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A zīj (Persian: زيج‎) is an Islamic astronomical book that tabulates parameters used for astronomical calculations of the positions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 List of zījes 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading

Etymology[edit] The name zij is derived from the Middle Persian
Middle Persian
term zih or zīg, meaning cord. The term is believed to refer to the arrangement of threads in weaving, which was transferred to the arrangement of rows and columns in tabulated data. In addition to the term zīj, some were called by the name qānūn, derived from the equivalent Greek word, κανών.[1] History[edit] Some of the early zījes tabulated data from Indian planetary theory (known as the Sindhind) and from pre-Islamic Sassanid Persian models, but most zījes presented data based on the Ptolemaic model. A small number of the zījes adopted their computations reflecting original observations but most only adopted their tables to reflect the use of a different calendar or geographic longitude as the basis for computations. Since most zījes generally followed earlier theory, their principal contributions reflected improved trigonometrical, computational and observational techniques.[1][2] The content of zījes were initially based on that of the Handy Tables (known in Arabic as al-Qānūn) by Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy, the Zij-i Shah compiled in Sassanid Persia, and the Indian Siddhantas by Aryabhata
Aryabhata
and Brahmagupta. Muslim zijes, however, were more extensive, and typically included materials on chronology, geographical latitudes and longitudes, star tables, trigonometrical functions, functions in spherical astronomy, the equation of time, planetary motions, computation of eclipses, tables for first visibility of the lunar crescent, astronomical and/or astrological computations, and instructions for astronomical calculations using epicyclic geocentric models.[1] Some zījes go beyond this traditional content to explain or prove the theory or report the observations from which the tables were computed.[1] Due to religious conflicts with astrology, many astronomers attempted to separate themselves from astrology, specifically intending for their zījes not to be used for astrological computations. However, many zījes were used this way regardless, such as Ibn al-Shāṭir's al- Zij al-jadīd.[3] Over 200 different zījes have been identified that were produced by Islamic astronomers during the period from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries. The greatest centers of production of zījes were Baghdad under the Abassid
Abassid
caliphs in the 9th century,[1] the Maragheh observatory in the 13th century, the Samarkand
Samarkand
observatory in the 15th century, and the Istanbul observatory of Taqi al-Din
Istanbul observatory of Taqi al-Din
in the 16th century. Nearly 100 more zijes were also produced in India between the 16th and 18th centuries.[4] One of the most famous Indian zijes was the Zij-i Muhammad Shahi, compiled at Jai Singh II of Amber's Jantar Mantar observatories. It is notable for employing the use of telescopic observations.[5] The last known zij treatise was the Zij-i Bahadurkhani, written in 1838 by the Indian astronomer Ghulam Hussain Jaunpuri (1760–1862) and printed in 1855, dedicated to Bahadur Khan. The treatise incorporated the heliocentric system into the zīj tradition.[6] List of zījes[edit]

Az-Zīj ‛alā Sinī al-‛Arab — by Ibrahim al-Fazari (d. 777) and Muhammad al-Fazari (d. 796/806) Az-Zīj al-Mahlul min as-Sindhind li-Darajat Daraja — by Yaʿqūb ibn Ṭāriq (d. 796) Zīj al-Sindhind — by al-Khwarizmi (c. 780-850) Az- Zij as-Sabi — by Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius) (853-929) Zij al-Safa'ih (Tables of the disks of the astrolabe) — by Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin (900-971) Zij al-Kabir al-Hakimi — by Ibn Yunus (c. 950-1009) Az-Zīj al-Jamī wal-Baligh (The Comprehensive and Mature Tables) — by Kushyar ibn Labban (971-1029) Zīj-i Malik-Shāhī (Astronomical Handbook with Tables for Malikshah) (1079) — by Omar Khayyam
Omar Khayyam
(1048-1141)[7] Almanac of Azarqueil (1088) — by Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Azarqueil) (1028–1087) Tables of Toledo — based on Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Azarqueil) (1028–1087) Az-Zīj As-Sanjarī (Sinjaric Tables) — by al-Khazini (fl. 1115-1130) Zij-i Ilkhani — by Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī
Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī
(1201–1274) al- Zij al-jadīd — by Ibn al-Shāṭir (1304-1375)[3] Huihui Lifa
Huihui Lifa
(Muslim System of Calendrical Astronomy) — published in China a number of times until the early 18th century,[8] Khaqani Zij — by Jamshīd al-Kāshī (1380–1429) Zij-i-Sultani (1437) — by Ulugh Beg
Ulugh Beg
(1393–1449) Unbored Pearl (1579–1580) — by Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf (1526–1585) Zij-i Muhammad Shahi — by Jai Singh II of Amber
Jai Singh II of Amber
(1688–1743) Zij-i Bahadurkhani (1838) — by Ghulam Hussain Jaunpuri (1760–1862)

See also[edit]

Astrometry Epoch (astronomy) Ephemeris Star
Star
catalogue

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e Kennedy, Edward Stewart (1956). Islamic Astronomical Tables. American Philosophical Society. ISBN 9780871694621. Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Benno van Dalen, PARAMS (Database of parameter values occurring in Islamic astronomical sources), "General background of the parameter database" Archived May 5, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b George, Saliba (2007). Islamic science and the making of the European Renaissance. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262516150. OCLC 243606365.  ^ Sharma, Virendra Nath (1995), Sawai Jai Singh and His Astronomy, Motilal Banarsidass
Motilal Banarsidass
Publ., pp. 8–9, ISBN 81-208-1256-5  ^ S. M. Razaullah Ansari (2002), History of oriental astronomy: proceedings of the joint discussion-17 at the 23rd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, organised by the Commission 41 (History of Astronomy), held in Kyoto, August 25–26, 1997, Springer, p. 141, ISBN 1-4020-0657-8  ^ S. M. Razaullah Ansari (2002), History of oriental astronomy: proceedings of the joint discussion-17 at the 23rd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, organised by the Commission 41 (History of Astronomy), held in Kyoto, August 25–26, 1997, Springer, p. 138, ISBN 1-4020-0657-8  ^ The Oxford encyclopedia of philosophy, science, and technology in Islam. Kalın, İbrahim. Oxford. ISBN 9780199812578. OCLC 868981941.  ^ Yunli Shi (January 2003), "The Korean Adaptation of the Chinese-Islamic Astronomical Tables", Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Springer, 57 (1): 25–60 [26], doi:10.1007/s00407-002-0060-z, ISSN 1432-0657 

References[edit]

E. S. Kennedy. "A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, 46, 2. Philadelphia, 1956. (A revised version in preparation by Benno van Dalen will include over 200 zijes).

Further reading[edit]

Islam, Quran and Science: A List of Islamic Astronomical Tables, by Zakaria Virk.

v t e

Astronomy
Astronomy
in the medieval Islamic world

Astronomers

by century (CE AD)

8th

Ahmad Nahavandi Al-Fadl ibn Naubakht Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī Mashallah ibn Athari Yaʿqūb ibn Ṭāriq

9th

Abu Maʿshar Abu Said Gorgani Al-Farghānī Al-Kindi Al-Mahani Abu Hanifa Dinawari Al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf Al-Marwazi Ali ibn Isa al-Asturlabi Banu Musa Iranshahri Khālid ibn ʿAbd al‐Malik Al-Khwārizmī Sahl ibn Bishr Thābit ibn Qurra Yahya ibn Abi Mansur

10th

Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi Ibn Al-Adami al-Khojandi l-Khāzin al-Qūhī Abu al-Wafa Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Battani Al-Qabisi Al-Nayrizi Al-Saghani Aṣ-Ṣaidanānī Ibn Yunus Ibrahim ibn Sinan Ma Yize al-Sijzi Mariam al-Asturlabi Nastulus Abolfadl Harawi Haseb-i Tabari al-Majriti

11th

Abu Nasr Mansur al-Biruni Ali ibn Ridwan Al-Zarqālī Ibn al-Samh Al-Muradi Alhazen Avicenna Ibn al-Saffar Kushyar Gilani Said al-Andalusi Al-Isfizari

12th

Al-Bitruji Avempace Ibn Tufail Al-Kharaqī Al-Khazini Al-Samawal al-Maghribi Abu al-Salt Anvari Averroes Ibn al-Kammad Jabir ibn Aflah Omar Khayyam Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī

13th

Ibn al-Banna' al-Marrakushi Ibn al‐Ha'im al‐Ishbili Jamal ad-Din al-Hanafi Muhyi al-Dīn al-Maghribī Nasir al-Din al-Tusi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī Zakariya al-Qazwini Ibn Abi al-Shukr al-ʿUrḍī al-Abhari Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr al‐Farisi Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Marrakushi Al-Ashraf Umar II

14th

Ibn al-Shatir al-Khalīlī Ibn Shuayb al-Battiwi Abū al‐ʿUqūl Nizam al-Din Nishapuri al-Jadiri

15th

Ali Kuşçu ʿAbd al‐Wājid Jamshīd al-Kāshī Kadızade Rumi Ulugh Beg Sibt al-Maridini Ibn al-Majdi al-Wafa' al-Kubunani

16th

Al-Birjandi Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī Piri Reis Takiyüddin

17th

Yang Guangxian Ahmad Khani Al Achsasi al Mouakket Mohammed al-Rudani

Topics

Works

Arabic star names Islamic calendar ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity Tabula Rogeriana The Book of Healing

Zij

Alfonsine tables Huihui Lifa Book of Fixed Stars Toledan Tables Zij-i Ilkhani Zij-i Sultani Sullam al-sama'

Instruments

Alidade Analog computer Aperture Armillary sphere Astrolabe Astronomical clock Celestial globe Compass Compass
Compass
rose Dioptra Equatorial ring Equatorium Globe Graph paper Magnifying glass Mural instrument Navigational astrolabe Nebula Planisphere Quadrant Sextant Shadow square Sundial Schema for horizontal sundials Triquetrum

Concepts

Almucantar Apogee Astrology in medieval Islam Astrophysics Axial tilt Azimuth Celestial mechanics Celestial spheres Circular orbit Deferent and epicycle Earth's rotation Eccentricity Ecliptic Elliptic orbit Equant Galaxy Geocentrism Gravitational potential energy Gravity Heliocentrism Inertia Islamic cosmology Moonlight Multiverse Obliquity Parallax Precession Qibla Salah times Specific gravity Spherical Earth Sublunary sphere Sunlight Supernova Temporal finitism Trepidation Triangulation Tusi couple Universe

Institutions

Al-Azhar University House of Knowledge House of Wisdom University of Al Quaraouiyine Observatories

Constantinople (Taqi al-Din) Maragheh Samarkand
Samarkand
(Ulugh Beg)

Influences

Babylonian astronomy Egyptian astronomy Hellenistic astronomy Indian astronomy

Influenced

Byzantine science Chinese astronomy Medieval European science Indian astronomy

v t e

History of science

Background

Theories and sociology Historiography Pseudoscience

By era

Early cultures Classical Antiquity The Golden Age of Islam Renaissance Scientific Revolution Romanticism

By culture

African Byzantine Medieval European Chinese Indian Medieval Islamic

Natural sciences

Astronomy Biology Botany Chemistry Ecology Evolution Geology Geophysics Paleontology Physics

Mathematics

Algebra Calculus Combinatorics Geometry Logic Probability Statistics Trigonometry

Social sciences

Anthropology Economics Geography Linguistics Political science Psychology Sociology Sustainability

Technology

Agricultural science Computer science Materials science Engineering

Medicine

Human medicine Veterinary medicine Anatomy Neuroscience Neurology Nutrition Pathology Pharmacy

Timelines

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