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ZHANGZHOU, formerly romanized as CHANGCHOW, is a prefecture -level city in Fujian
Fujian
Province , China
China
. The prefecture around the city proper comprises the southeast corner of the province, facing the Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
and surrounding the prefecture of Xiamen
Xiamen
. During the 2010 census , the entire area of Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
was home to 4,809,983 inhabitants. Along with the 1.9m people of central Xiamen, its urban districts of Longwen and Xiangcheng , together with Longhai , form a single metropolitan area of about 5 million people (2010 ).

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 3 History * 4 Administrative divisions * 5 Demographics * 6 Economy * 7 Transportation * 8 Education * 9 Notable residents * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 External links

NAME

Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
is the atonal pinyin romanization of the city's Chinese name 漳州, using its pronunciation in Standard Mandarin . The name derives from the city's former status as the seat of the imperial Chinese Zhang Prefecture . The same name was romanized as "Changchow" on the Chinese Postal Map and CHANG-CHOU in Wade-Giles . Other romanizations include CHANG-CHOW.

It also appears as CHANG-CHU, CHIANG-CHIU, CHIANG-CHEW, or CHIANG CHEW from the city's local Hokkien
Hokkien
name Chiang-chiu. This name appeared in Spanish and Portuguese Jesuit sources as Chincheo, which was anglicized as CHINCHEW. By the 19th century, however, this name had migrated and was used to refer to Quanzhou
Quanzhou
, a separate port about 65 miles (105 km) east-northeast of central Zhangzhou.

GEOGRAPHY

Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
proper lies on the banks of the Jiulong River in southern Fujian
Fujian
about 35 miles (56 km) from central Xiamen, whose urban core has grown to form a single urbanized area with it. The prefecture of Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
comprises the southeastern corner of the province, surrounding Xiamen
Xiamen
. The prefecture of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
lies to its northeast, Longyan
Longyan
to its northwest, and Shantou
Shantou
in Guangdong
Guangdong
to its southwest.

CLIMATE

Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
has a monsoon -influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with mild to warm winters and long, very hot and humid summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 13.2 °C (55.8 °F) in January to 28.8 °C (83.8 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 21.3 °C (70.3 °F). The frost-free period lasts 330 days.

CLIMATE DATA FOR ZHANGZHOU (1971−2000)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 28.8 (83.8) 30.3 (86.5) 33.7 (92.7) 35.1 (95.2) 37.5 (99.5) 37.6 (99.7) 38.6 (101.5) 38.1 (100.6) 37.1 (98.8) 34.6 (94.3) 35.2 (95.4) 29.1 (84.4) 38.6 (101.5)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 18.0 (64.4) 18.0 (64.4) 20.3 (68.5) 24.6 (76.3) 27.8 (82) 31.0 (87.8) 33.6 (92.5) 33.1 (91.6) 31.2 (88.2) 28.2 (82.8) 24.4 (75.9) 20.3 (68.5) 25.9 (78.6)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 13.2 (55.8) 13.5 (56.3) 15.9 (60.6) 20.2 (68.4) 23.7 (74.7) 26.8 (80.2) 28.8 (83.8) 28.3 (82.9) 26.7 (80.1) 23.5 (74.3) 19.3 (66.7) 15.1 (59.2) 21.3 (70.3)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 10.0 (50) 10.7 (51.3) 13.0 (55.4) 17.1 (62.8) 20.9 (69.6) 23.8 (74.8) 25.3 (77.5) 25.1 (77.2) 23.5 (74.3) 20.1 (68.2) 15.6 (60.1) 11.4 (52.5) 18.0 (64.5)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 1.3 (34.3) 1.3 (34.3) 3.0 (37.4) 7.3 (45.1) 12.3 (54.1) 17.0 (62.6) 21.0 (69.8) 21.3 (70.3) 16.8 (62.2) 7.6 (45.7) 4.8 (40.6) −0.1 (31.8) −0.1 (31.8)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 41.0 (1.614) 84.8 (3.339) 114.0 (4.488) 168.4 (6.63) 207.2 (8.157) 278.6 (10.969) 171.9 (6.768) 232.8 (9.165) 170.0 (6.693) 63.0 (2.48) 38.2 (1.504) 34.5 (1.358) 1,604.4 (63.165)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 8.5 12.2 14.9 15.2 16.9 17.7 12.5 14.3 11.2 5.5 5.1 5.6 139.6

Source: Weather China

HISTORY

During the early Qing , Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
was the primary Fujianese port trading with Portuguese Macao and Spanish Manila . For a time, the Portuguese maintained a factory in the city.

During the late Qing , Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
remained a center of silk , brick , and sugar production with about a million people and extensive internal and maritime trade. Its city wall had a circumference of about 4.5 miles (7.2 km) but included a good deal of open ground and farmland. Its streets were paved with granite but badly maintained. The 800-foot (240 m) bridge across the Jiulong River consisted of wooden planks laid between 25 piles of stones at roughly equal intervals. The port of Xiamen
Xiamen
in an island at the mouth of the Jiulong principally functioned as a trading center for the produce and wares of Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
and its hinterland; both suffered economically when Indian tea plantations cratered demand for Fujianese tea in the late 19th century.

The old city of Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
(now Xiangcheng District ) was occupied in April and May 1932 by a column of Communist guerrillas under Mao Zedong . Due to the presence of Western gunboats in Xiamen
Xiamen
Bay , arms shipments from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were unable to get up the Jiulong River to Mao's forces and the main Communist bases. Discovering this, Mao
Mao
retreated from the city, according to some accounts with a substantial amount of loot taken from its residents.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
comprises 2 urban districts , 1 county -level city , and 8 counties .

* Xiangcheng District (芗城区) * Longwen District (龙文区) * Longhai City (龙海市) * Changtai County (长泰县) * Dongshan County (东山县) * Hua\'an County (华安县) * Nanjing County (南靖县) * Pinghe County (平和县) * Yunxiao County (云霄县) * Zhangpu County (漳浦县) * Zhao\'an County (诏安县)

MAP

XIANGCHENG LONGWEN Yunxiao County Zhangpu County Zhao'an County Changtai County Dongshan County Nanjing County Pinghe County Hua'an County Longhai (city)

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Zhangzhou dialect

The main language of the Zhangzhounese is the local dialect of Hokkien
Hokkien
, part of the Southern Min
Southern Min
branch of Min Chinese . Government, education, and official business, however, are carried out in Mandarin .

ECONOMY

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (July 2016)

Babao seal paste was invented by the druggist Wei Changan as a traditional medicine in 1673. It was repurposed for artistic use a few years later and gained imperial favor under the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
. It remains prized for its bright color and pleasant smell.

A major petrochemical plant, producing paraxylene , owned by Taiwan-based Xianglu Group is located in Zhangzhou's Gulei
Gulei
Peninsula. The plant suffered major fires in 2013 and 2015.

TRANSPORTATION

Two passenger stations serve Zhangzhou:

* Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
East Railway Station on the older Yingtan–Xiamen Railway , northeast of the city; * Zhangzhou Railway Station , the junction of the high-speed Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway and Longyan– Xiamen
Xiamen
Railway , opened in 2012, south of the city.

EDUCATION

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (July 2016)

* Minnan Normal University(Previously: Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
Normal College) * Tenfu Tea College

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

* Chen Yuanguang (657–711), a leader of the movement to sinicize Fujian
Fujian
and northern Guangdong * Khaw Soo Cheang (1786–1882), merchant and governor of a Thai province * Lin Yutang (1895–1976), international author, cultural ambassador and inventor.

SEE ALSO

* List of twin towns and sister cities in China
China

NOTES

* ^ A B 漳州市2009年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 (IN CHINESE). ZHANGZHOU MUNICIPAL STATISTIC BUREAU. 2010-03-12. RETRIEVED 2010-05-03. * ^ A B C EB (1878) . * ^ A B Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Amoy", Encyclopædia Britannica , 1 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 748 . * ^ Pitcher (1893) , p. 33. * ^ A B Yule, Henry (1878), "Chinchew", in Baynes, T.S., Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
, 5 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 673 * ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Amoy", Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
, 1 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 878 . * ^ Zhang Rong; et al. (2005), Mao: The Unknown Story , p. 117 . * ^ A contentious chemical plant in China
China
has exploded for the second time in two years

REFERENCES

* Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Chang-chow", Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
, 5 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 391 * Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Chang-chow". Encyclopædia Britannica . 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 839–40. * Pitcher, Philip Wilson (1893), Fifty Years in Amoy or A History of the Amoy Mission, China, New York: Reformed Church in America .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ZHANGZHOU .

* Official website (in Chinese) * Historic US Army map of Zhangzhou,