HOME
The Info List - Zhejiang



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

ZHEJIANG (HELP ·INFO ), formerly romanized as CHEKIANG, is an eastern coastal province of China
China
. Zhejiang
Zhejiang
is bordered by Jiangsu province and Shanghai
Shanghai
municipality to the north, Anhui
Anhui
province to the northwest, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
province to the west, and Fujian
Fujian
province to the south; to the east is the East China
China
Sea , beyond which lie the Ryukyu Islands of Japan
Japan
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory * 2.2 Ancient history * 2.3 Han and the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
* 2.4 Six Dynasties * 2.5 Sui and Tang eras * 2.6 Wuyue era * 2.7 Song era * 2.8 Yuan and Ming eras * 2.9 Qing era * 2.10 Republican era * 2.11 People\'s Republican era

* 3 Geography * 4 Administrative divisions * 5 Politics

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Economic and Technological Development Zones

* 6.2 Economic and technological development concerns

* 6.2.1 Waste disposal

* 7 Demographics * 8 Religion * 9 Media

* 10 Culture

* 10.1 Languages * 10.2 Music * 10.3 Cuisine * 10.4 Place names

* 11 Tourism * 12 Sports

* 13 Education

* 13.1 Colleges and universities

* 14 Notes * 15 References * 16 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The province's name derives from the Zhe River (浙江, _Zhè Jiāng_), the former name of the Qiantang River which flows past Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and whose mouth forms Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay . It is usually glossed as meaning "Crooked" or "Bent River", from the meaning of Chinese 折, but is more likely a phono-semantic compound formed from adding 氵 (the "water" radical used for river names) to phonetic 折 (pinyin _zhé_ but reconstructed Old Chinese
Old Chinese
*_tet_ ), preserving a proto-Wu name of the local Yue , similar to Yuhang , Kuaiji , and Jiang .

HISTORY

PREHISTORY

Kuahuqiao culture was an early neolithic culture that flourished in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
area in 6,000-5,000 BC.

Zhejiang
Zhejiang
was the site of the Neolithic cultures of the Hemudu (starting in 5500 BC) and Liangzhu (starting in 3400 BC).

ANCIENT HISTORY

The area of modern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
was outside the major sphere of influence of the Shang civilization during the second millennium BC. Instead, this area was populated by peoples collectively known as Dongyue and the Ouyue .

The kingdom of Yue began to appear in the chronicles and records written during the Spring and Autumn period . According to the chronicles, the kingdom of Yue was in northern Zhejiang. Shiji
Shiji
claims that its leaders were descended from the Shang founder Yu the Great . The " Song of the Yue Boatman " (Chinese: 越人歌, p Yuèrén Gē, lit. "Song of the man of Yue") was transliterated into Chinese and recorded by authors in north China
China
or inland China
China
of Hebei
Hebei
and Henan around 528 BC. The song shows that the Yue people spoke a language that was mutually unintelligible with the dialects spoken in north and inland China. The Sword of Goujian bears bird-worm seal script . Yuenü (Chinese: 越女; pinyin: Yuènǚ; Wade–Giles: Yüeh-nü; literally: "the Lady of Yue") was a swordswoman from the state of Yue. To check the growth of the kingdom of Wu , Chu pursued a policy of strengthening Yue.

Under King Goujian , Yue recovered from its early reverses and fully annexed the lands of its rival in 473 BC. The Yue kings then moved their capital center from their original home around Mount Kuaiji in present-day Shaoxing to the former Wu capital at present-day Suzhou
Suzhou
. With no southern power to turn against Yue, Chu opposed it directly and, in 333 BC, succeeded in destroying it. Yue's former lands were annexed by the Qin Empire in 222 BC and organized into a commandery named for Kuaiji in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
but initially headquartered in Wu in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
.

HAN AND THE THREE KINGDOMS

Kuaiji Commandery was the initial power base for Xiang Liang and Xiang Yu 's rebellion against the Qin Empire which initially succeeded in restoring the kingdom of Chu but eventually fell to the Han . Under the Later Han , control of the area returned to the settlement below Mount Kuaiji but authority over the Minyue hinterland was nominal at best and its Yue inhabitants largely retained their own political and social structures.

At the beginning of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
era (220–280 CE), Zhejiang was home to the warlords Yan Baihu and Wang Lang prior to their defeat by Sun Ce and Sun Quan , who eventually established the Kingdom of Wu . Despite the removal of their court from Kuaiji to Jianye (present-day Nanjing
Nanjing
), they continued development of the region and benefitted from influxes of refugees fleeing the turmoil in northern China. Industrial kilns were established and trade reached as far as Manchuria
Manchuria
and Funan (south Vietnam ).

Zhejiang
Zhejiang
was part of the Wu during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
. Wu (229–280), commonly known as Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
or Sun Wu, had been the economically most developed state among the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
(220–280 CE). The historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
records that Zhejiang
Zhejiang
had the best-equipped, strong navy force. The story depicts how the states of Wei (魏) and Shu (蜀), lack of material resources, avoided direct confrontation with the Wu. In armed military conflicts with Wu, the two states relied intensively on tactics of camouflage and deception to steal Wu's military resources including arrows and bows.

SIX DYNASTIES

Despite the continuing prominence of Nanjing
Nanjing
(then known as Jiankang), the settlement of Qiantang, the former name of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
, remained one of the three major metropolitan centers in the south to provide major tax revenue to the imperial centers in the north China. The other two centers in the south were Jiankang and Chengdu
Chengdu
. In 589, Qiantang was raised in status and renamed Hangzhou
Hangzhou
.

Following the fall of Wu and the turmoil of the Wu Hu uprising against the Jin dynasty (265–420) , most of elite Chinese families had collaborated with the non-Chinese rulers and military conquerors in the north. Some may have lost social privilege, and took refugee in areas south to Yangtze
Yangtze
River. Some of the Chinese refugees from north China
China
might have resided in areas near Hangzhou
Hangzhou
. For example, the clan of Zhuge Liang (181–234), a chancellor of the state of Shu Han from Central Plain in north China
China
during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period, gathered together at the suburb of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
, forming an exclusive, closed village Zhuge Village (Zhege Cun), consisting of villagers all with family name "Zhuge". The village has intentionally isolated itself from the surrounding communities for centuries to this day, and only recently came to be known in public. It suggests that a small number of powerful, elite Chinese refugees from the Central Plain might have taken refugee in south of the Yangtze
Yangtze
River. However, considering the mountainous geography and relative lack of agrarian lands in Zhejiang, most of these refugees might have resided in some areas in south China
China
beyond Zhejiang, where fertile agrarian lands and metropolitan resources were available, mainly southern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
, eastern Fujian
Fujian
, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
, Hunan
Hunan
, Anhui
Anhui
, and provinces where less cohesive, organized regional governments had been in place. Metropolitan areas of Sichuan
Sichuan
was another hub for refugees, given that the state of Shu had long been founded and ruled by political and military elites from the Central Plain and north China. Some refugees from the north China
China
might have found residence in south China depending on their social status and military power in the north. The rump Jin state or the Southern Dynasties vied against some elite Chinese from the Central Plain and south of the Yangtze
Yangtze
River.

SUI AND TANG ERAS

Zhejiang, as the heartland of the Jiangnan ( Yangtze
Yangtze
River Delta), remained the wealthiest area during the Six Dynasties (220 or 222–589), Sui, and Tang. After being incorporated into the Sui dynasty , its economic richness was used for the Sui dynasty 's ambitions to expand north and south, particularly into Korea and Vietnam. The plan led the Sui dynasty to restore and expand the network which became the Grand Canal of China
China
. The Canal regularly transported grains and resources from Zhejiang, through its metropolitan center Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(and its hinterland along both the Zhe River and the shores of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay ), and from Suzhou
Suzhou
, and thence to the North China
China
Plain . The débâcle of the Korean war led to Sui's overthrow by the Tang , who then presided over a centuries-long golden age for the country. Zhejiang
Zhejiang
was an important economic center of the empire's Jiangnan East Circuit and was considered particularly prosperous. Throughout the Tang dynasty , The Grand Canal had remained effective, transporting grains and material resources to North China plain and metropolitan centers of the empire. As the Tang Dynasty disintegrated, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
constituted most of the territory of the regional kingdom of Wuyue .

WUYUE ERA

Portrait of Qian Liu , the King of Wuyue .

After the collapse of the Tang Dynasty in 907, the entire area of what is now Zhejiang
Zhejiang
fell under the control of the kingdom Wuyue established by King Qian Liu , who selected Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(a city in the modern day area of Zhejiang) as his kingdom's capital. Despite being under Wuyue rule for a relatively short period of time, Zhejiang underwent a long period of financial and cultural prosperity which continued even after the kingdom fell.

After Wuyue was conquered during the reunification of China, many shrines were erected across the former territories of Wuyue, mainly in Zhejiang, where the kings of Wuyue were memorialised, and sometimes, worshipped as dictating weather and agriculture. Many of these shrines, known as "Shrine of the Qian King" or "Temple to the Qian King", still remain today, with the most popularly visited example being that near West Lake
West Lake
in Hangzhou.

China's province of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
during the 940s was also the place of origin of the Hú family (Hồ in Vietnamese) from which the founder of the Hồ Dynasty who ruled Vietnam, Emperor Hồ Quý Ly , came from.

SONG ERA

Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
era (1223) city gate in Shaoxing .

The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
re-established unity around 960. Under the Song, the prosperity of South China
China
began to overtake that of North China. After the north was lost to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1127 following the Jingkang Incident
Jingkang Incident
, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
became the capital of the Song Dynasty under the name Lin\'an , which was renowned for its prosperity and beauty, it was suspected to have been the largest city in the world at the time.

From then on, northern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
and neighboring southern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
have been synonymous with luxury and opulence in Chinese culture. The Mongol
Mongol
conquest and the establishment of the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in 1279 ended Hangzhou's political clout, but its economy continued to prosper. The famous traveler Marco Polo visited the city, which he called "Kinsay" (after the Chinese _Jingshi_, meaning "Capital City") claiming it was "the finest and noblest city in the world".

Greenware ceramics made from celadon had been made in the area since the 3rd-century Jin dynasty , but it returned to prominence—particularly in Longquan —during the Southern Song and Yuan. Longquan greenware is characterized by a thick unctuous glaze of a particular bluish-green tint over an otherwise undecorated light-grey porcellaneous body that is delicately potted. Yuan Longquan celadons feature a thinner, greener glaze on increasingly large vessels with decoration and shapes derived from Middle Eastern ceramic and metalwares. These were produced in large quantities for the Chinese export trade to Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and (during the Ming ) Europe. By the Ming, however, production was notably deficient in quality. It is in this period that the Longquan kilns declined, to be eventually replaced in popularity and ceramic production by the kilns of Jingdezhen
Jingdezhen
in Jiangxi
Jiangxi
.

YUAN AND MING ERAS

This tripod planter from the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
was found in Zhejiang province. It is housed in the Smithsonian
Smithsonian
in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.

Zhejiang
Zhejiang
was finally conquered by the Mongols in the late 13th century who later established the short lived Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
.

The Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
, which drove out the Mongols in 1368, finally established the present day province of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
with its borders having little changes since this establishment.

As in other coastal provinces, number of fortresses were constructed along the Zhejiang
Zhejiang
coast during the early Ming to defend the land against pirate incursions. Some of them have been preserved or restored, such as Pucheng in the south of the province ( Cangnan
Cangnan
County ).

QING ERA

Under the late Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
that followed it, Zhejiang's ports were important centers of international trade. A restored Qing era (1891) bridge on a coastal road

"In 1727 the to-min or 'idle people' of Cheh Kiang province (a Ningpo name still existing), the yoh-hu or 'music people' of Shanxi
Shanxi
province, the si-min or 'small people' of Kiang Su (Jiangsu) province, and the Tanka people
Tanka people
or 'egg-people' of Canton (to this day the boat population there), were all freed from their social disabilities, and allowed to count as free men." "Cheh Kiang" is another romanization for Zhejiang. The Duomin (Chinese: 惰民; pinyin: _duò mín_; Wade–Giles: _to-min_) are a caste of outcasts in this province.

During the First Opium War
First Opium War
, the British navy defeated Eight Banners forces at Ningbo and Dinghai . Under the terms of the Treaty of Nanking , signed in 1843, Ningbo became one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened to virtually unrestricted foreign trade. Much of Zhejiang came under the control of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the Taiping Rebellion , which resulted in a considerable loss of life in the north-western and central parts of the province, sparing the rest of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
from the disastrous depopulation that occurred. In 1876, Wenzhou became Zhejiang's second treaty port. Jianghuai Mandarin speakers later came to settle in these depopulated regions of northern Zhejiang.

REPUBLICAN ERA

See also: Chekiang Province, Republic of China

During the Second Sino-Japanese War , which led into World War II
World War II
, much of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
was occupied by Japan
Japan
and placed under the control of the Japanese puppet state known as the Reorganized National Government of China
China
. Following the Doolittle Raid , most of the B-25 American crews that came down in China
China
eventually made it to safety with the help of Chinese civilians and soldiers. The Chinese people who helped them, however, paid dearly for sheltering the Americans. The Imperial Japanese Army began the Zhejiang- Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Campaign to intimidate the Chinese out of helping downed American airmen. The Japanese killed an estimated 250,000 civilians from the area of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
to Nanchang
Nanchang
and also Zhuzhou while searching for Doolittle’s men.

PEOPLE\'S REPUBLICAN ERA

After the People's Republic of China
China
took control of Mainland China in 1949, the Republic of China
China
government based in Taiwan
Taiwan
continued to control the Dachen Islands off the coast of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
until 1955, even establishing a rival Zhejiang
Zhejiang
provincial government there, creating a situation similar to Fujian
Fujian
province today. During the Cultural Revolution (1966–76), Zhejiang
Zhejiang
was in chaos and disunity, and its economy was stagnant, especially during the high tide (1966–69) of the revolution. The agricultural policy favoring grain production at the expense of industrial and cash crops intensified economic hardships in the province. Mao’s self-reliance policy and the reduction in maritime trade cut off the lifelines of the port cities of Ningbo and Wenzhou. While Mao invested heavily in railroads in interior China, no major railroads were built in South Zhejiang, where transportation remained poor.

Zhejiang
Zhejiang
benefited less from central government investment than some other provinces due to its lack of natural resources, a location vulnerable to potential flooding from the sea, and an economic base at the national average. Zhejiang, however, has been an epicenter of capitalist development in China, and has led the nation in the development of a market economy and private enterprises. Northeast Zhejiang, as part of the Yangtze
Yangtze
Delta, is flat, more developed, and industrial.

GEOGRAPHY

_ THIS SECTION HAS MULTIPLE ISSUES. Please help IMPROVE IT or discuss these issues on the TALK PAGE . (Learn how and when to remove these template messages )_

_ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (July 2014)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (July 2014)_

_(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

View of the West Lake
West Lake
in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
.

Zhejiang
Zhejiang
consists mostly of hills, which account for about 70% of its total area. Altitudes tend to be the highest to the south and west and the highest peak of the province, Huangmaojian Peak (1,929 meters or 6,329 feet), is located there. Other prominent mountains include Mounts Yandang , Tianmu , Tiantai , and Mogan , which reach altitudes of 700 to 1,500 meters (2,300 to 4,900 ft).

Valleys and plains are found along the coastline and rivers. The north of the province lies just south of the Yangtze
Yangtze
Delta , and consists of plains around the cities of Hangzhou, Jiaxing , and Huzhou , where the Grand Canal of China
China
enters from the northern border to end at Hangzhou. Another relatively flat area is found along the Qu River around the cities of Quzhou and Jinhua . Major rivers include the Qiangtang and Ou Rivers . Most rivers carve out valleys in the highlands, with plenty of rapids and other features associated with such topography. Well-known lakes include the West Lake
West Lake
of Hangzhou and the South Lake of Jiaxing.

There are over three thousand islands along the rugged coastline of Zhejiang. The largest, Zhoushan Island , is Mainland China's third largest island, after Hainan
Hainan
and Chongming . There are also many bays, of which Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay is the largest. Zhejiang
Zhejiang
has a humid subtropical climate with four distinct seasons. Spring starts in March and is rainy with changeable weather. Summer, from June to September is long, hot, rainy, and humid. Fall is generally dry, warm and sunny. Winters are short but cold except in the far south. Average annual temperature is around 15 to 19 °C (59 to 66 °F), average January temperature is around 2 to 8 °C (36 to 46 °F) and average July temperature is around 27 to 27 to 30 °C (81 to 86 °F). Annual precipitation is about 1,000 to 1,900 mm (39 to 75 in). There is plenty of rainfall in early summer, and by late summer Zhejiang
Zhejiang
is directly threatened by typhoons forming in the Pacific.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Zhejiang and List of township-level divisions of Zhejiang
Zhejiang

Zhejiang
Zhejiang
is divided into eleven prefecture-level divisions : all prefecture-level cities (including two sub-provincial cities ):

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF ZHEJIANG

№ DIVISION CODE ENGLISH NAME CHINESE PINYIN AREA IN KM2 POPULATION 2010 SEAT DIVISIONS

DISTRICTS COUNTIES AUT. COUNTIES CL CITIES

330000 ZHEJIANG 浙江省 Zhèjiāng Shěng 101800.00 54,426,891 Hangzhou
Hangzhou
36 33 1 19

1 330100 HANGZHOU 杭州市 Hángzhōu Shì 16840.75 8,700,400 Jianggan District 9 2

2

2 330200 NINGBO 宁波市 Níngbō Shì 9816.23 7,605,700 Yinzhou District 6 2

2

10 330300 WENZHOU 温州市 Wēnzhōu Shì 12255.77 9,122,100 Lucheng District 4 5

2

4 330400 JIAXING 嘉兴市 Jiāxīng Shì 4008.75 4,501,700 Nanhu District 2 2

3

3 330500 HUZHOU 湖州市 Húzhōu Shì 5818.44 2,893,500 Wuxing District 2 3

8 330600 SHAOXING 绍兴市 Shàoxīng Shì 8279.08 4,912,200 Yuecheng District 3 1

2

5 330700 JINHUA 金华市 Jīnhuá Shì 10926.16 5,361,600 Wucheng District 2 3

4

7 330800 QUZHOU 衢州市 Qúzhōu Shì 8841.12 2,122,700 Kecheng District 2 3

1

11 330900 ZHOUSHAN 舟山市 Zhōushān Shì 1378.00 1,121,300 Dinghai District 2 2

9 331000 TAIZHOU 台州市 Tāizhōu Shì 10,083.39 5,968,800 Jiaojiang District 3 4

2

6 331100 LISHUI 丽水市 Líshuǐ Shì 17298.00 2,117,000 Liandu District 1 6 1 1

Sub-provincial cities

The eleven prefecture-level divisions of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
are subdivided into 90 county-level divisions (36 districts , 20 county-level cities , 33 counties , and one autonomous county ). Those are in turn divided into 1,570 township-level divisions (761 towns , 505 townships , 14 ethnic townships , and 290 subdistricts ). Hengdian belongs to Jinhua, which is the largest base of shooting films and TV dramas in China. Hengdian is called "China's Hollywood".

POLITICS

Main articles: Politics of Zhejiang and List of provincial leaders of the People\'s Republic of China
China

The politics of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in Mainland China. The Governor of Zhejiang is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Zhejiang. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor is subordinate to the Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Communist Party of China
China
(CPC) Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the " Zhejiang
Zhejiang
CPC Party Chief ".

Several political figures who served as Zhejiang's top political office of Communist Party Secretary have played key roles in various events in PRC history. Tan Zhenlin (term 1949-1952), the inaugural Party Secretary, was one of the leading voices against Mao's Cultural Revolution during the so-called February Countercurrent of 1967. Jiang Hua (term 1956-1968), was the "chief justice" on the Special
Special
Court in the case against the Gang of Four in 1980. Three provincial Party Secretaries since the 1990s have gone onto prominence at the national level. They include CPC General Secretary and President Xi Jinping (term 2002-2007), National People\'s Congress Chairman and former Vice-Premier Zhang Dejiang (term 1998-2002), and Zhao Hongzhu (term 2007-2012), the Deputy Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection , China's top anti-corruption body. Of Zhejiang's fourteen Party Secretaries since 1949, none were native to the province.

Zhejiang
Zhejiang
was home to Chiang Kai-shek and many high-ranking officials in the Kuomintang , who fled to Taiwan
Taiwan
in 1949 after losing the Civil War.

ECONOMY

Yuao, a fishing village on Dayu Bay in south Zhejiang
Zhejiang
(Cangnan County )

The province is traditionally known as the "Land of Fish and Rice". True to its name, rice is the main crop, followed by wheat ; north Zhejiang
Zhejiang
is also a center of aquaculture in China, and the Zhoushan fishery is the largest fishery in the country. The main cash crops include jute and cotton , and the province also leads the provinces of China
China
in tea production. (The renowned Longjing tea
Longjing tea
is a product of Hangzhou.) Zhejiang's towns have been known for handicraft production of goods such as silk , for which it is ranked second among the provinces. Its many market towns connect the cities with the countryside.

As of 1832, the province was exporting silk, paper, fans, pencils, wine, dates , tea and "golden-flowered" hams . See also: Pearl farming in China
China

Ningbo, Wenzhou, Taizhou and Zhoushan are important commercial ports. The Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay Bridge between Haiyan County and Cixi , is the longest bridge over a continuous body of sea water in the world.

Zhejiang's main manufacturing sectors are electromechanical industries, textiles , chemical industries, food, and construction materials. In recent years Zhejiang
Zhejiang
has followed its own development model, dubbed the " Zhejiang
Zhejiang
model", which is based on prioritizing and encouraging entrepreneurship, an emphasis on small businesses responsive to the whims of the market, large public investments into infrastructure , and the production of low-cost goods in bulk for both domestic consumption and export. As a result, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
has made itself one of the richest provinces, and the " Zhejiang
Zhejiang
spirit" has become something of a legend within China. However, some economists now worry that this model is not sustainable, in that it is inefficient and places unreasonable demands on raw materials and public utilities, and also a dead end, in that the myriad small businesses in Zhejiang producing cheap goods in bulk are unable to move to more sophisticated or technologically more advanced industries. The economic heart of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
is moving from North Zhejiang, centered on Hangzhou, southeastward to the region centered on Wenzhou and Taizhou. The per capita disposable income of urbanites in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
reached 47,237 yuan (US$7,112) in 2016, an annual real growth of 8.1%. The per capita disposable income of rural residents stood at 22,866 yuan (US$3,442), a real growth of 8.2% year-on-year. Zhejiang's nominal GDP for 2016 was 4.65 trillion yuan (US$700 billion) with a per capita GDP of 83,538 yuan (US$12,577). In 2016, Zhejiang's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 196.6 billion yuan (US$29.6 billion), 2.0518 trillion yuan (US$308.9 billion), and 2.4001 trillion yuan (US$361.3 billion) respectively.

ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ZONES

_ This section IS IN A LIST FORMAT THAT MAY BE BETTER PRESENTED USING PROSE . You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate . Editing help is available. (October 2013)_

* Huzhou Economic Development Zone * Dinghai Industrial Park * Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Economic & Technological Developing Area * Hangzhou
Hangzhou
New "> She ethnic county, townships and towns in Zhejiang
Zhejiang

Han Chinese make up the vast majority of the population, and the largest Han subgroup are the speakers of Wu varieties of Chinese . There are also 400,000 members of ethnic minorities , including approximately 200,000 She people and approximately 20,000 Hui Chinese . Jingning She Autonomous County in Lishui is the only She autonomous county in China.

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1912 21,440,000 —

1928 20,643,000 −3.7%

1936-37 21,231,000 +2.8%

1947 19,959,000 −6.0%

1954 22,865,747 +14.6%

YEAR POP. ±%

1964 28,318,573 +23.8%

1982 38,884,603 +37.3%

1990 41,445,930 +6.6%

2000 45,930,651 +10.8%

2010 54,426,891 +18.5%

RELIGION

Religion in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Not religious / Chinese folk religion / Buddhism
Buddhism
/ Taoism / Confucianism / folk sects (74.36%) Chinese ancestral religion (23.02%) Christianity
Christianity
(2.62%)

The predominant religions in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
are Chinese folk religions , Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 23.02% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration , while 2.62% of the population identifies as Christian, decreasing from 3.92% in 2004. The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 74.36% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities , Buddhism, Confucianism , Taoism, folk religious sects . As of the mid-2010s, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
has 34,880 registered folk religious temples greater than 20 sqm, and 10,000 registered places of worship of the five doctrines (Buddhism, Taoism, Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam). :35

In mid-2015 the government of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
recognised folk religion as "civil religion" beginning the formal registration of the province's folk religious temples under the aegis of the provincial Bureau of Folk Faith. Buddhism
Buddhism
has an important presence since its arrival in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
1,800 years ago.

Catholicism arrived 400 years ago in the province and Protestantism 150 years ago. Zhejiang
Zhejiang
is one of the provinces of China
China
with the largest concentrations of Protestants, especially notable in the city of Wenzhou . In 1999 Zhejiang's Protestant population comprised 2.8% of the provincial population, a small percentage but higher than the national average.

The rapid development of religions in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
has driven the local committee of ethnic and religious affairs to enact policies to rationalise them in 2014, variously named "Three Remodelings and One Demolition" operations or " Special
Special
Treatment Work on Illegally Constructed Sites of Religious and Folk Religion Activities" according to the locality. These regulations have led to cases of demolition of churches and folk religion temples, or the removal of crosses from churches' roofs and spires. An exemplary case was that of the Sanjiang Church . Despite English-language media focused on Christian churches, only 2.3% of the buildings affected by the regulations were Christian churches; most of them were folk religious temples. :36

Islam
Islam
arrived 1,400 years ago in Zhejiang. Today Islam
Islam
is practiced by a small number of people including virtually all the Hui Chinese living in Zhejiang. Another religion present in the province is She shamanism (practiced by She ethnic minority).

*

Temple of All-Heaven (都天庙 _Dōutiānmiào_) in Longgang, Cangnan
Cangnan
, Wenzhou . *

Temple of the Chenghuangshen (City God) of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
, by night, in Wushan, Xihu . *

Temple of Bao Gong in Ouhai , Wenzhou. *

Buddha
Buddha
altar in the Puji Temple of Mount Putuo . *

Jusheng Temple in Wuma, Lucheng , Wenzhou. *

Temple of the King of Heaven of the Little Putuo Buddhist Monastery in Yinzhou , Ningbo . *

Temple of Yue Fei in Hangzhou. *

Church in Aojiang, Pingyang , Wenzhou.

MEDIA

The Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Radio & Television, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Radio & Television Group, Ningbo Radio margin: 0.2em 0;">THIS SECTION HAS MULTIPLE ISSUES. Please help IMPROVE IT or discuss these issues on the TALK PAGE . (Learn how and when to remove these template messages )_

_ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (July 2014)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (July 2014)_

_(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

See also: Major national historical and cultural sites (Zhejiang)
Major national historical and cultural sites (Zhejiang)
A boat on one of Shaoxing 's waterways, near the city center. North Zhejiang, known as the "Land of Fish and Rice", is characterized by its canals and waterways.

LANGUAGES

Zhejiang
Zhejiang
is mountainous and has therefore fostered the development of many distinct local cultures. Linguistically speaking, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
is extremely diverse. Most inhabitants of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
speak Wu , but the Wu dialects are very diverse, especially in the south, where one valley may speak a dialect completely unintelligible to the next valley a few kilometers away. Other varieties of Chinese are spoken as well, mostly along the borders; Mandarin and Huizhou dialects are spoken on the border with Anhui, while Min dialects are spoken on the border with Fujian. (See Hangzhou
Hangzhou
dialect , Shaoxing dialect , Ningbo dialect , Wenzhou dialect , Taizhou dialect , Jinhua dialect , and Quzhou dialect for more information).

Throughout history there have been a series of _lingua francas _ in the area to allow for better communication. The dialects spoken in Hangzhou, Shaoxing, and Ningbo have taken on this role historically. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China
China
in 1949, Mandarin , which is not mutually intelligible with any of the local dialects, has been promoted as the standard language of communication throughout China. As a result, most of the population now can, to some degree, speak and comprehend Mandarin and can code-switch when necessary. A majority of the population educated since 1978 can speak Mandarin. Urban residents tend to be more fluent in Mandarin than rural people. Nevertheless, a Zhejiang
Zhejiang
accent is detectable in almost everyone from the area communicating in Mandarin, and the home dialect remains an important part of the everyday lives and cultural identities of most Zhejiang
Zhejiang
residents.

MUSIC

Zhejiang
Zhejiang
is the home of _Yueju _ (越劇), one of the most prominent forms of Chinese opera . _Yueju_ originated in Shengzhou and is traditionally performed by actresses only, in both male and female roles. Other important opera traditions include Yongju (of Ningbo), Shaoju (of Shaoxing ), Ouju (of Wenzhou), Wuju (of Jinhua ), Taizhou Luantan (of Taizhou) and Zhuji Luantan (of Zhuji ).

CUISINE

Fish being dried dockside in Pacao Harbor, Cangnan
Cangnan
County

Longjing tea
Longjing tea
(also called dragon well tea), originating in Hangzhou, is one of the most prestigious, if not _the_ most prestigious Chinese tea. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is also renowned for its silk umbrellas and hand fans. Zhejiang cuisine (itself subdivided into many traditions, including Hangzhou
Hangzhou
cuisine) is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine .

PLACE NAMES

Since ancient times, north Zhejiang
Zhejiang
and neighbouring south Jiangsu have been famed for their prosperity and opulence, and simply inserting north Zhejiang
Zhejiang
place names (Hangzhou, Jiaxing, etc.) into poetry gave an effect of dreaminess, a practice followed by many noted poets. In particular, the fame of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(as well as Suzhou
Suzhou
in neighbouring Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province) has led to the popular saying: "Above there is heaven; below there is Suzhou
Suzhou
and Hangzhou" (上有天堂,下有苏杭), a saying that continues to be a source of pride for the people of these two still prosperous cities.

TOURISM

The Hall of Five Hundred Arhats at Guoqing Temple

Tourist destinations in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
include:

* Baoguo Temple , one of the oldest intact wooden structures in Southern China, 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) north of Ningbo. * Mount Putuo , one of the most noted Buddhist mountains in China. Chinese Buddhists associate it with Guan Yin . * Qita Temple , Ningbo. * Shaoxing , site of the Tomb of Yu the Great , Wuzhen and other waterway towns. * The ancient capital of Hangzhou. * Mount Tiantai , (天台山), a mountain important to Zen Buddhism. * West Lake
West Lake
, in Hangzhou. * Yandangshan , a mountainous scenic area near Wenzhou. * Qiandao Lake , lit. _Thousand-island lake_. * Guoqing Temple , founded in the Sui Dynasty, the founding location of Tiantai Buddhism * Mount Mogan
Mount Mogan
, a scenic mountain an hour from Hangzhou
Hangzhou
with many pre- World War II
World War II
villas built by foreigners, along with one of Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang compounds * Zhejiang Museum of Natural History , in Hangzhou.

SPORTS

Professional sports teams based in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
include:

* China
China
League One

* Zhejiang Yiteng F.C.

* Chinese Basketball Association

* Zhejiang Wanma * Bayi Rockets (in Ningbo)

* Chinese Super League

* Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Greentown F.C.

EDUCATION

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

See also: List of universities and colleges in Zhejiang

* Zhejiang University (浙江大学) (Hangzhou) * Zhejiang Sci-Tech University (浙江理工大学) (Hangzhou) (原"浙江丝绸工学院"、"浙江工程学院") * China
China
Academy of Art (中国美术学院) (Hangzhou) * Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Dianzi University (杭州电子科技大学) (Hangzhou) * China
China
Jiliang University (中国计量大学) (Hangzhou) * Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Normal University (杭州师范大学)(Hangzhou) * Ningbo University (宁波大学) (Ningbo) * University of Nottingham Ningbo China (诺丁汉大学宁波校区) (Ningbo) * Zhejiang
Zhejiang
A ">

* ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines ). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China
China
(deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang. * ^ May also include a tiny number of Muslims .

REFERENCES

* ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People\'s Republic of China
China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on July 27, 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013. * ^ 2013年浙江省国民经济和社会发展统计公报 (IN CHINESE). ZHEJIANG PROVINCIAL STATISTIC BUREAU. 2014-02-26. RETRIEVED 2014-03-05. * ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (IN CHINESE). UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME CHINA. 2013. RETRIEVED 2014-01-05. * ^ _People\'s Daily Online _. "Origin of the Names of China\'s Provinces". (in Chinese). * ^ Baxter, William & al. "Baxter-Sagart Old Chinese
Old Chinese
Reconstruction ". Accessed 20 May 2012. * ^ Leping Jiang Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W.; Chen, Xugao (2014). "Archaeological Evidence for Peach (Prunus persica) Cultivation and Domestication in China" . _PLoS ONE_. 9 (9): e106595. ISSN 1932-6203 . PMC 4156326  _. PMID 25192436 . doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0106595 . * ^ K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8 . * ^ Kenneth R. Hall (2008). _Secondary Cities and Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, C. 1400-1800_. Lexington Books. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-0-7391-2835-0 . * ^ "Largest Cities Through History". Geography.about.com. 2013-07-19. Retrieved 2013-09-10. * ^ http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/polo-kinsay.html * ^ Vainker, Shelaugh. Chinese Pottery and Porcelain. London: British Museum Press, 1991. * ^ Edward Harper Parker (1903). _China, past and present_. London: Chapman and Hall, ld. p. 404. Retrieved 2012-02-28. the lot of both Manchu and Chinese bondsmen. In 1727 the to-min or "idle people " of Cheh Kiang province (a Ningpo name still existing), the yoh-hu or " music people " of Shan Si province, the si-min or "small people " of Kiang Su province, and the tan-ka or "egg-people" of Canton (to this day the boat population there), were all freed from their social disabilities, and allowed to count as free men. So far as my own observations go, after residing for a quarter of a century in half the provinces of China, north, south, east, and west, I should be inclined to describe slavery in China
China
as totally invisible to the naked eye ; personal liberty is absolute where feebleness or ignorance do not expose the subject to the rapacity of mandarins, relatives, or speculators. Even savages and foreigners are welcomed as equals, so long as they conform unreservedly to Chinese custom. On the other hand, the oldfashioned social disabilities of policemen, barbers, and playactors still exist in the eyes of the law, though any idea of caste is totally absent therefrom, and "unofficially" these individuals are as good as any other free men. Having now taken a cursory view of Chinese slavery from its historical aspect, let us see what it is in practice. Though the penal code forbids and annuls the sale into slavery of free persons, even by a husband, father, or grandfather, yet the number of free persons who are sold or sell themselves to escape starvation and misery is considerable. It is nominally a punishable offence to keep a free man or lost child as a slave; also for parents to sell their children without the consent of the latter, or to drown their girls; but in practice the law is in both cases ignored, and scarcely ever enforced ; _a fortiori_ the minor offence of selling children, even with their consent. Indeed, sales of girls for secondary wives is of daily occurrence, and, as we have seen, the Emperors Yung-cheng and K'ien-lung explicitly recognized the right of parents to sell children in times of famine, whilst the missionaries unanimously bear witness to the fact that the public sale of children in the streets—for instance, of Tientsin—was frequently witnessed during recent times of dearth. But slave markets and public sales are unknown in a general way. Occasionally old parents sell their children in order to purchase coffins for themselves. Only a few years ago a governor and a censor * ^ "PBS Perilous Flight". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2013-09-10. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Regional Inequality in China: A Case Study of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province". _Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie_. 95: 44–60. 2004-02-16. doi :10.1111/j.0040-747X.2004.00292.x . Retrieved 2013-09-10. * ^ "中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码". 中华人民共和国民政部. * ^ 深圳市统计局. _《深圳统计年鉴2014》_. _深圳统计网_. 中国统计出版社. Retrieved 2015-05-29. * ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China
China
by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). _Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao_ (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing
Beijing
Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2 . * ^ 中华人民共和国民政部. _《中国民政统计年鉴2016》_. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7878-0 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). _Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat_. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 122. * ^ _A_ _B_ " China
China
Economy @ China
China
Perspective". Thechinaperspective.com. 2013-09-06. Retrieved 2013-09-10. * ^ "四川省2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报". Stats.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-09-10. * ^ "People\'s Daily Online - East China
China
province leads the way in per capita GDP". English.people.com.cn. 2006-01-30. Retrieved 2013-09-10. * ^ "People\'s Daily Online - Agriculture grows steadily in E. China
China
province". English.people.com.cn. 2006-02-05. Retrieved 2013-09-10. * ^ "People\'s Daily Online - E. China
China
province records double-digit growth in secondary industry". English.people.com.cn. 2006-02-05. Retrieved 2013-09-10. * ^ "People\'s Daily Online - Tertiary industry grows 15 percent in E. China
China
province". English.people.com.cn. 2006-02-05. Retrieved 2013-09-10. * ^ "Protest over factory pollution in E China
China
enters third day". _ China
China
Daily _. Xinhua
Xinhua
. 18 September 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
- Hundreds of villagers in East China's Zhejiang Province protested for the third day on Saturday at a solar panel manufacturer, whose parent is a New York-listed firm, over concerns of its harmful wastes. * ^ " China
China
council for the promotion of international trade (ccpit)ZheJiang sub-council". Ccpitzj.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-09-10. * ^ "1912年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. * ^ "1928年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. * ^ "1936-37年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. * ^ "1947年全国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. * ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China
China
. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. * ^ "第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字". National Bureau of Statistics of China
China
. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012. * ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China
China
. Archived from the original on May 10, 2012. * ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China
China
. Archived from the original on June 19, 2012. * ^ "现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下". National Bureau of Statistics of China
China
. Archived from the original on August 29, 2012. * ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People\'s Republic of China
China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China
China
. Archived from the original on July 27, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ China
China
General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15). Archived September 25, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ “正名”后的民间信仰 浙江新制度共创社会文化效益. Xinhua
Xinhua
, 2017/01/03. Retrieved 2017/04/27. Archived. * ^ Chen Jinguo, Lin Minxia. 如何走向“善治”:浙江省民間信仰“社會治理”轉型的反思 (How to Go Towards "Good Governance": Reflection on Folk Beliefs\' "Social Governance" Transformation in Zhejiang). Qiu Yonghui (ed.). _Chinese Religion Report - Religion Blue Book - 2015 Edition_. Social Science Literature Publishing House, 2016. _Gooread_ 2017/01/04. Archived. * ^ _A_ _B_ Wenzel-Teuber, Katharina. "Statistics on Religions and Churches in the People\'s Republic of China
China
– Update for the Year 2016" (PDF). _Religions ">(PDF) on 22 July 2017. * ^ 浙江省启动民间信仰活动场所登记编号 昨颁首张证书 ( Zhejiang
Zhejiang
started yesterday to award registration certificates to folk religious activities). Zhejiang
Zhejiang
News, 2015/04/16. Archived. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ 浙江省宗教概况, 浙江省民族宗教事务委员会 * ^ Nanlai Cao. _Constructing China's Jerusalem: Christians, Power and Place in the City of Wenzhou_. Stanford, Stanford University Press, 2010, 232 pp., Chapter One * ^ Statistics for the Protestant Church: China, Chinese Theological Review, 14, p. 154. * ^ 冯志礼主任动员我省基督教界支持参与"三改一拆"行动, 浙江省民族宗教事务委员会 * ^ Congressional-Executive Commission on China\'s Annual Report 2014. p. 221 * ^ Congressional-Executive Commission on China: Zhejiang Government Launches Demolition Campaign, Targets Christian Churches_._ * ^ Govt efforts key to desensitizing religious management, _Global Times _.

* Economic profile of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
at HKTDC

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to ZHEJIANG _.

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for ZHEJIANG _.

* Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Government website (in Chinese) (in English) (in Japanese) * (in English) (in Chinese) Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces from 1821-1850

‹ The template below (_Geographic location _) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

_ Anhui
Anhui
Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Shanghai
Shanghai

East China
China
Sea _

_ ZHEJIANG

Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Fujian
Fujian

* v * t * e

Zhejiang
Zhejiang
topics

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(capital )

GENERAL

* History * Politics * Economy

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities * Huangyajian Peak * Mount Mogan
Mount Mogan
* Tiantai Mountain * Yangtze
Yangtze
Delta * Grand Canal of China
China
* Qiantang River * Oujiang River * Zhoushan Island * Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay

EDUCATION

* Zhejiang University * Zhejiang University of Technology * Zhejiang Normal University * Shaoxing University

CULTURE

* Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese

* Taihu Wu

* Hangzhou
Hangzhou
dialect * Ningbo dialect

* Wenzhou dialect

* (Rui\'an dialect )

* Jinhua dialect * Quzhou dialect

* Southern Min