Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
African People's Union (ZAPU) and Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
African National Union (ZANU), supported actively by communist powers and neighbouring African nations, initiated guerilla operations against Rhodesia's predominantly white government. ZAPU was supported by the Soviet Union, the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
and associated nations such as Cuba, and adopted a Marxist–Leninist ideology; ZANU meanwhile aligned itself with Maoism
Maoism
and the bloc headed by the People's Republic of China. Smith declared Rhodesia
Rhodesia
a republic in 1970, following the results of a referendum the previous year, but this went unrecognised internationally. Meanwhile, Rhodesia's internal conflict intensified, eventually forcing him to open negotiations with the militant nationalists.

Bishop Abel Muzorewa
Abel Muzorewa
signs the Lancaster House Agreement
Lancaster House Agreement
seated next to British Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington.

In March 1978, Smith reached an accord with three African leaders, led by Bishop Abel Muzorewa, who offered to leave the white population comfortably entrenched in exchange for the establishment of a biracial democracy. As a result of the Internal Settlement, elections were held in April 1979, concluding with the United African National Council (UANC) carrying a majority of parliamentary seats. On 1 June 1979, Muzorewa, the UANC head, became prime minister and the country's name was changed to Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Rhodesia. The Internal Settlement
Internal Settlement
left control of the Rhodesian Security Forces, civil service, judiciary, and a third of parliament seats to whites.[48] On 12 June, the United States Senate voted to lift economic pressure on the former Rhodesia. Following the fifth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), held in Lusaka, Zambia
Zambia
from 1 to 7 August in 1979, the British government invited Muzorewa, Mugabe, and Nkomo to participate in a constitutional conference at Lancaster House. The purpose of the conference was to discuss and reach an agreement on the terms of an independence constitution, and provide for elections supervised under British authority allowing Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Rhodesia
Rhodesia
to proceed to legal independence.[49] With Lord Carrington, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs of the United Kingdom, in the chair, these discussions were mounted from 10 September to 15 December in 1979, producing a total of 47 plenary sessions.[49] On 21 December 1979, delegations from every major interest represented reached the Lancaster House
Lancaster House
Agreement, effectively ending the guerrilla war.[50] On 11 December 1979, the Rhodesian House of Assembly voted 90 to nil to revert to British colonial status (the 'aye' votes included Ian Smith himself). The bill then passed the Senate and was assented to by the President. With the arrival of Lord Soames, the new Governor, just after 2 p.m. on 12 December 1979, Britain formally took control of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Rhodesia
Rhodesia
as the Colony of Southern Rhodesia, although on 13 December Soames declared that during his mandate the name Rhodesia
Rhodesia
and Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Rhodesia
Rhodesia
would continue to be used. Britain lifted sanctions on 12 December, and the United Nations
United Nations
on 16 December, before calling on its member states to do likewise on 21 December. Thus Zambia, Mozambique, Tanzania, Angola
Angola
and Botswana
Botswana
lifted sanctions on 22–23 December; Australia partly pre-empted this, lifting all but trade sanctions on 18 December, and trade sanctions on 21 December.[51] During the elections of February 1980, Robert Mugabe
Robert Mugabe
and the ZANU party secured a landslide victory.[52] Prince Charles, as the representative of Britain, formally granted independence to the new nation of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
at a ceremony in Harare
Harare
in April 1980.[53] Independence
Independence
era (1980–present)[edit]

Trends in Zimbabwe's Multidimensional Poverty Index, 1970–2010.

Zimbabwe's first president after its independence was Canaan Banana
Canaan Banana
in what was originally a mainly ceremonial role as Head of State. Robert Mugabe, leader of the ZANU party, was the country's first Prime Minister and Head of Government.[54] Opposition to what was perceived as a Shona takeover immediately erupted around Matabeleland. The Matabele unrest led to what has become known as Gukurahundi
Gukurahundi
(Shona: "the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains").[55] The Fifth Brigade, a North Korean-trained elite unit that reported directly to the Zimbabwean Prime Minister,[56] entered Matabeleland
Matabeleland
and massacred thousands of civilians accused of supporting "dissidents".[56][57] Estimates for the number of deaths during the five-year Gukurahundi campaign ranged from 3,750[58] to 80,000.[57] [59] Thousands of others were tortured in military internment camps.[60][61] The campaign officially ended in 1987 after Nkomo and Mugabe reached a unity agreement that merged their respective parties, creating the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF).[56][62][63] Elections in March 1990 resulted in another victory for Mugabe and the ZANU-PF
ZANU-PF
party, which claimed 117 of the 120 contested seats.[64][65] During the 1990s, students, trade unionists, and other workers often demonstrated to express their growing discontent with Mugabe and ZANU-PF
ZANU-PF
party policies. In 1996, civil servants, nurses, and junior doctors went on strike over salary issues.[66][67] The general health of the population also began to significantly decline; by 1997 an estimated 25% of the population had been infected by HIV in a pandemic that was affecting most of southern Africa.[68][69] Land redistribution re-emerged as the main issue for the ZANU-PF government around 1997. Despite the existence of a "willing-buyer-willing-seller" land reform programme since the 1980s, the minority white Zimbabwean population of around 0.6% continued to hold 70% of the country's most fertile agricultural land.[70] In 2000, the government pressed ahead with its Fast Track Land Reform programme, a policy involving compulsory land acquisition aimed at redistributing land from the minority white population to the majority black population.[71] Confiscations of white farmland, continuous droughts, and a serious drop in external finance and other supports led to a sharp decline in agricultural exports, which were traditionally the country's leading export-producing sector.[71] Some 58,000 independent black farmers have since experienced limited success in reviving the gutted cash crop sectors through efforts on a smaller scale.[72]

Map showing the food insecurity in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
in June 2008

President Mugabe and the ZANU-PF
ZANU-PF
party leadership found themselves beset by a wide range of international sanctions.[73] In 2002, the nation was suspended from the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
due to the reckless farm seizures and blatant election tampering.[74] The following year, Zimbabwean officials voluntarily terminated its Commonwealth membership.[75] The Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001 (ZDERA) went into effect in 2002, creating a credit freeze of the Zimbabwean government through Section 4 C, Multilateral Financing Restriction. The bill was sponsored by Bill Frist, and co-sponsored by senators Hillary Clinton, Joe Biden, Russ Feingold
Russ Feingold
and Jesse Helms. Through ZDERA Section 4C, the Secretary of the Treasury is ordered to direct US Directors at the International Financial Institutions listed in Section 3, "to oppose and vote against-- (1) any extension by the respective institution of any loan, credit, or guarantee to the Government of Zimbabwe; or (2) any cancellation or reduction of indebtedness owed by the Government of Zimbabwe
Government of Zimbabwe
to the United States or any international financial institution."[76] Following elections in 2005, the government initiated "Operation Murambatsvina", an effort to crack down on illegal markets and slums emerging in towns and cities, leaving a substantial section of urban poor homeless.[77] The Zimbabwean government has described the operation as an attempt to provide decent housing to the population, although according to critics such as Amnesty International, authorities have yet to properly substantiate their claims.[78] On 29 March 2008, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
held a presidential election along with a parliamentary election. The results of this election were withheld for two weeks, after which it was generally acknowledged that the Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai (MDC-T) had achieved a majority of one seat in the lower house of parliament.[citation needed] In a surprising moment of candour at the ZANU-PF
ZANU-PF
congress in December 2014, President Robert Mugabe
Robert Mugabe
accidentally let slip that the opposition had in fact won the contentious 2008 polls by an astounding 73%.[79] In late 2008, problems in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
reached crisis proportions in the areas of living standards, public health (with a major cholera outbreak in December) and various basic affairs.[80] In September 2008, a power-sharing agreement was reached between Tsvangirai and President Mugabe, permitting the former to hold the office of prime minister. Due to ministerial differences between their respective political parties, the agreement was not fully implemented until 13 February 2009. By December 2010, Mugabe was threatening to completely expropriate remaining privately owned companies in Zimbabwe unless "western sanctions" were lifted.[81] A 2011 survey by Freedom House
Freedom House
suggested that living conditions had improved since the power-sharing agreement.[82] The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
stated in its 2012–2013 planning document that the "humanitarian situation has improved in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
since 2009, but conditions remain precarious for many people".[83] On 17 January 2013, Vice President John Nkomo
John Nkomo
died of cancer at St Anne's Hospital, Harare
Harare
at the age of 78.[84] A new constitution approved in the Zimbabwean constitutional referendum, 2013
Zimbabwean constitutional referendum, 2013
curtails presidential powers.[85] Mugabe was re-elected president in the July 2013 Zimbabwean general election which The Economist
The Economist
described as "rigged."[86] and the Daily Telegraph as "stolen."[87] The Movement for Democratic Change alleged massive fraud and tried to seek relief through the courts.[88] After winning the election, the Mugabe ZANU-PF
ZANU-PF
government re-instituted one party rule,[87] doubled the civil service and, according to The Economist, embarked on "...misrule and dazzling corruption."[86] A 2017 study conducted by the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) concluded that due to the deterioration of government and the economy "the government encourages corruption to make up for its inability to fund its own institutions" with widespread and informal police roadblocks to issue fines to travellers being one manifestation of this.[89] In July 2016 nationwide protests took place regarding the economic collapse in the country,[90][91] and the finance minister admitted "Right now we literally have nothing."[86] In November 2017, the army led a coup d'état following the dismissal of Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa, placing Mugabe under house arrest. The army denied that their actions constituted a coup.[21][22] Mugabe resigned on 21 November 2017, after leading the country for 37 years. Although under the Constitution of Zimbabwe
Constitution of Zimbabwe
Mugabe should be succeeded by Vice President Phelekezela Mphoko, a supporter of Grace Mugabe, ZANU-PF
ZANU-PF
chief whip Lovemore Matuke stated to the Reuters
Reuters
news agency that Mnangagwa would be appointed as president. [24] In December 2017 the New Zimbabwean, calculating the cost of the Mugabe era using various statistics, said that at the time of independence in 1980, the country was growing economically at about 5 per cent a year, and had done so for quite a long time. If this rate of growth had been maintained for the next 37 years, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
today would have a GDP of US$52 billion. Instead it has a formal sector GDP of only US$14 billion (2016), a cost of US$38 billion in lost growth in the formal sector. The population growth in 1980 was among the highest in Africa
Africa
at about 3,5 per cent per annum, doubling every 21 years. Had this growth been maintained, the population today would be 31 million. Instead it is about 16 million. The discrepancies were believed to be partly caused by death from starvation and disease, and partly due to decreased fertility. The life expectancy has halved, and death from politically motivated violence sponsored by government exceeds 200,000 since 1980. The Mugabe government has directly or indirectly caused the deaths of at least 3 million Zimbabweans in 37 years.[92] Geography and environment[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main article: Geography of Zimbabwe

The Zambezi
Zambezi
River in the Mana Pools National Park.

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
map of Köppen climate classification.

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
is a landlocked country in southern Africa, lying between latitudes 15° and 23°S, and longitudes 25° and 34°E. It is bordered by South Africa
South Africa
to the south, Botswana
Botswana
to the west and southwest, Zambia
Zambia
to the northwest, and Mozambique
Mozambique
to the east and northeast. Its northwest corner is roughly 150 meters from Namibia, nearly forming a four-nation quadripoint. Most of the country is elevated, consisting of a central plateau (high veld) stretching from the southwest northwards with altitudes between 1,000 and 1,600 m. The country's extreme east is mountainous, this area being known as the Eastern Highlands, with Mount Nyangani
Mount Nyangani
as the highest point at 2,592 m.[citation needed] These highlands are renowned for their great natural beauty, with famous tourist destinations such as Nyanga, Troutbeck, Chimanimani, Vumba and Chirinda Forest at Mount Selinda. About 20% of the country consists of low-lying areas, (the low veld) under 900m. Victoria Falls, one of the world's biggest and most spectacular waterfalls, is located in the country's extreme northwest and is part of the Zambezi river.[citation needed] Climate[edit] Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has a tropical climate with many local variations. The southern areas are known for their heat and aridity, parts of the central plateau receive frost in winter, the Zambezi
Zambezi
valley is also known for its extreme heat and the Eastern Highlands
Eastern Highlands
usually experience cool temperatures and the highest rainfall in the country. The country's rainy season generally runs from late October to March and the hot climate is moderated by increasing altitude. Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
is faced with recurring droughts, the latest one commencing early in 2015 and ongoing into 2016. Severe storms are rare.[93] Flora and fauna[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main article: Wildlife
Wildlife
of Zimbabwe

An elephant at a water hole in Hwange National Park.

The country is mostly savannah, although the moist and mountainous eastern highlands support areas of tropical evergreen and hardwood forests. Trees found in these Eastern Highlands
Eastern Highlands
include teak, mahogany, enormous specimens of strangling fig, forest newtonia, big leaf, white stinkwood, chirinda stinkwood, knobthorn and many others. In the low-lying parts of the country fever trees, mopane, combretum and baobabs abound. Much of the country is covered by miombo woodland, dominated by brachystegia species and others. Among the numerous flowers and shrubs are hibiscus, flame lily, snake lily, spider lily, leonotus, cassia, tree wisteria and dombeya. There are around 350 species of mammals that can be found in Zimbabwe. There are also many snakes and lizards, over 500 bird species, and 131 fish species. Environmental issues[edit] Large parts of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
were once covered by forests with abundant wildlife. Deforestation
Deforestation
and poaching has reduced the amount of wildlife. Woodland degradation and deforestation, due to population growth, urban expansion and lack of fuel, are major concerns[94] and have led to erosion and land degradation which diminish the amount of fertile soil. Local farmers have also been criticised by environmentalists for burning off vegetation to heat their tobacco barns.[95] Government and politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Zimbabwe
Politics of Zimbabwe
and Elections in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
is a republic with a presidential system of government. The semi-presidential system was abolished with the adoption of a new constitution after a referendum in March 2013. Under the constitutional changes in 2005, an upper chamber, the Senate, was reinstated.[96] The House of Assembly is the lower chamber of Parliament. Former President Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
African National Union – Patriotic Front (commonly abbreviated ZANU-PF) has been the dominant political party in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
since independence.[97] In 1987 then-prime minister Mugabe revised the constitution, abolishing the ceremonial presidency and the prime ministerial posts to form an executive president, a Presidential system. His ZANU party has won every election since independence, in the 1990 election the second-placed party, Edgar Tekere's Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Unity Movement, won only 20% of the vote.[98] During the 1995 parliamentary elections most opposition parties, including the ZUM, boycotted the voting, resulting in a near-sweep by the ruling party.[99] When the opposition returned to the polls in 2000, they won 57 seats, only five fewer than ZANU.[99] Presidential elections were again held in 2002 amid allegations of vote-rigging, intimidation and fraud.[100] The 2005 Zimbabwe parliamentary elections were held on 31 March and multiple claims of vote rigging, election fraud and intimidation were made by the MDC and Jonathan Moyo, calling for investigations into 32 of the 120 constituencies.[101] Jonathan Moyo participated in the elections despite the allegations and won a seat as an independent member of Parliament.[citation needed] General elections were again held in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
on 30 March 2008.[102] The official results required a runoff between Mugabe and Morgan Tsvangirai, the opposition leader; the MDC challenged these results, claiming widespread election fraud by the Mugabe government.[103] The run-off was scheduled for 27 June 2008. On 22 June, citing the continuing unfairness of the process and refusing to participate in a "violent, illegitimate sham of an election process", Tsvangirai pulled out of the presidential run-off, the ZEC held the run-off and President Mugabe received a landslide majority.[104]

Supporters of the Movement for Democratic Change in 2005.

The MDC-T
MDC-T
led by Morgan Tsvangirai
Morgan Tsvangirai
is now the majority in the Lower chamber of Parliament. The MDC split into two factions. One faction (MDC-M), now led by Arthur Mutambara
Arthur Mutambara
contested the elections to the Senate, while the other, led by Tsvangirai, opposed to contesting the elections, stating that participation in a rigged election is tantamount to endorsing Mugabe's claim that past elections were free and fair. The opposition parties have resumed participation in national and local elections as recently as 2006. The two MDC camps had their congresses in 2006 with Tsvangirai being elected to lead MDC-T, which has become more popular than the other group.[105] Mutambara, a robotics professor and former NASA
NASA
robotics specialist has replaced Welshman Ncube who was the interim leader of MDC-M
MDC-M
after the split. Morgan Tsvangirai
Morgan Tsvangirai
did not participate in the Senate elections, while the Mutambara faction participated and won five seats in the Senate. The Mutambara formation has been weakened by defections from MPs and individuals who are disillusioned by their manifesto. As of 2008[update], the Movement for Democratic Change has become the most popular, with crowds as large as 20,000 attending their rallies as compared to between 500–5,000 for the other formation.[105] On 28 April 2008, Tsvangirai and Mutambara announced at a joint news conference in Johannesburg
Johannesburg
that the two MDC formations were co-operating, enabling the MDC to have a clear parliamentary majority.[106][107] Tsvangirai said that Mugabe could not remain President without a parliamentary majority.[107] On the same day, Silaigwana announced that the recounts for the final five constituencies had been completed, that the results were being collated and that they would be published on 29 April.[108] In mid-September 2008, after protracted negotiations overseen by the leaders of South Africa
South Africa
and Mozambique, Mugabe and Tsvangirai signed a power-sharing deal which would see Mugabe retain control over the army. Donor nations have adopted a 'wait-and-see' attitude, wanting to see real change being brought about by this merger before committing themselves to funding rebuilding efforts, which are estimated to take at least five years. On 11 February 2009 Tsvangirai was sworn in as Prime Minister by President Mugabe.[citation needed] In November 2008, the government of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
spent US$7.3 million donated by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. A representative of the organisation declined to speculate on how the money was spent, except that it was not for the intended purpose, and the government has failed to honour requests to return the money.[109] In February 2013, Zimbabwe's election chief, Simpson Mtambanengwe, resigned due to ill health. His resignation came months before the country's constitutional referendum and elections.[110] Human rights[edit] Main article: Human rights
Human rights
in Zimbabwe

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

A demonstration in London
London
against Robert Mugabe. Protests are discouraged by Zimbabwean police in Zimbabwe.[111]

There are widespread reports of systematic and escalating violations of human rights in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
under the Mugabe administration and the dominant party, the ZANU-PF.[112] In 2011, there were reports of 640 corpses having been recovered from the Monkey William Mine in Chibondo. They were allegedly authenticated by the Fallen Heroes Trust of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
and the Department of National Museums and Monuments who are leading the exhumation process as victims of the Ian Smith
Ian Smith
regime during the Rhodesian Bush War.[113][114] One body was identified as a ZANLA cadre, Cde Rauya, by the Fallen Heroes Trust Chief exhumer.[115] Government Minister Saviour Kasukuwere admitted the remains were discovered in 2008, but claimed the remains were decades old despite clear evidence the exhumed skeletons still had hair and clothes. Solidarity Peace Trust said that the presence of soft tissues "is not necessarily an indicator that these bones entered the grave more recently, although it could be."[116] Journalists found a body in the mine with 'what appeared to be blood and fluids dripping onto the skulls below'. The opposition MDC called for research on all violence that included killings of its supporters during disputed elections in 2008. Amnesty International
Amnesty International
(AI) expressed concern that "international best practice on exhumations is not being adhered to ... [M]ishandling of these mass graves has serious implications on potential exhumations of other sites in Zimbabwe. Thousands of civilians were also killed in Matabeleland
Matabeleland
and Midlands provinces in the mid 1980s and are allegedly buried in mine shafts and mass graves in these regions", AI added.[116][117] According to human rights organisations such as Amnesty International[118] and Human Rights Watch[119] the government of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
violates the rights to shelter, food, freedom of movement and residence, freedom of assembly and the protection of the law. In 2009, Gregory Stanton, then President of the International Association of Genocide Scholars, stated there was "clear evidence that Mugabe government was guilty of crimes against humanity and that there was sufficient evidence of crimes against humanity to bring Mugabe to trial in front of the International Criminal Court. [120] Opposition gatherings are frequently the subject of brutal attacks by the police force, such as the crackdown on an 11 March 2007 Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) rally and several others during the 2008 election campaign.[121] In the attacks of 2007, party leader Morgan Tsvangirai
Morgan Tsvangirai
and 49 other opposition activists were arrested and severely beaten by the police. After his release, Morgan Tsvangirai
Morgan Tsvangirai
told the BBC
BBC
that he suffered head injuries and blows to the arms, knees and back, and that he lost a significant amount of blood and hundreds were killed.[122] Police action was strongly condemned by the UN Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon, the European Union
European Union
and the United States.[122] While noting that the activists had suffered injuries, but not mentioning the cause of them,[123] the Zimbabwean state-owned daily newspaper The Herald claimed the police had intervened after demonstrators "ran amok looting shops, destroying property, mugging civilians, and assaulting police officers and innocent members of the public". The newspaper argued that the opposition had been "willfully violating the ban on political rallies".[123] There are also abuses of media rights and access. The Zimbabwean government is accused of suppressing freedom of the press and freedom of speech.[118] It has been repeatedly accused of using the public broadcaster, the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Broadcasting Corporation, as a propaganda tool.[124] Newspapers critical of the government, such as the Daily News, closed after bombs exploded at their offices and the government refused to renew their license.[125][126] BBC
BBC
News, Sky News, and CNN were banned from filming or reporting from Zimbabwe. In 2009 reporting restrictions on the BBC
BBC
and CNN
CNN
were lifted.[127] Sky News
Sky News
continue to report on happenings within Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
from neighbouring countries like South Africa.[128][129] Armed forces[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main article: Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Defence Forces

The flag of the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Defence Forces.

The Zimbabwe Defence Forces
Zimbabwe Defence Forces
were set up by unifying three insurrectionist forces – the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
African National Liberation Army (ZANLA), the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army
Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army
(ZIPRA), and the Rhodesian Security Forces
Rhodesian Security Forces
(RSF) – after the Second Chimurenga and Zimbabwean independence in 1980. The integration period saw the formation of The Zimbabwe National Army
Zimbabwe National Army
(ZNA) and Air Force of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(AFZ) as separate entities under the command of Rtd General Solomon Mujuru
Solomon Mujuru
and Air Marshal Norman Walsh who retired in 1982, and was replaced by Air Marshal Azim Daudpota who handed over command to the late Rtd Air Chief Marshal
Air Chief Marshal
Josiah Tungamirai in 1985. In December 2003, General Constantine Chiwenga, was promoted and appointed Commander of the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Defence Forces. Lieutenant General P. V. Sibanda replaced him as Commander of the Army.[130] The ZNA currently has an active duty strength of 30,000. The Air Force has about 5,139 standing personnel.[131] The Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Republic Police (includes Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police) is part of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces
Zimbabwe Defence Forces
and numbers 25,000.[132] Following majority rule in early 1980, British Army
British Army
trainers oversaw the integration of guerrilla fighters into a battalion structure overlaid on the existing Rhodesian armed forces. For the first year, a system was followed where the top-performing candidate became battalion commander. If he or she was from ZANLA, then his or her second-in-command was the top-performing ZIPRA candidate, and vice versa.[133] This ensured a balance between the two movements in the command structure. From early 1981, this system was abandoned in favour of political appointments, and ZANLA and ZANU fighters consequently quickly formed the majority of battalion commanders in the ZNA.[citation needed] The ZNA was originally formed into four brigades, composed of a total of 28 battalions. The brigade support units were composed almost entirely of specialists of the former Rhodesian Army, while unintegrated battalions of the Rhodesian African Rifles
Rhodesian African Rifles
were assigned to the 1st, 3rd and 4th Brigades. The Fifth Brigade
Brigade
was formed in 1981 and disbanded in 1988 after the demonstration of mass brutality and murder during the brigade's occupation of Matabeleland
Matabeleland
in what has become known as Gukurahundi
Gukurahundi
(Shona: "the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains"), the campaign which finished off Mugabe's liberation struggle.[55][134] The Brigade
Brigade
had been re-formed by 2006, with its commander, Brigadier-General John Mupande praising its "rich history".[135] Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: Provinces of Zimbabwe, Districts of Zimbabwe, and Wards of Zimbabwe

Administrative divisions of Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has a centralised government and is divided into eight provinces and two cities with provincial status, for administrative purposes. Each province has a provincial capital from where government administration is usually carried out.[2]

Province Capital

Bulawayo Bulawayo

Harare Harare

Manicaland Mutare

Mashonaland
Mashonaland
Central Bindura

Mashonaland
Mashonaland
East Marondera

Mashonaland
Mashonaland
West Chinhoyi

Masvingo Masvingo
Masvingo
city

Matabeleland
Matabeleland
North Lupane District

Matabeleland
Matabeleland
South Gwanda

Midlands Gweru

The names of most of the provinces were generated from the Mashonaland and Matabeleland
Matabeleland
divide at the time of colonisation: Mashonaland
Mashonaland
was the territory occupied first by the British South Africa
South Africa
Company Pioneer Column
Pioneer Column
and Matabeleland
Matabeleland
the territory conquered during the First Matabele War. This corresponds roughly to the precolonial territory of the Shona people
Shona people
and the Matabele people, although there are significant ethnic minorities in most provinces. Each province is headed by a Provincial Governor, appointed by the President.[136] The provincial government is run by a Provincial Administrator, appointed by the Public Service Commission. Other government functions at provincial level are carried out by provincial offices of national government departments.[137] The provinces are subdivided into 59 districts and 1,200 wards (sometimes referred to as municipalities). Each district is headed by a District Administrator, appointed by the Public Service Commission. There is also a Rural District Council, which appoints a chief executive officer. The Rural District Council is composed of elected ward councillors, the District Administrator and one representative of the chiefs (traditional leaders appointed under customary law) in the district. Other government functions at district level are carried out by district offices of national government departments.[138] At the ward level there is a Ward Development Committee, comprising the elected ward councillor, the kraalheads (traditional leaders subordinate to chiefs) and representatives of Village Development Committees. Wards are subdivided into villages, each of which has an elected Village Development Committee and a Headman (traditional leader subordinate to the kraalhead).[139] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Zimbabwe

A proportional representation of Zimbabwe's exports, 2010.

Minerals, gold,[93] and agriculture are the main foreign exports of Zimbabwe. Tourism also plays a key role in its economy.[140] The mining sector remains very lucrative, with some of the world's largest platinum reserves being mined by Anglo American plc
Anglo American plc
and Impala Platinum.[141] The Marange diamond fields, discovered in 2006, are considered the biggest diamond find in over a century.[142] They have the potential to improve the fiscal situation of the country considerably, but almost all revenues from the field have disappeared into the pockets of army officers and ZANU-PF
ZANU-PF
politicians.[143] In terms of carats produced, the Marange field is one of the largest diamond producing projects in the world,[144] estimated to produce 12 million carats in 2014 worth over $350 million.[citation needed] Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
is the biggest trading partner of South Africa
South Africa
on the continent.[145] Taxes and tariffs are high for private enterprises, while state enterprises are strongly subsidised. State regulation is costly to companies; starting or closing a business is slow and costly.[146] Government spending was predicted to reach 67% of GDP in 2007.[147] Tourism was an important industry for the country, but has been failing in recent years. The Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Conservation Task Force released a report in June 2007, estimating 60% of Zimbabwe's wildlife has died since 2000 due to poaching and deforestation. The report warns that the loss of life combined with widespread deforestation is potentially disastrous for the tourist industry.[148] The ICT sector of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has been growing at a fast pace. A report by the mobile internet browser company, Opera, in June/July 2011 has ranked Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
as Africa's fastest growing market.[149][150]

A market in Mbare, Harare.

Since 1 January 2002, the government of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has had its lines of credit at international financial institutions frozen, through US legislation called the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001 (ZDERA). Section 4C instructs the Secretary of the Treasury to direct directors at international financial institutions to veto the extension of loans and credit to the Zimbabwean government.[151] According to the United States, these sanctions target only seven specific businesses owned or controlled by government officials and not ordinary citizens.[152]

The GDP per capita (current), compared to neighbouring countries (world average = 100).

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
maintained positive economic growth throughout the 1980s (5% GDP growth per year) and 1990s (4.3% GDP growth per year). The economy declined from 2000: 5% decline in 2000, 8% in 2001, 12% in 2002 and 18% in 2003.[153] Zimbabwe's involvement from 1998 to 2002 in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
drained hundreds of millions of dollars from the economy.[154] From 1999–2009, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
saw the lowest ever economic growth with an annual GDP decrease of 6.1%.[155] The downward spiral of the economy has been attributed mainly to mismanagement and corruption by the government and the eviction of more than 4,000 white farmers in the controversial land confiscations of 2000.[156][157][158][159] The Zimbabwean government and its supporters attest that it was Western policies to avenge the expulsion of their kin that sabotaged the economy.[160] By 2005, the purchasing power of the average Zimbabwean had dropped to the same levels in real terms as 1953.[161] In 2005, the government, led by central bank governor Gideon Gono, started making overtures that white farmers could come back. There were 400 to 500 still left in the country, but much of the land that had been confiscated was no longer productive.[162] By 2016 there were about 300 farms owned by white farmers left out of the original 4,500. The farms left were either too remote or their owners had paid for protection or collaborated with the regime.[87] In January 2007, the government issued long term leases to some white farmers.[163] At the same time, however, the government also continued to demand that all remaining white farmers, who were given eviction notices earlier, vacate the land or risk being arrested.[164][165] Mugabe pointed to foreign governments and alleged "sabotage" as the cause of the fall of the Zimbabwean economy, as well as the country's 80% formal unemployment rate.[166] Inflation rose from an annual rate of 32% in 1998, to an official estimated high of 11,200,000% in August 2008 according to the country's Central Statistical Office.[167] This represented a state of hyperinflation, and the central bank introduced a new 100 billion dollar note.[168] On 29 January 2009, in an effort to counteract runaway inflation, acting Finance Minister Patrick Chinamasa announced that Zimbabweans will be permitted to use other, more stable currencies to do business, alongside the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
dollar.[169] In an effort to combat inflation and foster economic growth the Zimbabwean Dollar was suspended indefinitely on 12 April 2009.[170] In 2016 Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
allowed trade in the United States dollar
United States dollar
and various other currencies such as the rand (South Africa), the pula (Botswana), the euro, and the Pound Sterling (UK).[171] After the formation of the Unity Government and the adoption of several currencies instead of the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
dollar in 2009, the Zimbabwean economy rebounded. GDP grew by 8–9% a year between 2009 and 2012.[172] In November 2010, the IMF described the Zimbabwean economy as "completing its second year of buoyant economic growth".[173][174] By 2014, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
had recovered to levels seen in the 1990s[172] but between 2012 and 2016 growth faltered.[175] Zimplats, the nation's largest platinum company, has proceeded with US$500 million in expansions, and is also continuing a separate US$2 billion project, despite threats by Mugabe to nationalise the company.[176] The pan-African investment bank IMARA
IMARA
released a favourable report in February 2011 on investment prospects in Zimbabwe, citing an improved revenue base and higher tax receipts.[177] In late January 2013, the Zimbabwean finance ministry reported that they had only $217 in their treasury and would apply for donations to finance the coming elections that is estimated to cost 107 million USD.[178][179] As of October 2014, Metallon Corporation was Zimbabwe's largest gold miner.[180] The group is looking to increase its production to 500,000 ounces per annum by 2019.[180] Agriculture[edit] Zimbabwe's commercial farming sector was traditionally a source of exports and foreign exchange, and provided 400,000 jobs. However, the government's land reform program badly damaged the sector, turning Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
into a net importer of food products.[2] For example, between 2000 and 2016 annual wheat production fell from 250,000 tons to 60,000 tons, maize was reduced from two million tons to 500,000 tons and cattle slaughtered for beef fell from 605,000 to 244,000.[87] Coffee production, once a prized export commodity came to a virtual halt after seizure or expropriation of white-owned coffee farms in 2000, and has never recovered.[181] For the past ten years, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has been assisting Zimbabwe's farmers to adopt conservation agriculture techniques, a sustainable method of farming that can help increase yields. By applying the three principles of minimum soil disturbance, legume-based cropping and the use of organic mulch, farmers can improve infiltration, reduce evaporation and soil erosion, and build up organic soil content.[citation needed] Between 2005–11, the number of smallholders practising conservation agriculture in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
increased from 5000 to more than 150000. Cereal yields rose between 15 and 100 per cent across different regions.[182] Tourism[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main article: Tourism in Zimbabwe

Victoria Falls, the end of the upper Zambezi
Zambezi
and beginning of the middle Zambezi.

Since the land reform programme in 2000, tourism in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has steadily declined. After rising during the 1990s, (1.4 million tourists in 1999) industry figures described a 75% fall in visitors to Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
in 2000.[citation needed] By December, less than 20% of hotel rooms had been occupied.[183] In 2016, the total contribution of tourism to Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
was $1.1 billion (USD), or about 8.1% of Zimbabwe's GDP. It is expected to rise 1.4% in 2017. Employment in travel and tourism, as well as industries travel and tourism indirectly supports, was 5.2% of national employment and is expected to rise by 1.4% in 2017.[184] Several airlines pulled out of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
between 2000 and 2007. Australia's Qantas, Germany's Lufthansa, and Austrian Airlines
Austrian Airlines
were among the first to pull out and in 2007 British Airways
British Airways
suspended all direct flights to Harare.[183][185] The country's flagship airline Air Zimbabwe, which operated flights throughout Africa
Africa
and a few destinations in Europe
Europe
and Asia, ceased operations in February 2012.[186][needs update] As of 2017, several major commercial airlines had resumed flights to Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has several major tourist attractions. Victoria Falls
Victoria Falls
on the Zambezi, which are shared with Zambia, are located in the north west of Zimbabwe. Before the economic changes, much of the tourism for these locations came to the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
side but now Zambia
Zambia
is the main beneficiary. The Victoria Falls
Victoria Falls
National Park is also in this area and is one of the eight main national parks in Zimbabwe,[187] the largest of which is Hwange National Park. The Eastern Highlands
Eastern Highlands
are a series of mountainous areas near the border with Mozambique. The highest peak in Zimbabwe, Mount Nyangani at 2,593 m (8,507 ft) is located here as well as the Bvumba Mountains and the Nyanga National Park. World's View is in these mountains and it is from here that places as far away as 60–70 km (37–43 mi) are visible and, on clear days, the town of Rusape
Rusape
can be seen. Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
is unusual in Africa
Africa
in that there are a number of ancient ruined cities built in a unique dry stone style. The most famous of these are the Great Zimbabwe
Great Zimbabwe
ruins in Masvingo. Other ruins include Khami
Khami
Ruins, Zimbabwe, Dhlo-Dhlo and Naletale. The Matobo Hills
Matobo Hills
are an area of granite kopjes and wooded valleys commencing some 22 miles (35 km) south of Bulawayo
Bulawayo
in southern Zimbabwe. The Hills were formed over 2,000 million years ago with granite being forced to the surface, then being eroded to produce smooth "whaleback dwalas" and broken kopjes, strewn with boulders and interspersed with thickets of vegetation. Mzilikazi, founder of the Ndebele nation, gave the area its name, meaning 'Bald Heads'. They have become famous and a tourist attraction due to their ancient shapes and local wildlife. Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes
and other early white pioneers like Leander Starr Jameson
Leander Starr Jameson
are buried in these hills at a site named World's View.[188] Water supply
Water supply
and sanitation[edit] Main article: Water supply
Water supply
and sanitation in Zimbabwe Water supply and sanitation in Zimbabwe
Water supply and sanitation in Zimbabwe
is defined by many small scale successful programs but also by a general lack of improved water and sanitation systems for the majority of Zimbabwe. According to the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
in 2012, 80% of Zimbabweans had access to improved, i.e. clean, drinking-water sources, and only 40% of Zimbabweans had access to improved sanitation facilities.[189] Access to improved water supply and sanitation is distinctly less in rural areas.[190]

Public expenditure on education in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
as a share of GDP, 2012 or closest year. Source: UNESCO
UNESCO
Science Report: towards 2030 (2015)

There are many factors which continue to determine the nature, for the foreseeable future, of water supply and sanitation in Zimbabwe. Three major factors are the severely depressed state of the Zimbabwean economy, the reluctance of foreign aid organizations to build and finance infrastructure projects, and the political instability of the Zimbabwean state.[190][191] Science and technology[edit] Main article: Science and technology in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has relatively well-developed national infrastructure and a long-standing tradition of promoting research and development (R&D), as evidenced by the levy imposed on tobacco-growers since the 1930s to promote market research.[192][193] The country also has a well-developed education system, with one in eleven adults holding a tertiary degree. Given the country’s solid knowledge base and abundant natural resources, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has the potential to figure among the countries leading growth in sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
by 2020.[192][193]

Scientific research output in terms of publications in Southern Africa, cumulative totals by field, 2008–2014. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 20.6

To do so, however, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
will need to correct a number of structural weaknesses. For instance, it currently lacks the critical mass of researchers needed to trigger innovation. Although the infrastructure is in place to harness research and development to Zimbabwe’s socio-economic development, universities and research institutions lack the requisite financial and human resources to conduct research and the current regulatory environment hampers the transfer of new technologies to the business sector. The economic crisis has precipitated an exodus of university students and professionals in key areas of expertise (medicine, engineering, etc.) that is of growing concern. More than 22% of Zimbabwean tertiary students were completing their degrees abroad in 2012, compared to a 4% average for sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
as a whole. In 2012, there were 200 researchers (head count) employed in the public sector, one-quarter of whom were women. This is double the continental average (91 in 2013) but only one-quarter the researcher density of South Africa
South Africa
(818 per million inhabitants). The government has created the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Human Capital Website to provide information for the diaspora on job and investment opportunities in Zimbabwe.[192][193] Despite the fact that human resources are a pillar of any research and innovation policy, the Medium Term Plan 2011–2015 did not discuss any explicit policy for promoting postgraduate studies in science and engineering. The scarcity of new PhDs in science and engineering fields from the University of Zimbabwe
University of Zimbabwe
in 2013 was symptomatic of this omission.[192][193] Nor does the development agenda to 2018, the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Agenda for Sustainable Economic Transformation, contain any specific targets for increasing the number of scientists and engineers, or the staffing requirements for industry and other productive sectors. In addition, the lack of co-ordination and coherence among governance structures has led to a multiplication of research priorities and poor implementation of existing policies.[192][193]

Scientific publication trends in the most productive SADC countries, 2005–2014. Source: UNESCO
UNESCO
Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), data from Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded

The country's Second Science and Technology Policy was launched in June 2012, after being elaborated with UNESCO
UNESCO
assistance. It replaces the earlier policy dating from 2002. The 2012 policy prioritizes biotechnology, information and communication technologies (ICTs), space sciences, nanotechnology, indigenous knowledge systems, technologies yet to emerge and scientific solutions to emergent environmental challenges. The Second Science and Technology Policy also asserts the government commitment to allocating at least 1% of GDP to research and development, focusing at least 60% of university education on developing skills in science and technology and ensuring that school pupils devote at least 30% of their time to studying science subjects.[192][193] In 2014, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
counted 21 publications per million inhabitants in internationally catalogued journals, according to Thomson Reuters' Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded). This placed Zimbabwe sixth out of the 15 SADC countries, behind Namibia
Namibia
(59), Mauritius (71), Botswana
Botswana
(103) and, above all, South Africa
South Africa
(175) and the Seychelles
Seychelles
(364). The average for sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
was 20 scientific publications per million inhabitants, compared to a global average of 176 per million.[193] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Zimbabwe

A n'anga (Traditional Healer) of the majority (70%) Shona people, holding a kudu horn trumpet

Zimbabwe's total population is 12.97 million.[6] According to the United Nations
United Nations
World Health Organisation, the life expectancy for men was 56 years and the life expectancy for women was 60 years of age (2012).[194] An association of doctors in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has made calls for President Mugabe to make moves to assist the ailing health service.[195] The HIV infection rate in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
was estimated to be 14% for people aged 15–49 in 2009.[196] UNESCO
UNESCO
reported a decline in HIV prevalence among pregnant women from 26% in 2002 to 21% in 2004.[197] Some 85% of Zimbabweans are Christian; 62% of the population attends religious services regularly.[198] The largest Christian churches are Anglican, Roman Catholic, Seventh-day Adventist[199] and Methodist. As in other African countries, Christianity may be mixed with enduring traditional beliefs. Ancestral worship is the most practised non-Christian religion, involving spiritual intercession; the mbira dzavadzimu, which means "voice of the ancestors", an instrument related to many lamellophones ubiquitous throughout Africa, is central to many ceremonial proceedings. Mwari simply means "God the Creator" (musika vanhu in Shona). Around 1% of the population is Muslim.[200]

A group of women and children in Norton, Zimbabwe

Bantu-speaking ethnic groups make up 98% of the population. The majority people, the Shona, comprise 70%. The Ndebele are the second most populous with 20% of the population.[201][202] The Ndebele descended from Zulu migrations in the 19th century and the other tribes with which they intermarried. Up to one million Ndebele may have left the country over the last five years, mainly for South Africa. Other Bantu ethnic groups make up the third largest with 2 to 5%: these are Venda, Tonga, Shangaan, Kalanga, Sotho, Ndau, Nambya, Tswana, Xhosa and Lozi.[202] Minority ethnic groups include white Zimbabweans, who make up less than 1% of the total population. White Zimbabweans are mostly of British origin, but there are also Afrikaner, Greek, Portuguese, French and Dutch communities. The white population dropped from a peak of around 278,000 or 4.3% of the population in 1975[203] to possibly 120,000 in 1999, and was estimated to be no more than 50,000 in 2002, and possibly much less. The 2012 census lists the total white population at 28,782 (roughly 0.22% of the population), one-tenth of its 1975 estimated size.[204] Most emigration has been to the United Kingdom (between 200,000 and 500,000 Britons are of Rhodesian or Zimbabwean origin), South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Coloureds
Coloureds
form 0.5% of the population, and various Asian ethnic groups, mostly of Indian and Chinese origin, are also 0.5%.[205] According to 2012 Census report, 99.7% of the population is of African origin.[206] Official fertility rates over the last decade were 3.6 (2002 Census),[207] 3.8 (2006)[208] and 3.8 (2012 Census).[206] Largest cities[edit]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Zimbabwe http://www.geohive.com/cntry/zimbabwe.aspx

Rank Name Province Pop.

Harare

Bulawayo 1 Harare Harare 1,485,231

Mutare

2 Bulawayo Bulawayo 653,337

3 Chitungwiza Harare 356,840

4 Mutare Manicaland 187,621

5 Epworth Harare 167,462

6 Gweru Midlands 157,865

7 Kwekwe Midlands 100,900

8 Kadoma Mashonaland
Mashonaland
West 92,469

9 Masvingo Masvingo 87,886

10 Chinhoyi Mashonaland
Mashonaland
West 77,929

Language[edit] Main article: Languages of Zimbabwe English is the main language used in the education and judiciary systems. The Bantu languages
Bantu languages
Shona and Sindebele are the principal indigenous languages of Zimbabwe. Shona is spoken by 70% of the population, Sindebele by 20%. Other minority Bantu languages
Bantu languages
include Venda, Tsonga, Shangaan, Kalanga, Sotho, Ndau and Nambya. Less than 2.5%, mainly the white and "coloured" (mixed race) minorities, consider English their native language.[209] Shona has a rich oral tradition, which was incorporated into the first Shona novel, Feso by Solomon Mutswairo, published in 1956.[210] English is spoken primarily in the cities, but less so in rural areas. Radio and television news now broadcast in Shona, Sindebele and English.[citation needed] Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has 16 official languages and under the constitution, an Act of Parliament may prescribe other languages as officially recognised languages.[3] Refugee crisis[edit] The economic meltdown and repressive political measures in Zimbabwe have led to a flood of refugees into neighbouring countries. An estimated 3.4 million Zimbabweans, a quarter of the population, had fled abroad by mid-2007.[211] Some 3,000,000 of these left for South Africa
Africa
and Botswana.[212] Apart from the people who fled into the neighbouring countries, there are approximately 36,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs). There is no current comprehensive survey,[213] although the following figures are available:

Survey Number Date Source

National Survey 880–960,000 2007 Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Vulnerability Assessment Committee[214]

Former Farm Workers 1,000,000 2008 UNDP[213]

Victims of Operation Murambatsvina 570,000 2005 UN[215]

People Displaced by Political Violence 36,000 2008 UN[213]

The above surveys do not include people displaced by Operation Chikorokoza Chapera or beneficiaries of the fast-track land reform programme but who have since been evicted.[213] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Zimbabwe

Religion in Zimbabwe

religion

percent

Protestantism

63%

Roman Catholicism

17%

Ethnic religion

11%

Irreligion

7%

Others

2%

An estimated 80% of the country's citizens identify themselves as Christians. Protestants (mostly followers of Pentecostal African Churches) are around 63% of the population. Estimates from 2005 said there were 1,145,000 Roman Catholics in Zimbabwe. This is about 9% of the total population. The followers of ethnic religions are around 11%. Around 1% are Muslims, mainly from Mozambique
Mozambique
and Malawi, 0.1% are Hindus
Hindus
and 0.3% are Baha'is. Approximately 7% of citizens have no religious practice or are atheist.[216][217][218] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has many different cultures which may include beliefs and ceremonies, one of them being Shona, Zimbabwe's largest ethnic group. The Shona people
Shona people
have many sculptures and carvings which are made with the finest materials available.[219] Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
first celebrated its independence on 18 April 1980.[220] Celebrations are held at either the National Sports Stadium or Rufaro Stadium in Harare. The first independence celebrations were held in 1980 at the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Grounds. At these celebrations doves are released to symbolise peace and fighter jets fly over and the national anthem is sung. The flame of independence is lit by the president after parades by the presidential family and members of the armed forces of Zimbabwe. The president also gives a speech to the people of Zimbabwe which is televised for those unable to attend the stadium.[221] Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
also has a national beauty pageant, the Miss Heritage Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
contest which has been held annually ever since 2012. Arts[edit] Main article: Zimbabwean art See also: Music of Zimbabwe

"Reconciliation", a stone sculpture by Amos Supuni

Traditional arts in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
include pottery, basketry, textiles, jewellery and carving. Among the distinctive qualities are symmetrically patterned woven baskets and stools carved out of a single piece of wood. Shona sculpture has become world-famous in recent years having found popularity in the 1940s. Most subjects of carved figures of stylised birds and human figures among others are made with sedimentary rocks such as soapstone, as well as harder igneous rocks such as serpentine and the rare stone verdite. Zimbabwean artefacts can be found in countries like Singapore, China and Canada. i.e. Dominic Benhura's statue in the Singapore Botanic Gardens. Shona sculpture in has survived through the ages and the modern style is a fusion of African folklore with European influences. World-renowned Zimbabwean sculptors include Nicholas, Nesbert and Anderson Mukomberanwa, Tapfuma Gutsa, Henry Munyaradzi and Locardia Ndandarika. Internationally, Zimbabwean sculptors have managed to influence a new generation of artists, particularly Black Americans, through lengthy apprenticeships with master sculptors in Zimbabwe. Contemporary artists like New York sculptor M. Scott Johnson and California sculptor Russel Albans have learned to fuse both African and Afro-diasporic aesthetics in a way that travels beyond the simplistic mimicry of African Art by some Black artists of past generations in the United States. Several authors are well known within Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
and abroad. Charles Mungoshi is renowned in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
for writing traditional stories in English and in Shona and his poems and books have sold well with both the black and white communities.[222] Catherine Buckle has achieved international recognition with her two books African Tears and Beyond Tears which tell of the ordeal she went through under the 2000 Land Reform.[223] The first Prime Minister of Rhodesia, Ian Smith, wrote two books – The Great Betrayal
The Great Betrayal
and Bitter Harvest. The book The House of Hunger by Dambudzo Marechera won an award in the UK in 1979 and the Nobel Prize-winning author Doris Lessing's first novel The Grass Is Singing, the first four volumes of The Children of Violence sequence, as well as the collection of short stories African Stories are set in Rhodesia. In 2013 NoViolet Bulawayo's novel We Need New Names was shortlisted for the Booker Prize. The novel tells the story of the devastation and emigration caused by the brutal suppression of Zimbabwean civilians during the Gukurahundi
Gukurahundi
in the early 1980s.[citation needed] Internationally famous artists include Henry Mudzengerere and Nicolas Mukomberanwa. A recurring theme in Zimbabwean art
Zimbabwean art
is the metamorphosis of man into beast.[224] Zimbabwean musicians like Thomas Mapfumo, Oliver Mtukudzi, the Bhundu Boys; Alick Macheso
Alick Macheso
and Audius Mtawarira have achieved international recognition. Among members of the white minority community, Theatre has a large following, with numerous theatrical companies performing in Zimbabwe's urban areas.[225] Cuisine[edit]

A meal of sadza (right), greens, and goat offal. The goat's small intestines are wrapped around small pieces of large intestines before cooking.

Like in many African countries, the majority of Zimbabweans depend on a few staple foods. "Mealie meal", also known as cornmeal, is used to prepare sadza or isitshwala, as well as porridge known as bota or ilambazi. Sadza
Sadza
is made by mixing the cornmeal with water to produce a thick paste/porridge. After the paste has been cooking for several minutes, more cornmeal is added to thicken the paste. This is usually eaten as lunch or dinner, usually with sides such as gravy, vegetables (spinach, chomolia, or spring greens/collard greens), beans, and meat (stewed, grilled, roasted, or sundried). Sadza
Sadza
is also commonly eaten with curdled milk (sour milk), commonly known as "lacto" (mukaka wakakora), or dried Tanganyika sardine, known locally as kapenta or matemba. Bota is a thinner porridge, cooked without the additional cornmeal and usually flavoured with peanut butter, milk, butter, or jam.[226] Bota is usually eaten for breakfast. Graduations, weddings, and any other family gatherings will usually be celebrated with the killing of a goat or cow, which will be barbecued or roasted by the family.

Raw boerewors

Even though the Afrikaners
Afrikaners
are a small group (10%) within the white minority group, Afrikaner
Afrikaner
recipes are popular. Biltong, a type of jerky, is a popular snack, prepared by hanging bits of spiced raw meat to dry in the shade.[227] Boerewors
Boerewors
is served with sadza. It is a long sausage, often well-spiced, composed of beef rather than pork, and barbecued.[citation needed] As Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
was a British colony, some people there have adopted some colonial-era English eating habits. For example, most people will have porridge in the morning, as well as 10 o'clock tea (midday tea). They will have lunch, often leftovers from the night before, freshly cooked sadza, or sandwiches (which is more common in the cities). After lunch, there is usually 4 o'clock tea (afternoon tea), which is served before dinner. It is not uncommon for tea to be had after dinner.[citation needed] Rice, pasta, and potato-based foods (french fries and mashed potato) also make up part of Zimbabwean cuisine. A local favourite is rice cooked with peanut butter, which is taken with thick gravy, mixed vegetables and meat.[citation needed] A potpourri of peanuts known as nzungu, boiled and sundried maize, black-eyed peas known as nyemba, and bambara groundnuts known as nyimo makes a traditional dish called mutakura. Mutakura can also be the above ingredients cooked individually. One can also find local snacks, such as maputi (roasted/popped maize kernels similar to popcorn), roasted and salted peanuts, sugar cane, sweet potato, pumpkin, and indigenous fruits, such as horned melon, gaka, adansonia, mawuyu, uapaca kirkiana, mazhanje (sugar plum), and many others.[citation needed] Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe women's national football team
Zimbabwe women's national football team
at the 2016 Olympic Games

Football is the most popular sport in Zimbabwe.[citation needed] The Warriors have qualified for the Africa Cup of Nations
Africa Cup of Nations
three times (2004, 2006, 2017), and won the Southern Africa
Southern Africa
championship on four occasions (2000, 2003, 2005, 2009) and the Eastern Africa
Africa
cup once (1985). Rugby union
Rugby union
is a significant sport in Zimbabwe. The national side have represented the country at 2 Rugby World Cup
Rugby World Cup
tournaments in 1987 and 1991. The team are currently ranked 26 in the world by World Rugby.[228] Cricket
Cricket
also has a following among the white minority. It is one of ten Test cricket
Test cricket
playing nations and a ICC full member as well. Notable cricket players from Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
include Andy Flower, Heath Streak and Brendan Taylor. Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has won eight Olympic medals, one in field hockey with the women's team at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, and seven by swimmer Kirsty Coventry, three at the 2004 Summer Olympics and four at the 2008 Summer Olympics. Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has also done well in the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
and All-Africa Games in swimming with Kirsty Coventry
Kirsty Coventry
obtaining 11 gold medals in the different competitions.[229][230][231][232] Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has also competed at Wimbledon and the Davis Cup
Davis Cup
in tennis, most notably with the Black family, which comprises Wayne Black, Byron Black and Cara Black. Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has also done well in golf. The Zimbabwean Nick Price
Nick Price
held the official World Number 1 status longer than any player from Africa has ever done in the 24-year history of the ranking.[233] Other sports played in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
are basketball, volleyball, netball, and water polo, as well as squash, motorsport, martial arts, chess, cycling, polocrosse, kayaking and horse racing. However, most of these sports do not have international representatives but instead stay at a junior or national level. Zimbabwean professional rugby league players currently playing overseas are Masimbaashe Motongo and Judah Mazive.[234][235] Former players include now SANZAAR
SANZAAR
CEO Andy Marinos who made an appearance for South Africa
South Africa
at the Super League World Nines and featured for the Sydney Bulldogs
Sydney Bulldogs
as well as Zimbabwe-born former Scotland rugby union international Scott Gray, who spent time at the Brisbane Broncos.[236] Media[edit] Main article: Media of Zimbabwe The media of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
is now once again diverse, having come under tight restriction between 2002 and 2008 by the government during the growing economic and political crisis in the country. The Zimbabwean constitution promises freedom of the media and expression. Since the appointment of a new media and information minister in 2013 the media is currently facing less political interference and the supreme court has ruled some sections of the strict media laws as unconstitutional.[237] In July 2009 the BBC
BBC
and CNN
CNN
were able to resume operations and report legally and openly from Zimbabwe. CNN welcomed the move. The Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Ministry of Media, Information and Publicity stated that, "the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
government never banned the BBC from carrying out lawful activities inside Zimbabwe".[127] The BBC also welcomed the move saying, "we're pleased at being able to operate openly in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
once again".[238] In 2010 the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Media Commission was established by the inclusive, power-sharing government. In May 2010 the Commission licensed three new privately owned newspapers, including the previously banned Daily News, for publication.[239] Reporters Without Borders described the decisions as a "major advance".[240] In June 2010 NewsDay became the first independent daily newspaper to be published in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
in seven years.[241] ZBC's monopoly in the broadcasting sector was ended with the licensing of two private radio stations in 2012.[242] Since the 2002 Access to Information and Protection of Privacy Act (AIPPA) was passed, a number of privately owned news outlets were shut down by the government, including Daily News whose managing director Wilf Mbanga went on to form the influential The Zimbabwean.[243][244] As a result, many press organisations have been set up in both neighbouring and Western countries by exiled Zimbabweans. Because the internet is currently unrestricted, many Zimbabweans are allowed to access online news sites set up by exiled journalists.[245] Reporters Without Borders claims the media environment in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
involves "surveillance, threats, imprisonment, censorship, blackmail, abuse of power and denial of justice are all brought to bear to keep firm control over the news."[243] The main published newspapers are The Herald and The Chronicle which are printed in Harare
Harare
and Bulawayo respectively. The heavy-handedness on the media has progressively relaxed since 2009. In its 2008 report, Reporters Without Borders
Reporters Without Borders
ranked the Zimbabwean media as 151st out of 173.[243] The government also bans many foreign broadcasting stations from Zimbabwe, including the CBC, Sky News, Channel 4, American Broadcasting Company, Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), and Fox News. News agencies and newspapers from other Western countries and South Africa
South Africa
have also been banned from the country. Scouting[edit] Main article: The Boy Scouts Association of Zimbabwe

Baden-Powell's drawing of Chief of Scouts Burnham, Matobo Hills, 1896.

It was in the Matabeleland
Matabeleland
region in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
that, during the Second Matabele War, Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting, and Frederick Russell Burnham, the American born Chief of Scouts for the British Army, first met and began their lifelong friendship.[246] In mid-June 1896, during a scouting patrol in the Matobo Hills, Burnham began teaching Baden-Powell woodcraft. Baden-Powell and Burnham discussed the concept of a broad training programme in woodcraft for young men, rich in exploration, tracking, fieldcraft, and self-reliance.[247] It was also during this time in the Matobo Hills that Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham.[248] Scouting
Scouting
in the former Rhodesia
Rhodesia
and Nyasaland
Nyasaland
started in 1909 when the first Boy Scout troop was registered. Scouting
Scouting
grew quickly and in 1924 Rhodesia
Rhodesia
and Nyasaland
Nyasaland
sent a large contingent to the second World Scout Jamboree
World Scout Jamboree
in Ermelunden, Denmark. In 1959, Rhodesia
Rhodesia
hosted the Central African Jamboree at Ruwa. In 2009, Scouts celebrated 100 years of Scouting
Scouting
in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
and hundreds of Scouts camped at Gordon Park, a Scout campground and training area, as part of these celebrations.[249] Besides scouting, there are also leadership, life skills and general knowledge courses and training experiences mainly for school children ranging from pre-school to final year high school students and some times those beyond High school. These courses and outings are held at, for example, Lasting Impressions (Lasting Impressions ~ Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
on YouTube), Far and Wide Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(Far and wide.) and Chimanimani Outward Bound (Outwardbound Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 16 June 2007)). National symbols[edit]

Traditional Zimbabwe Bird
Zimbabwe Bird
design

The stone-carved Zimbabwe Bird
Zimbabwe Bird
appears on the national flags and the coats of arms of both Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
and Rhodesia, as well as on banknotes and coins (first on Rhodesian pound and then Rhodesian dollar). It probably represents the bateleur eagle or the African fish eagle.[250][251] The famous soapstone bird carvings stood on walls and monoliths of the ancient city of Great Zimbabwe, built, it is believed, sometime between the 13th and 16th centuries by ancestors of the Shona. The ruins, which gave their name to modern Zimbabwe, cover some 1,800 acres (7.3 km2) and are the largest ancient stone construction in Zimbabwe.[252] Balancing Rocks
Balancing Rocks
are geological formations all over Zimbabwe. The rocks are perfectly balanced without other supports. They are created when ancient granite intrusions are exposed to weathering, as softer rocks surrounding them erode away. They are often remarked on and have been depicted on both the banknotes of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
and the Rhodesian dollar banknotes. The ones found on the current notes of Zimbabwe, named the Banknote Rocks, are located in Epworth, approximately 9 miles (14 km) south east of Harare.[253] There are many different formations of the rocks, incorporating single and paired columns of 3 or more rocks. These formations are a feature of south and east tropical Africa
Africa
from northern South Africa
South Africa
northwards to Sudan. The most notable formations in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
are located in the Matobo National Park in Matabeleland.[citation needed] The National Anthem of Zimbabwe
National Anthem of Zimbabwe
is "Blessed be the Land of Zimbabwe" (Shona: "Simudzai Mureza wedu WeZimbabwe"; Northern Ndebele: "Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe"). It was introduced in March 1994 after a nationwide competition to replace "Ishe Komborera Africa" as a distinctly Zimbabwean song. The winning entry was a song written by Professor Solomon Mutswairo and composed by Fred Changundega. It has been translated into all three of the main languages of Zimbabwe.[citation needed] Health[edit] See also: HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe and Zimbabwean cholera outbreak

Map showing the spread of cholera in and around Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
put together from several sources.

At independence, the policies of racial inequality were reflected in the disease patterns of the black majority. The first five years after independence saw rapid gains in areas such as immunisation coverage, access to health care, and contraceptive prevalence rate.[254] Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
was thus considered internationally to have an achieved a good record of health development.[255] Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
suffered occasional outbreaks of acute diseases (such as plague in 1994). The gains on the national health were eroded by structural adjustment in the 1990s,[256] the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic[141] and the economic crisis since the year 2000. In 2006, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
had one of the lowest life expectancies in the world according to UN figure  – 44 for men and 43 for women, down from 60 in 1990, but recovered to 60 in 2015.[257][258] The rapid drop was ascribed mainly to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Infant mortality
Infant mortality
rose from 6% in the late 1990s to 12.3% by 2004.[141] By 2016 HIV/AIDS prevalence had been reduced to 13.5%[257] compared to 40% in 1998.[172] The health system has more or less collapsed. At the end of November 2008, some operations at three of Zimbabwe's four major referral hospitals had shut down, along with the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Medical School, and the fourth major hospital had two wards and no operating theatres working.[259] Due to hyperinflation, those hospitals still open were not able to obtain basic drugs and medicines.[260] The situation changed drastically after the Unity Government and the introduction of the multi-currency system in February 2009 although the political and economic crisis also contributed to the emigration of the doctors and people with medical knowledge.[261] In August 2008 large areas of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
were struck by the ongoing cholera epidemic. By December 2008 more than 10,000 people had been infected in all but one of Zimbabwe's provinces and the outbreak had spread to Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa
South Africa
and Zambia.[262][263] On 4 December 2008 the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
government declared the outbreak to be a national emergency and asked for international aid.[264][265] By 9 March 2009 The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) estimated that 4,011 people had succumbed to the waterborne disease since the outbreak began in August 2008, and the total number of cases recorded had reached 89,018.[266] In Harare, the city council offered free graves to cholera victims.[267] There had been signs that the disease is abating, with cholera infections down by about 50% to around 4,000 cases a week.[266] The 2014 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
was 614[172] compared to 960 in 2010–11[172] and 232 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births was 75 in 2014 (94 in 2009).[172] The number of midwives per 1,000 live births was unavailable in 2016 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women 1 in 42.[268] Education[edit] Main article: Education in Zimbabwe

St George's College, Harare
Harare
was established in 1896 by a French Jesuit

Due to large investments in education since independence, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has the highest adult literacy rate in Africa
Africa
which in 2013 was 90.70%.[269] This is lower than the 92% recorded in 2010 by the United Nations Development Programme[270][271] and the 97.0% recorded in the 2002 census, while still substantially higher than 80.4% recorded in the 1992 census.[272] The education department has stated that 20,000 teachers have left Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
since 2007 and that half of Zimbabwe's children have not progressed beyond primary school.[273] The wealthier portion of the population usually send their children to independent schools as opposed to the government-run schools which are attended by the majority as these are subsidized by the government. School education was made free in 1980, but since 1988, the government has steadily increased the charges attached to school enrollment until they now greatly exceed the real value of fees in 1980. The Ministry of Education of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
maintains and operates the government schools but the fees charged by independent schools are regulated by the cabinet of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe's education system consists of 2 years of pre-school, 7 years of primary and 6 years of secondary schooling before students can enter university in the country or abroad. The academic year in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
runs from January to December, with three terms, broken up by one month holidays, with a total of 40 weeks of school per year. National examinations are written during the third term in November, with "O" level and "A" level subjects also offered in June.[274] There are seven public (Government) universities as well as four church-related universities in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
that are fully internationally accredited.[274] The University of Zimbabwe, the first and largest, was built in 1952 and is located in the Harare
Harare
suburb of Mount Pleasant. Notable alumni from Zimbabwean universities include Welshman Ncube; Peter Moyo (of Amabhubesi); Tendai Biti, Chenjerai Hove, Zimbabwean poet, novelist and essayist; and Arthur Mutambara. Many of the current politicians in the government of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
have obtained degrees from universities in USA or other universities abroad. National University of Science and Technology (NUST) is the second largest public research university in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
located in Bulawayo. It was established in 1991. The National University of Science and Technology strives to become a flourishing and reputable institution not only in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
and in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
but also among the international fraternity of Universities. Its guidance, cultural values is the encouragement of all its members and society of those attitudes of fair mindedness, understanding, tolerance and respect for people and views which are essential for the attainment and maintenance of justice, peace and harmony at all times. Africa University
Africa University
is a United Methodist
Methodist
related university institution located in Manicaland
Manicaland
which attracts students from at least 36 African countries. The institution has been growing steadily and has steady study material and learning facilities. The highest professional board for accountants is the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Zimbabwe (ICAZ) with direct relationships with similar bodies in South Africa, Canada, the UK and Australia. A qualified Chartered Accountant
Chartered Accountant
from Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
is also a member of similar bodies in these countries after writing a conversion paper. In addition, Zimbabwean-trained doctors only require one year of residence to be fully licensed doctors in the United States. The Zimbabwe Institution of Engineers (ZIE) is the highest professional board for engineers. Education in Zimbabwe
Education in Zimbabwe
became under threat since the economic changes in 2000 with teachers going on strike because of low pay, students unable to concentrate because of hunger and the price of uniforms soaring making this standard a luxury. Teachers were also one of the main targets of Mugabe's attacks because he thought they were not strong supporters.[275] See also[edit]

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
portal

Education in Zimbabwe Index of Zimbabwe-related articles Outline of Zimbabwe

Source[edit]

This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO3.0 UNESCO
UNESCO
Science Report: towards 2030, UNESCO. To learn how to add open-license text to articles, please see:Adding open license text to. For information on reusing text from, please see the terms of use.

References[edit]

^ "Zimbabwe". The Beaver County Times. 13 September 1981. Retrieved 2 November 2011.  ^ a b c " The World Factbook
The World Factbook
– Zimbabwe". Central Intelligence Agency.  ^ a b c The following languages, namely Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda
Venda
and Xhosa, are the officially recognised languages of Zimbabwe. ( Constitution of Zimbabwe
Constitution of Zimbabwe
(final draft) Archived 2 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.). ^ Conference, International Association of University Professors of English (31 October 2014). "Developments in English". Cambridge University Press – via Google Books.  ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ a b "Census Results in Brief" (PDF). Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
National Statistical Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.  ^ a b c d "Zimbabwe". International Monetary Fund.  ^ "GINI Index". World Bank. Retrieved 21 July 2013.  ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Time". GreenwichMeanTime.com. Greenwich 2000. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2017.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
to make Chinese yuan legal currency after Beijing cancels debts". Agence France-Presse. The Guardian. 22 December 2015. ^ Hungwe, Brian. (6 February 2014) BBC
BBC
News – Zimbabwe’s multi-currency confusion. BBC. Retrieved 26 May 2014. ^ "Zimbabwe". CIA World Factbook. CIA.  ^ Johnson, Boris (15 November 2017). " Robert Mugabe
Robert Mugabe
tarnished the jewel that is Zimbabwe. Now is its chance to shine again" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.  ^ Lessing, Doris (10 April 2003). "The Jewel of Africa" – via www.nybooks.com.  ^ Chifera, Irwin. "What Happened to Zimbabwe, Once Known as The Jewel of Africa?".  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
2015 Human Rights Report". United States Department of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2016.  ^ "Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe". BBC. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2016.  ^ "Archbishop Desmond Tutu
Desmond Tutu
lambasts African silence on Zimbabwe". USA Today. 16 March 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2016.  ^ Contributor, Quora (29 November 2015). "What Caused Zimbabwe's Economic Crash?" – via Slate.  ^ a b CNN, David McKenzie, Brent Swails and Angela Dewan,. "Zimbabwe in turmoil after apparent coup". CNN. Retrieved 2017-11-15.  ^ a b "Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe
Robert Mugabe
confined to home as army takes control". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 November 2017.  ^ "Ruling party sacks Mugabe as leader". BBC
BBC
News. BBC. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ a b "Zimbabwe's President Mugabe 'resigns'". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
– big house of stone". Somali Press. Retrieved 14 December 2008.  ^ Lafon, Michel (1994). "Shona Class 5 revisited: a case against *ri as Class 5 nominal prefix" (PDF). Zambezia. 21: 51–80.  ^ Vale, Lawrence J. (1999). "Mediated monuments and national identity". Journal of Architecture. 4 (4): 391–408. doi:10.1080/136023699373774.  ^ Garlake, Peter (1973). Great Zimbabwe: New Aspects of Archaeology. London, UK: Thames & Hudson. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8128-1599-3.  ^ a b c d Fontein, Joost (September 2006). The Silence of Great Zimbabwe: Contested Landscapes and the Power of Heritage (First ed.). London: University College London
London
Press. pp. 119–20. ISBN 978-1844721238.  ^ a b c Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Sabelo J. (2009). Do "Zimbabweans" Exist? Trajectories of Nationalism, National Identity Formation and Crisis in a Postcolonial State (First ed.). Bern: Peter Lang AG. pp. 113–14. ISBN 978-3-03911-941-7.  ^ "What's in a Name? Welcome to the 'Republic of Machobana'". Read on. Harare: Training Aids Development Group: 40. 1991.  ^ a b Hall, Martin; Stephen W. Silliman (2005). Historical Archaeology. Wiley Blackwell. pp. 241–44. ISBN 978-1-4051-0751-8.  ^ Nelson, Harold (1983). Zimbabwe: A Country Study. The Studies. pp. 1–317.  ^ "So Who Was Shaka
Shaka
Zulu- Really?". The Odyssey. Retrieved 14 December 2008.  ^ Hensman, Howard (1901). Cecil Rhodes: A Study of a Career. pp. 106–07. ^ a b c Parsons, pp. 178–81. ^ Bryce, James (2008). Impressions of South Africa. p. 170; ISBN 055430032X. ^ Southern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
Order in Council of 20 October 1898 which includes at seection 4 thereof: "The territory for the time being within the limits of this Order shall be known as Southern Rhodesia." ^ Gray, J. A. (1956). "A Country in Search of a Name". The Northern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
Journal. 3 (1): 78.  ^ Southern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
(Annexation) Order in Council, 30 July 1923 which provided by section 3 thereof: "From and after the coming into operation of this Order the said territories shall be annexed to and form part of His Majesty's Dominions, and shall be known as the Colony of Southern Rhodesia." ^ Stella Madzibamuto v Desmond William Larder – Burke, Fredrick Phillip George (1969) A.C 645 – Authority for date of annexation having been 12 September 1923, being the date the Rhodesia (Annexation) Order in Council came into effect ^ a b Collective Responses to Illegal Acts in International Law: United Nations
United Nations
Action in the Question of Southern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
by Vera Gowlland-Debbas ^ Stella Madzibamuto v Desmond William Larder – Burke, Fredrick Phillip George (1969) A.C 645 ^ Southern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
Constitution Letters Patent, 1923 ^ a b Moorcraft, Paul (31 August 1990). "Rhodesia's War of Independence". History Today. 40 (9). [P]er head of (white) population Rhodesia
Rhodesia
had contributed more in both world wars than any other part of the empire, including the United Kingdom. ... There is little doubt now that after a few resignations here and there, the army, the Royal Navy and even the Royal Air Force (supposedly the most disaffected service) would have carried out any orders to subdue the first national treason against the Crown since the American War of Independence.  ^ Parsons, p. 292. ^ a b Hastedt, Glenn P. (2004) Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, Infobase Publishing, p. 537; ISBN 143810989X. ^ "On This Day". BBC
BBC
News. 1 June 1979. Retrieved 14 December 2008.  ^ a b Chung, Fay (2006). Re-living the Second Chimurenga: memories from the liberation struggle in Zimbabwe, Preben (INT) Kaarsholm. p. 242; ISBN 9171065512. ^ Preston, Matthew (2004). Ending Civil War: Rhodesia
Rhodesia
and Lebanon in Perspective. p. 25; ISBN 1850435790. ^ Zimbabwe, May 1980/Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence, Canberra: Government Printer, 1980. p. 122. ^ George M. Houser. "Letter by George M. Houser, Executive Director of the American Committee on Africa
Africa
(ACOA), on the 1980 independence election in Rhodesia". Retrieved 1 December 2007.  ^ Smith, Ian (2008). Bitter Harvest. London: John Blake Publishing Ltd. p. 367. ISBN 978-1-85782-604-3.  ^ Godwin, Peter; Hancock, Ian (1995) [1993]. 'Rhodesians Never Die': The Impact of War and Political Change on White Rhodesia, c. 1970–1980. Harare: Baobab Books. p. 312. ISBN 0-908311-82-6.  ^ a b Nyarota, Geoffrey (2006). Against the Grain, Zebra, p. 134; ISBN 1770071121. ^ a b c Meredith, Martin (September 2007) [2002]. Mugabe: Power, Plunder and the Struggle for Zimbabwe. New York: PublicAffairs. pp. 62–73. ISBN 978-1-58648-558-0.  ^ a b Hill, Geoff (2005) [2003]. The Battle for Zimbabwe: The Final Countdown. Johannesburg: Struik Publishers. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-86872-652-3.  ^ "Report on the 1980s disturbances in Matabeleland
Matabeleland
and the Midlands, by the Catholic Commission for Justice
Justice
and Peace in Zimbabwe, March 1997 – Conclusion – FINAL ESTIMATE: The figure for the dead and missing is not less than 3000. This statement is now beyond reasonable doubt. Adding up the conservative suggestions made above, the figure is reasonably certainly 3750 dead. More than that it is still not possible to say, except to allow that the real figure for the dead could be possibly double 3000, or even higher. Only further research will resolve the issue" (PDF).  ^ " Gukurahundi
Gukurahundi
killed 80,000: Eddie Cross".  ^ Catholic Commission for Justice
Justice
and Peace in Zimbabwe; Legal Resources Foundation (1 January 1997). "Breaking the Silence, Building True Peace" – via Internet Archive.  ^ "REPORT ON THE 1980s DISTURBANCES IN MATABELELAND & THE MIDLANDS". Catholic Commission for Justice
Justice
and Peace in Zimbabwe. March 1997. Retrieved 8 August 2015.  ^ "Chronology of Zimbabwe". badley.info. Archived from the original on 23 November 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2008.  ^ "Timeline: Zimbabwe". BBC
BBC
News. 15 October 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2008.  ^ "Zimbabwe: 1990 General Elections". EISA. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2008.  ^ Moyo, Jonathon M. "Voting for Democracy: A Study of Electoral Politics in Zimbabwe". University of Zimbabwe. Archived from the original on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2008.  ^ "A Brief History of Zimbabwe". about.com. Archived from the original on 8 January 2008.  ^ "Zimbabwe: ZANU PF hegemony and its breakdown (1990–1999)". EISA. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2008.  ^ "History of Zimbabwe". Infoplease.  ^ "History of HIV & AIDS in Africa". AVERT. Retrieved 8 August 2015.  ^ "Britain's troubles with Mugabe". BBC
BBC
News. 3 April 2000.  ^ a b "Fast Track Land Reform in Zimbabwe" (PDF). Human Rights Watch.  (175 KB) ^ Polgreen, Lydia (20 July 2012). "In Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Land Takeover, a Golden Lining". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 July 2012.  ^ "Council Common Position renewing restrictive measures against Zimbabwe" (PDF). Council of the European Union. 26 January 2009.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Suspended Indefinitely from Commonwealth". Human Rights First. 8 December 2003. Archived from the original on 29 June 2007.  ^ "Commonwealth website confirms Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
"terminated" its membership with effect from 7 December 2003". Thecommonwealth.org. 12 December 2003. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008.  ^ "Text of S. 494 (107th): Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001 (Passed Congress/Enrolled Bill version)". GovTrack. 12 December 2001. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
destruction: One man's story". BBC. 30 August 2005. Retrieved 19 December 2008.  ^ "Zimbabwe: Housing policy built on foundation of failures and lies – Amnesty International". Web.archive.org. 9 August 2006. Archived from the original on 10 October 2006. Retrieved 30 December 2013.  ^ "As the House Burns, Whither the Zimbabwean Opposition? – By Nicole Beardsworth – African Arguments".  ^ Jacobson, Celean (24 November 2008). "Carter warns situation appears dire in Zimbabwe". Fox News. Associated Press.  ^ "Mugabe wants sanctions removed". United Press International. 18 December 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  ^ Booysen, Susan (4 March 2011). Changing Perceptions in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
– Nationwide Survey of the Political Climate in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
November 2010 – January 2011 (PDF) (Report). Freedom House. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 December 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012.  ^ OCHA in 2012–2013: Plan and Budget: Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(Report). United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. December 2011. Archived from the original on 30 January 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012.  ^ Chinaka, Cris (17 January 2013). "Mugabe deputy John Nkomo
John Nkomo
dies after cancer battle". Reuters. Retrieved 30 December 2013.  ^ Dzirutwe, MacDonald. "Zimbabweans start voting to adopt new constitution". Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  ^ a b c "Bailing out bandits". The Economist. 420 (8997). 9 July 2016. pp. 43–44. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 8 July 2016.  ^ a b c d Fletcher, Martin (7 February 2017). "Out of House and Home". The Telegraph (Telegraph Magazine ed.). p. 39.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
election: A guide to rigging allegations". BBC
BBC
News. 7 August 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2016.  ^ Matyszak, Derek (20 September 2017). "Zimbabwe's shady police roadblocks reflect its failing governance - ISS Africa". ISS Africa. Retrieved 2017-09-22.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
'shut down' over economic collapse". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 7 July 2016.  ^ Raath, Jan; Graham, Stuart (25 July 2016). "Mugabe at war with militias that keep him in power". The Times. Retrieved 25 July 2016. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "The costs of the Robert Mugabe
Robert Mugabe
era". newzimbabwe.com. Retrieved 12 March 2018.  ^ a b Baughan, M. (2005). Continent in the Balance: Zimbabwe-Juvenile literature. Philadelphia, PA: Mason Crest Publishers; ISBN 1590848101. ^ Chipika, J; Kowero, G. (2000). " Deforestation
Deforestation
of woodlands in communal areas of Zimbabwe: is it due to agricultural policies?". Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 79 (2–3): 175. doi:10.1016/S0167-8809(99)00156-5.  ^ "Chaos as tobacco sales start". NewsdezeZimbabwe. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2015.  ^ Constitution of Zimbabwe
Constitution of Zimbabwe
Amendment (No. 17) Act, 2005 Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. NGO Network Alliance Project ^ Mugabe, Robert. (2007). Encyclopædia Britannica 2007 Ultimate Reference Suite, Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ "Tekere says Mugabe 'insecure' in new book". Archived from the original on 27 December 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2008.  ^ a b Frankel, Matthew. "Myanmar Boycott is Misguided" Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine., The Brookings Institution, 26 May 2010. ^ Zimbabwe: Election Fraud Report, 04/18/05. University of Pennsylvania, 18 April 2005. ^ "Mugabe's former ally accuses him of foul play", Independent Online Zimbabwe, 12 March 2005. ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
stands 'on a precipice'". BBC
BBC
News. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ "Mugabe critics predict fraud in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
elections". CNN. 28 March 2008.  ^ "Mugabe rival quits election race". BBC
BBC
News. 22 June 2008.  ^ a b Latham, Brian (4 March 2002). "Contrast in styles as contenders hold rallies in Harare
Harare
townships". The Independent. UK. Archived from the original on 29 December 2013.  ^ "Zimbabwe's MDC factions reunite". Archived from the original on 2 May 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2009. , SABC News, 28 April 2008. ^ a b "Opposition reunites in Zimbabwe". BBC
BBC
News. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ Chinaka, Cris (29 April 2008) All eyes on Zim as ZEC wrap-up recount, Reuters
Reuters
via iol.co.za; accessed 4 May 2016. ^ Dugger, Celia W. (3 November 2008). "Aid Group Says Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Misused $7.3 Million". The New York Times.  ^ "Zimbabwe: Election chief Mutambanengwe resigns". BBC
BBC
News. 2013.  ^ "Police baton charge Harare
Harare
protesters". ABC News. 3 December 2008.  ^ Howard-Hassmann, Rhoda E. (24 November 2010). "Mugabe's Zimbabwe, 2000–2009: Massive Human Rights Violations and the Failure to Protect". Human Rights Quarterly. 32 (4): 898–920. doi:10.1353/hrq.2010.0030. ISSN 1085-794X.  ^ "Mass grave discovered". Manicapost.com. 22 March 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2013.  ^ "Exhumation begins at the Rusape
Rusape
Heroes Acre". Bulawayo24.com. Retrieved 30 December 2013.  ^ "ZANLA cadre exhumed in Chibondo". Zbc.co.zw. 14 August 2011. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2013.  ^ a b " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
mass grave used as political propaganda". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2013.  ^ "Zimbabwe: Mass grave bodies must be exhumed by forensic experts". Amnesty International. 6 April 2011. Archived from the original on 7 December 2014.  ^ a b "Zimbabwe". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 3 December 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2007.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
– Events of 2006". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2007.  ^ Howard-Hassmann 2010, p. 909 ^ Whitaker, Raymond (22 June 2008). " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
election violence spreads to Harare". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 7 December 2008.  ^ a b "Unbowed Tsvangirai urges defiance". BBC. 14 March 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2007.  ^ a b The Herald, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(14 March 2007). "Opposition protesters' case not heard". Archived from the original on 16 March 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2007.  ^ Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers Press Reference, 2006. ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
newspaper bombed". BBC
BBC
News. 28 January 2001. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ Wines, Michael (7 February 2004). "Zimbabwe: Newspaper Silenced". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ a b " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
lifts reporting ban on BBC
BBC
and CNN", The Daily Telegraph, 30 July 2009. ^ Nkosi, Milton (1 April 2005). "Why did Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
ban the BBC?". BBC News. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ "Al Jazeera kicked out of Zimbabwe". Archived from the original on 23 June 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2016. , zimbabwemetro.com, 22 June 2008. ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Ministry of Defence". Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2007.  ^ " Zimbabwe Defence Forces
Zimbabwe Defence Forces
News". ZDF News. Retrieved 17 April 2009.  ^ Chari, Freeman Forward (24 December 2007). "MILITARISATION OF ZIMBABWE: Does the opposition stand a chance?". zimbabwejournalists.com. Archived from the original on 5 January 2008.  ^ Godwin, Peter (1996). Mukiwa – A White Boy in Africa. London, UK: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-67150-3.  ^ "Ministry of Defence, Zimbabwe". Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. Retrieved 11 November 2007.  ^ "5th Brigade
Brigade
gets new commander". Zimbabwe Defence Forces
Zimbabwe Defence Forces
News. 22 February 2006. Retrieved 18 April 2009.  ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe" (PDF). Parliament of Zimbabwe. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 December 2008. Retrieved 19 December 2008.  ^ "Provincial Councils and Administration Act (Chapter 29:11)" (PDF). Parliament of Zimbabwe. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2008.  ^ "Rural District Councils Act (Chapter 29:13)" (PDF). Parliament of Zimbabwe. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2008.  ^ "Traditional Leaders Act (Chapter 29:17)" (PDF). Parliament of Zimbabwe. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2008.  ^ "Country Profile – Zimbabwe". Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2007. Since the country is well endowed with natural resources such as minerals, arable land and wildlife, many opportunities lie in resource-based activities such as mining, agriculture and tourism and their downstream industrial activities.  ^ a b c Madslien, Jorn (14 April 2008). "No quick fix for Zimbabwe's economy". BBC. Retrieved 19 December 2008.  ^ "Diamond company in trouble with Harare
Harare
MPs", Independent Online, South Africa, 2 February 2010. ^ "Diamonds in the rough, report by Human Rights Watch". Human Rights Watch. 26 June 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ "Ranking Of The World's Diamond Mines By Estimated 2013 Production", Kitco, 20 August 2013. ^ "Zimbabwe- South Africa
South Africa
economic relations since 2000". Africa
Africa
News. 31 October 2007. Archived from the original on 1 January 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2007. Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
remains South Africa's most important trading partner in Africa.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Economy: Facts, Data, & Analysis on Economic Freedom". Heritage.org. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ "FACTBOX: Zimbabwe's meltdown in figures". Reuters. 29 June 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2010.  ^ Wadhams, Nick (1 August 2007). "Zimbabwe's Wildlife
Wildlife
Decimated by Economic Crisis". Nairobi: National Geographic News. Retrieved 5 August 2007.  ^ Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Ranked Fastest growing Internet Market. Biztechafrica.com (10 August 2011); retrieved 4 July 2013. ^ Why ICT is critical in ‘illiterate’ AfricaBiztechAfrica Business, Telecom, Technology & IT News Africa. Biztechafrica.com (3 December 2012); retrieved 4 July 2013. ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Democracy And Economic Recovery Act of 2001 at Govtrack.us News". 18 October 2011.  ^ Boucher, Richard (2 March 2004). "Zimbabwe: Sanctions Enhancement" (Press release). United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 3 June 2006.  ^ Richardson, Craig J. "The loss of property rights and the collapse of Zimbabwe" (PDF). Cato Journal. 25: 541–565. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2010.  ^ "Organised Violence and Torture in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
in 1999". Archived from the original on 2 June 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2007. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) , Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Human Rights NGO Forum (1999). ^ Glenday, Craig (2013). Guinness Book
Book
of Records 2014. p. 123. ISBN 9781908843159.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
President Mugabe labels white farmers 'enemies'". Archived from the original on 29 June 2006. Retrieved 20 September 2007. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) . CNN
CNN
(18 April 2000). ^ Robinson, Simon (18 February 2002). "A Tale of Two Countries", Time; accessed 4 May 2016. ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
forbids white farmers to harvest". USA Today. 24 June 2002. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ "White farmers under siege in Zimbabwe". BBC
BBC
News. 15 August 2002. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ Mugabe Interview: The Full Transcript, News.sky.com (24 May 2004); retrieved 4 July 2013. ^ Clemens, Michael; Moss, Todd (20 July 2005). Costs and Causes of Zimbabwe's Crisis (Report). Center for Global Development. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ Meldrum, Andrew (21 May 2005). "As country heads for disaster, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
calls for return of white farmers". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ Timberg, Craig (6 January 2007). "White Farmers Given Leases in Zimbabwe". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
threatens white farmers". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 5 February 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ Chinaka, Cris (8 August 2007). " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
threatens white farmers on evictions". Reuters. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ "How to stay alive when it all runs out". The Economist. 12 July 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
inflation hits 11,200,000 percent". CNN. 19 August 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2016.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
introduces 100-billion-dollar note". Agence France-Presse. 19 July 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2010.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
abandons its currency". BBC
BBC
News. 29 January 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Suspends Use of Own Currency". VOA News. 12 April 2009.  ^ Giokos, Eleni (29 February 2016). "This country has nine currencies". CNNMoney. Retrieved 8 January 2017.  ^ a b c d e f " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Overview". The World Bank. World Bank Group. 4 October 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2017.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
economy buoyant, more reform needed: IMF". Reuters. 8 November 2010.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
economy growing: IMF". talkzimbabwe.co. 9 November 2010. Archived from the original on 12 November 2010.  ^ Chitiyo, Know; Vines, Alex; Vandome, Christopher (September 2016). "The Domestic and External Implications of Zimbabwe's Economic Reform and Re-engagement Agenda" (PDF). Chatham House. Royal Institute for International Affairs. Retrieved 8 January 2017.  ^ Dube, Jennifer (3 April 2011). "Zimplats ignores seizure threat". The Standard. Harare, Zimbabwe. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ "IMARA: Global investors get upbeat briefing on Zim prospects" (Press release). IMARA. 17 February 2011. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ Kitsepile, Nyathi (30 January 2013) Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has only $217 in the bank, says finance minister: News, Africareview.com; retrieved 4 July 2013. ^ Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Claims Its Accounts Are Bare. Newsmax.com (30 January 2013); retrieved 4 July 2013. ^ a b Marawanyika, Godfrey, Biggest Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Gold Miner to Rule on London
London
Trade by March, Bloomberg News, 17 October 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2016. ^ Mumera, Wisdom (9 Jan 2016). "Zimbabwe`s Coffee Production Declines". newsofhesouth.com.  ^ Conservation agriculture
Conservation agriculture
and microdosing in Zimbabwe, WRENmedia, January 2013 ^ a b Machipisa, Lewis (14 March 2001). "Sun sets on Zimbabwe tourism". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 16 November 2007.  ^ "Travel and tourism: Economic impact 2017 Zimbabwe" (PDF). March 2017.  ^ Berger, Sebastien (29 October 2007). " British Airways
British Airways
abandons flights to Zimbabwe". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK. Archived from the original on 30 November 2007. Retrieved 16 November 2007.  ^ Sibanda, Tichaona (23 February 2012). "Zimbabwe: Air Zimbabwe Vanishes From the Skies Indefinitely". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Tourism Authority". Archived from the original on 3 December 2007. Retrieved 16 November 2007.  ^ "Zimbabwe: The Spirit of Matobo". zimbabwe.safari.co.za. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013.  ^ "Exposure Data by Country", World Health Organization; accessed 19 October 2014. ^ a b "Water Supply and Sanitation
Sanitation
in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
AMCOW. Collaboratively published report circa 2010, wsp.org; accessed 4 May 2016. ^ [http:// www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/zimbabwe1113_forUpload_1.pdf "Troubled Water Burst Pipes, Contaminated Wells, and Open Defecation in Zimbabwe’s Capital"], Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(2013). ^ a b c d e f Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Schneegans, Susan (eds) (2014). Mapping Research and Innovation in the Republic of Zimbabwe (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. pp. Volume 2. GO–SPIN Profiles in Science, Technology and Innovation. ISBN 978-92-3-100034-8. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b c d e f g UNESCO
UNESCO
Science Report: towards 2030 (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. 2015. pp. 535–555. ISBN 978-92-3-100129-1.  ^ "WHO – Zimbabwe". Retrieved 17 January 2015.  ^ Thornycroft, Peta (10 April 2006). "In Zimbabwe, life ends before 40". The Sydney Morning Herald. Harare. Retrieved 10 April 2006.  ^ "Zimbabwe". UNAIDS. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^ "HIV Prevalence Rates Fall in Zimbabwe". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 December 2007.  ^ MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2007. Retrieved 13 November 2007.  ^ "Zimbabwe". Retrieved 22 January 2008.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
– International Religious Freedom Report 2005". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 3 December 2007. An estimated 1% of the total population is Muslim.  ^ "The People of Zimbabwe". Archived from the original on 12 July 2007. Retrieved 13 November 2007.  ^ a b "Ethnicity/Race of Zimbabwe". Retrieved 6 January 2008.  ^ Wiley, David and Isaacman, Allen F. (1981). Southern Africa: society, economy, and liberation. Michigan State University, University of Minnesota. p. 55 ^ Quarterly Digest Of Statistics, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Printing and Stationery Office, 1999. ^ Quarterly Digest of Statistics, 1998, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Printing and Stationery Office. ^ a b Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Population Census 2012 Archived 1 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine., zimstat.co.zw; accessed 4 May 2016. ^ Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Profile based on the 2002 Population Census Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. zimstat.co.zw ^ Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Demographic and Health Survey 2005–06 Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine., zimstat.co.zw; accessed 4 May 2016. ^ "Zimbabwe" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2016. , gapadventures.com; accessed 4 May 2016. ^ Mother Tongue: Interviews with Musaemura B. Zimunya and Solomon Mutswairo University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill ^ Meldrum, Andrew (1 July 2007). "Refugees flood from Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
The Observer". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved 6 April 2010.  ^ "Zimbabwean refugees suffer in Botswana
Botswana
and South Africa". Sokwanele Civic Action Group. 20 July 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.  ^ a b c d "Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), Internal displacement in Zimbabwe".  ^ "The Many Faces of Displacement: IDPs in Zimbabwe" (PDF). Geneva: Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2010.  ^ Tibaijuka, A.K. (2005). "Report of the Fact-Finding Mission to Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
to assess the Scope and Impact of Operation Murambatsvina" (PDF). Geneva: UN Special
Special
Envoy on Human Settlements Issues in Zimbabwe. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2005. Retrieved 13 April 2009.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
in PEW-Templeton Global Religious Futures Project".  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
in ARDA".  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
at "International Religious Freedom Report", USA Departament of State".  ^ Berliner, Paul (June 1993). The Soul of Mbira: Music and Traditions of the Shona People of Zimbabwe. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226043791.  ^ Owomoyela, Oyekan (2002). Culture and Customs of Zimbabwe. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-313-31583-3.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Celebrates 25 years of Independence". Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. Archived from the original on 10 October 2006. Retrieved 6 January 2008.  ^ "Charles Mungoshi". Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
– Poetry International Web. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007.  ^ "Tribute to Cathy Buckle". Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2007.  ^ "Cultural Origins of art". Archived from the original on 1 October 2000. Retrieved 6 January 2008.  ^ "African theatre - Southern and South Africa
South Africa
art". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-01-19.  ^ " Sadza
Sadza
ne Nyama: A Shona Staple Dish". Zambuko.com. Retrieved 3 November 2007.  ^ Stephanie Hanes (20 September 2006). "Biltong: much more than just a snack". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 3 October 2006.  ^ worldrugby.org. "World Rugby".  ^ "2004 Olympic Games swimming results". CNN. Archived from the original on 9 May 2006. Retrieved 22 July 2007.  ^ "Montreal 2005 Results". Archived from the original on 28 January 2007. Retrieved 9 June 2007.  ^ "12th FINA World Championships". Archived from the original on 6 June 2007. Retrieved 9 June 2007.  ^ " BBC
BBC
Sport Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
2002 Statistics". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 29 August 2007.  ^ Gold, Jack Of (29 May 2012). " Africa
Africa
punching above it's [sic] weight in golf". Free TV 4 Africa. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ "From Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
to Hull FC: Masimbaashe Matongo's 'dream' journey is just beginning". Hull Daily Mail. 17 November 2015. Archived from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2017.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
teenager Judah Mazive signs contract to play rugby in England". Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Today. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2017.  ^ "South Africa's Marinos appointed new SANZAR CEO – Super Rugby – Super 18 Rugby and Rugby Championship News, Results and Fixtures from Super XV Rugby". Retrieved 18 February 2017.  ^ "Supreme Court strikes down repressive media legislation". Committee to Protect Journalist.  ^ Williams, Jon (29 July 2009). "Resuming operations in Zimbabwe". BBC.  ^ Banya, Nelson (26 May 2010). " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
licenses new private newspapers". Reuters.  ^ "independent dailies allowed to resume publishing", International Freedom of Expression Exchange, 28 May 2010. ^ Chinaka, Cris (4 June 2010). " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
gets first private daily newspaper in years". Reuters.  ^ "Finally, Zimbabwe's 'private' radio station goes on air". zimeye.org. 26 June 2012. Archived from the original on 25 July 2014.  ^ a b c "Reporters without Borders Press Freedom Index". Reports Without Borders. Archived from the original on 1 November 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2010.  ^ Ruzengwe, Blessing (17 March 2005) "The nine lives of Wilf Mbanga", The London
London
Globe via Metrovox. ^ " Freedom House
Freedom House
2007 Map of Press Freedom: Zimbabwe". Freedomhouse.org. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ Burnham, Frederick Russell (1926). Scouting
Scouting
on Two Continents. Doubleday, Page & company. p. 2; Chapters 3 & 4. OCLC 407686.  ^ van Wyk, Peter (2003). Burnham: King of Scouts. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1-4122-0028-8.  ^ Jeal, Tim (1989). Baden-Powell. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-170670-X.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Scouts celebrate their centenary in a park that Baden-Powell had visited in 1936". Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2009.  ^ Huffman, Thomas N. (1985). "The Soapstone
Soapstone
Birds from Great Zimbabwe". African Arts. 18 (3): 68–73, 99–100. doi:10.2307/3336358. JSTOR 3336358.  ^ Sinclair, Paul (2001). "Review: The Soapstone
Soapstone
Birds of Great Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Symbols of a Nation by Edward Matenga". The South African Archaeological Bulletin. 56 (173/174): 105–106. doi:10.2307/3889033. JSTOR 3889033.  ^ Landow, George P. "Great Zimbabwe". Brown University. Archived from the original on 9 August 2007.  ^ "Balancing Rocks". Archived from the original on 17 August 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2007.  ^ Davies, R. and Sanders, D. (1998). "Adjustment policies and the welfare of children: Zimbabwe, 1980–1985". In: Cornia, G.A., Jolly, R. and Stewart, F. (eds.) Adjustment with a human face, Vol. II: country case studies. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 272–99; ISBN 0198286112. ^ Dugbatey, K. (1999). "National health policies: sub-Saharan African case studies (1980–1990)". Soc. Sci. Med. 49 (2): 223–239. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00110-0. PMID 10414831.  ^ Marquette, C.M. (1997). "Current poverty, structural adjustment, and drought in Zimbabwe". World Development. 25 (7): 1141–1149. doi:10.1016/S0305-750X(97)00019-3.  ^ a b " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
in 10 numbers". BBC
BBC
News. 2017-11-18. Retrieved 2017-11-18.  ^ " United Nations
United Nations
Statistics Division". Retrieved 7 December 2008.  ^ Hungwe, Brian (7 November 2008). "The death throes of Harare's hospitals". BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2008.  ^ "Zimbabwe: coping with the cholera outbreak". 26 November 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
cholera deaths near 500". BBC. 2 December 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2008.  ^ "PM urges Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
cholera action". BBC
BBC
News. 6 December 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ "Miliband backs African calls for end of Mugabe", The Times, 5 December 2008. ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
declares national emergency over cholera". Reuters. 4 December 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008.  ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
declares cholera outbreak a national emergency". Agence France-Presse. 4 December 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2008.  ^ a b On the cholera frontline. IRIN. 9 March 2009 ^ " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
says cholera epidemic may spread with rain". Reuters. 30 November 2008. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008.  ^ "The State of the World's Midwifery". United Nations
United Nations
Population Fund. Retrieved 1 June 2016.  ^ "Ranking of African Countries By Literacy Rate: Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
No. 1". The African Economist.  ^ "Unlicensed and outdoors or no school at all" Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine., irinnews.org, 23 July 2010. ^ "Zimbabwe: Country Leads in Africa
Africa
Literacy Race", AllAfrica.com, 14 July 2010. ^ Poverty Income Consumption and Expenditure Survey 2011/12 Report (Report). Zimstat. 2013. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013.  ^ Nkepile Mabuse (28 September 2009). " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
schools begin fightback". CNN. Retrieved 28 September 2009.  ^ a b " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
US Embassy". Archived from the original on 18 November 2007. Retrieved 15 November 2007.  ^ " BBC
BBC
report on 40 years in Zimbabwe's schools". BBC
BBC
News. 19 April 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2007. 

Bibliography[edit]

Parsons, Neil (1993). A New History of Southern Africa
Southern Africa
(2nd ed.). London: Macmillan. ISBN 0841953198. 

Further reading[edit]

Barclay, Philip. Zimbabwe: Years of Hope and Despair (2010) Bourne, Richard. Catastrophe: What Went Wrong in Zimbabwe? (2011); 302 pages JoAnn McGregor and Ranka Primorac, eds. Zimbabwe's New Diaspora: Displacement and the Cultural Politics of Survival (Berghahn Books; 2010) 286 pages. Scholarly essays on displacement as a result of Zimbabwe's continuing crisis, with a focus on diasporic communities in Britain and South Africa; also explores such topics as the revival of Rhodesian discourse. Meredith, Martin. Mugabe: Power, Plunder, and the Struggle for Zimbabwe's Future (2007) excerpt and text search Smith, Ian Douglas. Bitter Harvest: Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
and the Aftermath of its Independence
Independence
(2008) excerpt and text search Peter Orner and Annie Holmes. Hope Deferred: Narratives of Zimbabwean Lives (2011) excerpts

External links[edit]

Find more aboutZimbabweat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Parliament of Zimbabwe—official government site Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Government Online official government mirror site Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
profile from the BBC
BBC
News Wikimedia Atlas of Zimbabwe "Zimbabwe". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
from UCB Libraries GovPubs Key Development Forecasts for Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
from International Futures World Bank Summary Trade Statistics Zimbabwe

v t e

Zimbabwe articles

1890–1923: Company rule; 1923–80: Southern Rhodesia; 1953–63: Federation; 1965–79: Rhodesia
Rhodesia
under UDI; 1979: Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Rhodesia under UDI; 1980–present: Zimbabwe

History

Chronology

Pre-colonial Rudd Concession Company rule

Pioneer Column First Matabele War Shangani Patrol Second Matabele War Second Boer War First World War

Southern Rhodesia

colonial history Second World War Rhodesia– Nyasaland
Nyasaland
federation Malayan Emergency involvement

Unilateral Declaration of Independence

Rhodesia Bush War 1975 Victoria Falls
Victoria Falls
Conference 1976 Geneva Conference Internal Settlement Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Rhodesia Lancaster House
Lancaster House
Agreement

Gukurahundi 2008–09 cholera outbreak 2016–17 protests 2017 coup d'état

By topic

Constitutional Cricket
Cricket
(to 1992) Cricket
Cricket
(1992–2006) Cricket
Cricket
crisis (2003–2007) Military

Geography

Chimanimani District Cities and towns Districts Great Zimbabwe Place name renaming Provinces Rivers

Limpopo Zambezi

Wards (municipalities) Wildlife

Politics

Elections

Electoral Commission

Foreign relations Human rights

LGBT

Land reform Military Parliament

Senate House of Assembly

Political parties Presidents

Vice-President

Prime Minister 2007 political crisis

Economy

Central bank Dollar (suspended currency) Stock Exchange Telecommunications Tourism Transportation

Culture

Art Media Music Public holidays Sex work

Demographics

Ethnic groups (diaspora)

Black

Hungwe Kunda Lemba Manyika Ndebele Rusape
Rusape
Jews Shona Tokaleya Tonga

White

Afrikaners British Greeks Jews "Rhodies"

Others

Coloureds
Coloureds
(Goffals) Indians

Languages

Afrikaans English (South African) Shona Sindebele

Symbols

Animal Anthem Coat of arms Emblem Flag Flower

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

Geographic locale

v t e

Countries and territories of Africa

Sovereign states

entirely/mostly in Africa

Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
(Côte d'Ivoire) Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

partly in Africa

France

Mayotte Réunion

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Portugal

Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía

Yemen

Socotra

Territories and dependencies

Îles Éparses

France

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

UK

Southern Provinces
Southern Provinces
(Western Sahara)1

States with limited recognition

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland

1 Unclear sovereignty.

v t e

Subdivisions of Zimbabwe

Provinces

Bulawayo Harare
Harare
Province Manicaland Mashonaland
Mashonaland
Central Mashonaland
Mashonaland
East Mashonaland
Mashonaland
West Masvingo Matabeleland
Matabeleland
North Matabeleland
Matabeleland
South Midlands

Districts

Beitbridge Bikita Bindura Binga Bubi Buhera Bulawayo Bulilimamangwe Chegutu Chikomba Chimanimani Chipinge Chiredzi Chirumhanzu Chivi Gokwe North Gokwe South Goromonzi Guruve Gutu Gwanda Gweru Harare Hurungwe Hwange Hwedza Insiza Kadoma Kariba Kwekwe Lupane Makonde Makoni Marondera Masvingo Matobo Mazowe Mberengwa Mount Darwin Mudzi Mukumbura Murehwa Mutare Mutasa Mutoko Muzarabani Mwenezi Nkayi Nyanga Rushinga Seke Shamva Shurugwi Tsholotsho Umguza Umzingwane Uzumba-Maramba-Pfungwe Wedza Zaka Zvimba Zvishavane

Wards

Wards of Zimbabwe

Largest cities

Harare Bulawayo Chitungwiza Mutare Gweru Kwekwe Kadoma Masvingo Chinhoyi Marondera

International membership

v t e

Nations in the Group of 15
Group of 15
(G-15)

Summits

1990 1991 1992 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2004 2006 2010 2012

Members

Algeria Argentina Brazil Chile Egypt India Indonesia Iran Jamaica Kenya Malaysia Mexico Nigeria Senegal Sri Lanka Venezuela Zimbabwe

v t e

Southern African Development Community
Southern African Development Community
(SADC)

Member states

Angola Botswana Democratic Republic of the Congo Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe

Leaders

Chairpersons

Levy Mwanawasa Kgalema Motlanthe

Secretaries-General

Kaire Mbuende Prega Ramsamy Tomaz Salomão

See also

Southern African Development Coordination Conference (forerunner) Southern African Customs Union
Southern African Customs Union
(SACU) Common Monetary Area
Common Monetary Area
(CMA) Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Southern Africa
(COMESA)

v t e

African Union
African Union
(AU)

History

Pan-Africanism Casablanca Group Monrovia Group Abuja Treaty Sirte Declaration Lome Summit

Organisation of African Unity

Chairperson Secretary General

Geography

Borders Extreme points Member states Regions

Organs

Executive Council Permanent Representatives' Committee Specialized Technical Committees

Assembly

Chairperson

Commission

Chairperson Deputy Chairperson AUCC

Pan-African Parliament

Bureau Secretariat Gallagher Estate

African Court of Justice

African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights

ECOSOCC Committees

Peace and Security Political Affairs Infrastructure and Energy Social Affairs and Health HR, Sciences and Technology Trade and Industry Rural Economy and Agriculture Economic Affairs Women and Gender Cross-Cutting Programs

Financial Institutions

AFRA Commission African Central Bank African Monetary Fund African Investment Bank

Peace and Security Council

ACIRC African Standby Force Panel of the Wise UNAMID AMIB AMIS AMISOM MISCA

Politics

APRM Foreign relations African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights Enlargement

Symbols

Anthem Emblem Flag

Economy

Currencies Development Bank African Economic Community NEPAD African Free Trade Zone Tripartite Free Trade Area

Culture

Africa
Africa
Day Languages

Theory

Afro United States of Africa United States of Latin Africa

Category

History

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina
Argentina
during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger
Niger
Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House
Lancaster House
Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

v t e

Languages of Zimbabwe

Official languages

Chewa Chibarwe English Kalanga Koisan Nambya Ndau Ndebele Shona Sotho Tonga Tsonga Tswana Venda Xhosa Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Sign

Unofficial languages

Dombe Fanagalo Kunda Lozi Manyika Ndau Tsoa Tswa

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 128940544 GND: 4049850-5 SUDOC: 029018455 BNF: cb11933830b (data) HDS:

.