ZHAO RUGUA (simplified Chinese : 赵汝适; traditional Chinese : 趙汝适; pinyin : _Zhào Rǔguā_; Wade–Giles : _CHAU JU-KUA/CHOU JU-KUA_) (1170–1228), also written as ZHAO RUKUO or misread as ZHAO RUSHI, is a Song dynasty official who wrote a two-volume book titled _ Zhu fan zhi _. The book deals with the world known to the Chinese in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; the first volume is a list of foreign places with descriptions of each place and the customs of its local people. The second volume is a catalog of trade goods.
* 1 Biography * 2 _Zhu Fan Zhi_ * 3 See also * 4 References
Zhao was a member of the Song Dynasty imperial clan, an eighth-generation descendant of Emperor Taizong in the lineage through the younger brother of Emperor Zhenzong . He was born in Tiantai County in Taizhou, Zhejiang in 1170. He began his career as a bureaucrat in 1190, and rose through the rank. In 1224, he was appointed the supervisor of maritime trade (市舶司, _shibosi_) in Quanzhou , Fujian province. He also held the posts of prefect for Quanzhou as well the southern administrator. He died in 1231 and was buried in Linhai County in Zhejiang.
_ZHU FAN ZHI_
Main article: Zhu Fan Zhi _ A page from Zhu fan zhi_
While working in Fujian, Zhao noted the commodities from various countries, and he had the opportunity to meet foreign merchants from whom he gathered information on various countries around the world. He also studied maps, and with the information that he collected, he wrote the book, which he finished around 1225. Many entries of _Zhu Fan Zhi_ take information from an older work from 1178, _Lingwai Daida _ by another geographer, Zhou Qufei (Chinese : 周去非; pinyin : _Zhōu Qùfēi_; Wade–Giles : _Chou Ch'ü-fei_). However, a significant part of the book came from what he gathered from foreign and Chinese traders.
Although Zhao had not travelled outside of China, the book contained valuable information on various countries in the 13th century for modern scholars. The countries ranged from those nearby such as Japan , to the various kingdoms in South East Asia, such as Srivijaya and Bruneian Empire , places in India, to the Islamic heartland of Arabia and Mecca , as well as countries in Africa, and as far as southern Spain.
* ^ Chau-Ju-Kua, Friedrich Hirth and W.W. Rockhill (translators). "CHAU-JU-KUA: His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelfth and thirteenth Centuries, entitled chu-fan-chi (scanned version in PDF format)". CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Hyunhee Park (2012). _Mapping the Chinese and Islamic Worlds: Cross-Cultural Exchange in Pre-Modern Asia_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 50–52. ISBN 978-1107018686 . * ^ Chengda Fan, James M Hargett (2011). _Treatises of the Supervisor and Guardian of the Cinnamon Sea: The Natural World and Material Culture of Twelfth-century China_. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0295990798 . * ^ "Zhao Rukuo". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. * ^ Zheng Yangwen (2011). _China on the Sea: How the Maritime World Shaped Modern China_. Brill. p. 209. ISBN 978-9004194779 . * ^ "Old Chinese Book Tells of the World 800 Years Ago; Chau-Ju-Kua\'s Chronicles of the Twelfth Century, Now First Translated, Give a