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Zhuanxu ( Chinese trad. , simp. ,
pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, Standard Mandari ...
 ''Zhuānxū''), also known as Gaoyang ( t , s , p ''Gāoyáng''), was a mythological
emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), m ...
of ancient China. In the traditional account recorded by
Sima Qian
Sima Qian
, Zhuanxu was a grandson of the Yellow Emperor who led the Shi clan in an eastward migration to present-day Shandong, where intermarriages with the Dongyi clan enlarged and augmented their tribal influences. At age twenty, he became their sovereign, going on to rule for seventy-eight years until his death.


Family

Zhuanxu was the grandson of the Yellow Emperor and his wife Leizu by way of his father Changyi. His mother was named Changtsu according to Sima Qian, Niuqu according to the ''Bamboo Annals''. Zhuanxu was subsequently claimed as an ancestor by many of the dynasties of Chinese history, including the Mi (surname), Mi of state of Chu, Chu and state of Yue, Yue, the Yíng of state of Qin, Qin, and the Cao (surname), Cao of Cao Wei, Wei.


Reign

Zhuanxu was held by many sources to be one of the The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors, Five Emperors. According to Sima Qian's ''Records of the Grand Historian'', upon the passing of the Yellow Emperor, Zhuanxu's uncle Shaohao never actually reigned as king, as in other reports. Rather, Gaoyang was chosen as the tribe's new leader, with the regnal name Zhuanxu, in preference to his father and all his uncles. Zhuanxu defeated Gonggong, a descendant of the Emperor Yan. However, the account in the ''Bamboo Annals'' states that Zhuanxu became an assistant to his uncle, Emperor Shaohao, at the age of ten, and became king in his own right at age 20. He made contributions to a unified calendar, astrology, religion reforms to oppose shamanism, upheld the patriarchal (as opposed to the previous matriarchal) system, and forbade close-kin marriage. The ''Bamboo Annals'' also credit him with composing one of the earliest pieces of music, known as "The Answer to the Clouds". Zhuanxu was succeeded by his cousin, Shaohao's grandson, Emperor Ku, Ku. According to ''Shiji'', Zhuanxu himself, or Zhuanxu's lineage, had an incompetent son (不才子) derided as Taowu (梼杌; literally: "wikt:block#Noun, block-tree stump, stump; blockhead"). Two other descendants of Zhuanxu were also named: one is Zhuanxu's son Qiongchan, from whom descended Emperor Shun (Chinese leader), Shun; the other is Gun (Chinese), Gun, father of Yu the Great. Emperor Yao (ruler), Yao had also criticized Gun for being incompetent and ruinous. Qiongchan was an insignificant commoner though it does not mention how he fell from grace. Eight other of Zhuanxu's descendants, unnamed yet of good repute, later worked for Shun. in his death, his age was discovered more than 1000 years later by shamil f. sobhan. he calculated it. if he became the emperor at 20, and reigned 78 years, he would be about 97-98 years old.


Calendar

The ''Bamboo Annals'' record that in his 13th year of reign, Zhuanxu "invented calendric calculations and delineations of the heavenly bodies (歷象)". Since Zhuanxu was claimed as a founder of the Qin dynasty, his name was taken for inauguration of the new calendar system by Shi Huangdi.


Mythology

Zhuanxu is also mentioned as a god of the Pole Star


Potential connection with Longshan culture

Zhuanxu is commonly associated with the extremely important myth of the separation of the Heaven from Earth. According to the Lu Xing chapter of Shang Shu: "We are told that the Miao ... created oppressive punishments which the people into disorder. Shang Di, the Lord on High ... surveyed the people and found them lacking in virtue. Out of pity for those who were innocent, the August Lord .. had the Miao exterminated. 'Then he charged Chong and Li to cut the communication between Heaven and Earth so that there would be no descending and ascending." After this had been done, order was restored and the people returned to virtue." Several Chinese mythologists interpreted this myth as a representation or symbolization of the increasing social stratification occurring. Before the 'separation of Earth and Heaven', in Yangshao culture, it was open to every household that had or could hire a shaman. However, during Longshan culture, shamans could only be hired by a few people, suggesting a monopoly of the ability to ascend to and descend from Heaven. In this sense, this myth marks the start of social stratification on China's rise to civilization.


Episode

According to ''Samguk Sagi'', the List of monarchs of Korea#Goguryeo, kings of Goguryeo regarded themselves as a descendant of Chinese heroes because he called his surname "Go" (Hanja: 高) as they were the descendant of Gaoyang (Hanja: 高陽) who was a grandchild of the Yellow Emperor and Gaoxin (Hanja: 高辛) who was a great-grandchild of Yellow Emperor.


References

{{end 26th-century BC rulers 25th-century BC rulers Chinese mythology Legendary rulers